Arxivsorter uses the network of co-authorship to estimate a proximity between people.
It then ranks a list of publications using a friends-of-friends algorithm.

It is not a filter and therefore does not lose any information.

J.P. Magué & B. Ménard

To get those 45 papers sorted, login or sign up.

[1]  arXiv:1701.05188 [pdf, other]
Title: Probing dark matter substructure in the gravitational lens HE0435-1223 with the WFC3 grism
Comments: Submitted to MNRAS, 14 pages, 8 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful test of Cold Dark Matter (CDM) as it enables the detection and mass measurement of low mass haloes even if they do not contain baryons. Compact lensed sources such as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are particularly sensitive to perturbing subhalos, but their use as a test of CDM has been limited by the small number of systems which have significant radio emission. Radio emission is extended enough avoid significant lensing by stars in the plane of the lens galaxy, and red enough to be minimally affected by differential dust extinction. Narrow-line emission is a promising alternative as it is also extended and, unlike radio, detectable in virtually all optically selected AGN lenses. We present first results from a WFC3 grism narrow-line survey of lensed quasars, for the quadruply lensed AGN HE0435-1223. Using a forward modelling pipeline which enables us to robustly account for blending between nearby images and the main lens galaxy, we measure the [OIII] 5007 \AA$~$ flux ratios of the four lensed quasar images. We find that the lensed [OIII] fluxes and positions are well fit by a simple smooth mass model for the main lens. Our data rule out a $>10^{8} (10^{7.2}) M_{600}/M_\odot$ NFW perturber within $\sim$1."0 (0."1) arcseconds of the lensed images, where $M_{600}$ is the perturber mass within its central 600 pc. The non-detection is broadly consistent with the expectations of $\Lambda$CDM for a single system. The sensitivity achieved demonstrates that powerful limits on the nature of dark matter can be obtained with the analysis of the entire sample of narrow-line lenses.

[2]  arXiv:1701.05189 [pdf, other]
Title: The Sizes and Depletions of the Dust and Gas Cavities in the Transitional Disk J160421.7-213028
Comments: 34 pages (single column), 13 figures, ApJ in press
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We report ALMA Cycle 2 observations of 230 GHz (1.3 mm) dust continuum emission, and $^{12}$CO, $^{13}$CO, and C$^{18}$O J = 2-1 line emission, from the Upper Scorpius transitional disk [PZ99] J160421.7-213028, with an angular resolution of ~0".25 (35 AU). Armed with these data and existing H-band scattered light observations, we measure the size and depth of the disk's central cavity, and the sharpness of its outer edge, in three components: sub-$\mu$m-sized "small" dust traced by scattered light, millimeter-sized "big" dust traced by the millimeter continuum, and gas traced by line emission. Both dust populations feature a cavity of radius $\sim$70 AU that is depleted by factors of at least 1000 relative to the dust density just outside. The millimeter continuum data are well explained by a cavity with a sharp edge. Scattered light observations can be fitted with a cavity in small dust that has either a sharp edge at 60 AU, or an edge that transitions smoothly over an annular width of 10 AU near 60 AU. In gas, the data are consistent with a cavity that is smaller, about 15 AU in radius, and whose surface density at 15 AU is $10^{3\pm1}$ times smaller than the surface density at 70 AU; the gas density grades smoothly between these two radii. The CO isotopologue observations rule out a sharp drop in gas surface density at 30 AU or a double-drop model as found by previous modeling. Future observations are needed to assess the nature of these gas and dust cavities, e.g., whether they are opened by multiple as-yet-unseen planets or photoevaporation.

[3]  arXiv:1701.05190 [pdf, other]
Title: On the Dynamics of Supermassive Black Holes in Gas-Rich, Star-Forming Galaxies: the Case for Nuclear Star Cluster Coevolution
Comments: submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We introduce a new model for the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the RAMSES code using sink particles, improving over previous work the treatment of gas accretion and dynamical evolution. This new model is tested against a suite of high-resolution simulations of an isolated, gas-rich, cooling halo. We study the effect of various feedback models on the SMBH growth and its dynamics within the galaxy.
In runs without any feedback, the SMBH is trapped within a massive bulge and is therefore able to grow quickly, but only if the seed mass is chosen larger than the minimum Jeans mass resolved by the simulation. We demonstrate that, in the absence of supernovae (SN) feedback, the maximum SMBH mass is reached when Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) heating balances gas cooling in the nuclear region.
When our efficient SN feedback is included, it completely prevents bulge formation, so that massive gas clumps can perturb the SMBH orbit, and reduce the accretion rate significantly. To overcome this issue, we propose an observationally motivated model for the joint evolution of the SMBH and a parent nuclear star cluster (NSC), which allows the SMBH to remain in the nuclear region, grow fast and resist external perturbations. In this scenario, however, SN feedback controls the gas supply and the maximum SMBH mass now depends on the balance between AGN heating and gravity. We conclude that SMBH/NSC co-evolution is crucial for the growth of SMBH in high-z galaxies, the progenitors of massive elliptical today.

[4]  arXiv:1701.05191 [pdf, other]
Title: Toward a Galactic Distribution of Planets. I. Methodology & Planet Sensitivities of the 2015 High-Cadence Spitzer Microlens Sample
Comments: 31 pages, 19 figures, 2 tables; submitted to AAS Journals
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

We analyze an ensemble of microlensing events from the 2015 Spitzer microlensing campaign, all of which were densely monitored by ground-based high-cadence survey teams. The simultaneous observations from Spitzer and the ground yield measurements of the microlensing parallax vector $\pi_{\rm E}$, from which compact constraints on the microlens properties are derived, including $\lesssim$25\% uncertainties on the lens mass and distance. With the current sample, we demonstrate that the majority of microlenses are indeed in the mass range of M dwarfs. The planet sensitivities of all 41 events in the sample are calculated, from which we provide constraints on the planet distribution function. In particular, assuming a flat planet mass function, we find that less than 49\% of stars host typical microlensing planets, which is consistent with previous studies. Based on this planet-free sample, we develop the methodology to statistically study the Galactic distribution of planets using microlensing parallax measurements. Under the assumption that the planet distributions are the same in the bulge as in the disk, we predict that $\sim$1/3 of all planet detections from the microlensing campaigns with Spitzer should be in the bulge. This prediction will be tested with a much larger sample, and deviations from it can be used to constrain the abundance of planets in the bulge relative to the disk.

[5]  arXiv:1701.05192 [pdf, other]
Title: Observational calibration of the projection factor of Cepheids - III. The long-period Galactic Cepheid RS Puppis
Comments: 17 pages, 15 figures, Astronomy & Astrophysics, in press
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The projection factor (p-factor) is an essential component of the classical Baade-Wesselink (BW) technique, that is commonly used to determine the distances to pulsating stars. It is a multiplicative parameter used to convert radial velocities into pulsational velocities. As the BW distances are linearly proportional to the p-factor, its accurate calibration for Cepheids is of critical importance for the reliability of their distance scale. We focus on the observational determination of the p-factor of the long-period Cepheid RS Pup (P = 41.5 days). This star is particularly important as this is one of the brightest Cepheids in the Galaxy and an analog of the Cepheids used to determine extragalactic distances. An accurate distance of 1910 +/- 80 pc (+/- 4.2%) has recently been determined for RS Pup using the light echoes propagating in its circumstellar nebula. We combine this distance with new VLTI/PIONIER interferometric angular diameters, photometry and radial velocities to derive the p-factor of RS Pup using the code Spectro-Photo-Interferometry of Pulsating Stars (SPIPS). We obtain p = 1.250 +/- 0.064 (+/-5.1%), defined for cross-correlation radial velocities. Together with measurements from the literature, the p-factor of RS Pup confirms the good agreement of a constant p = 1.293 +/- 0.039 (+/-3.0%) model with the observations. We conclude that the p-factor of Cepheids is constant or mildly variable over a broad range of periods (3.7 to 41.5 days).

[6]  arXiv:1701.05193 [pdf, other]
Title: A High Space Density of Luminous Lyman Alpha Emitters at z~6.5
Comments: Accepted for publication in ApJ. 20 pages, 13 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present the results of a systematic search for Lyman-alpha emitters (LAEs) at $6 \lesssim z \lesssim 7.6$ using the HST WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel (WISP) Survey. Our total volume over this redshift range is $\sim 8 \times10^5$ Mpc$^3$, comparable to many of the narrowband surveys despite their larger area coverage. We find two LAEs at $z=6.38$ and $6.44$ with line luminosities of L$_{\mathrm{Ly}\alpha} \sim 4.7 \times 10^{43}$ erg s$^{-1}$, putting them among the brightest LAEs discovered at these redshifts. Taking advantage of the broad spectral coverage of WISP, we are able to rule out almost all lower-redshift contaminants. The WISP LAEs have a high number density of $7.7\times10^{-6}$ Mpc$^{-3}$. We argue that the LAEs reside in Mpc-scale ionized bubbles that allow the Lyman-alpha photons to redshift out of resonance before encountering the neutral IGM. We discuss possible ionizing sources and conclude that the observed LAEs alone are not sufficient to ionize the bubbles.

[7]  arXiv:1701.05196 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Continuum Foreground Polarization and Na~I Absorption in Type Ia SNe
Comments: 46 pages, 17 figures, Accepted by ApJ
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We present a study of the continuum polarization over the 400--600 nm range of 19 Type Ia SNe obtained with FORS at the VLT. We separate them in those that show Na I D lines at the velocity of their hosts and those that do not. Continuum polarization of the sodium sample near maximum light displays a broad range of values, from extremely polarized cases like SN 2006X to almost unpolarized ones like SN 2011ae. The non--sodium sample shows, typically, smaller polarization values. The continuum polarization of the sodium sample in the 400--600 nm range is linear with wavelength and can be characterized by the mean polarization (P$_{\rm{mean}}$). Its values span a wide range and show a linear correlation with color, color excess, and extinction in the visual band. Larger dispersion correlations were found with the equivalent width of the Na I D and Ca II H & K lines, and also a noisy relation between P$_{\rm{mean}}$ and $R_{V}$, the ratio of total to selective extinction. Redder SNe show stronger continuum polarization, with larger color excesses and extinctions. We also confirm that high continuum polarization is associated with small values of $R_{V}$.
The correlation between extinction and polarization -- and polarization angles -- suggest that the dominant fraction of dust polarization is imprinted in interstellar regions of the host galaxies.
We show that Na I D lines from foreground matter in the SN host are usually associated with non-galactic ISM, challenging the typical assumptions in foreground interstellar polarization models.

[8]  arXiv:1701.05197 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Two new confirmed massive relic galaxies: red nuggets in the present-day Universe
Comments: 12 pages, 9 figures, Accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We confirm two new local massive relic galaxies, i.e. untouched survivors of the early universe massive population: Mrk1216 and PGC032873. Both show early and peaked formation events within very short timescales (<1 Gyr) and thus old mean mass-weighted ages (~13 Gyr). Their star formation histories remain virtually unchanged out to several effective radii, even when considering the steeper IMF values inferred out to ~3 effective radii. Their morphologies, kinematics and density profiles are like those found in the z>2 massive population, setting them apart of the typical z~0 massive early-type galaxies. We find that there seems to exist a "degree of relic" that is related on how far into the path to become one of these typical z~0 massive galaxies the compact relic has undergone. This path is partly dictated by the environment the galaxy lives in. For galaxies in rich environments, such as the previously reported relic galaxy NGC1277, the most extreme properties (e.g. sizes, short formation timescales, larger super-massive black holes) are expected, while lower density environments will have galaxies with delayed and/or extended star formations, slightly larger sizes and not that extreme black hole masses. The confirmation of 3 relic galaxies up to a distance of 106Mpc implies a lower limit in the number density of these red nuggets in the local universe of 6x10^{-7} Mpc^{3}, which is within the theoretical expectations.

[9]  arXiv:1701.05198 [pdf, other]
Title: Thermal and non-thermal emission from the cocoon of a gamma-ray burst jet
Comments: 12 pages, 13 figures, submitted to MNRAS, comments welcome
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We present hydrodynamic simulations of the hot cocoon produced when a relativistic jet passes through the gamma-ray burst (GRB) progenitor star and its environment, and we compute the lightcurve and spectrum of the radiation emitted by the cocoon. The radiation from the cocoon has a nearly thermal spectrum with a peak in the X-ray band, and it lasts for a few minutes in the observer frame; the cocoon radiation starts at roughly the same time as when $\gamma$-rays from a burst trigger detectors aboard GRB satellites. The isotropic cocoon luminosity ($\sim 10^{47}$ erg s$^{-1}$) is of the same order of magnitude as the X-ray luminosity of a typical long-GRB afterglow during the plateau phase. This radiation should be identifiable in the Swift data because of its nearly thermal spectrum which is distinct from the somewhat brighter power-law component. The detection of this thermal component would provide information regarding the size and density stratification of the GRB progenitor star. Photons from the cocoon are also inverse-Compton (IC) scattered by electrons in the relativistic jet. We present the IC lightcurve and spectrum, by post-processing the results of the numerical simulations. The IC spectrum lies in 10 keV--MeV band for typical GRB parameters. The detection of this IC component would provide an independent measurement of GRB jet Lorentz factor and it would also help to determine the jet magnetisation parameter.

[10]  arXiv:1701.05201 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: A Spectroscopic Orbit for the late-type Be star $β$ CMi
Comments: Accepted to AAS Journals, 2 tables, 3 figures, 11 pages
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The late-type Be star $\beta$ CMi is remarkably stable compared to other Be stars that have been studied. This has led to a realistic model of the outflowing Be disk by Klement et al. These results showed that the disk is likely truncated at a finite radius from the star, which Klement et al.~suggest is evidence for an unseen binary companion in orbit. Here we report on an analysis of the Ritter Observatory spectroscopic archive of $\beta$ CMi to search for evidence of the elusive companion. We detect periodic Doppler shifts in the wings of the H$\alpha$ line with a period of 170 d and an amplitude of 2.25 km s$^{-1}$, consistent with a low-mass binary companion ($M\approx 0.42 M_\odot$). We then compared the small changes in the violet-to-red peak height changes ($V/R$) with the orbital motion. We find weak evidence that it does follow the orbital motion, as suggested by recent Be binary models by Panoglou et al. Our results, which are similar to those for several other Be stars, suggest that $\beta$ CMi may be a product of binary evolution where Roche lobe overflow has spun up the current Be star, likely leaving a hot subdwarf or white dwarf in orbit around the star. Unfortunately, no direct sign of this companion star is found in the very limited archive of {\it International Ultraviolet Explorer} spectra.

[11]  arXiv:1701.05203 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: PUSHing Core-Collapse Supernovae to Explosions in Spherical Symmetry: Nucleosynthesis Yields
Comments: 3 pages, 3 figures, poster presentation to appear in the proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Nuclei in the Cosmos (NIC-XIV), Ed. S. Kubono, JPS (Japan Physical Society)
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

Core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the extremely energetic deaths of massive stars. They play a vital role in the synthesis and dissemination of many heavy elements in the universe. In the past, CCSN nucleosynthesis calculations have relied on artificial explosion methods that do not adequately capture the physics of the innermost layers of the star. The PUSH method, calibrated against SN1987A, utilizes the energy of heavy-flavor neutrinos emitted by the proto-neutron star (PNS) to trigger parametrized explosions. This makes it possible to follow the consistent evolution of the PNS and to ensure a more accurate treatment of the electron fraction of the ejecta. Here, we present the Iron group nucleosynthesis results for core-collapse supernovae, exploded with PUSH, for two different progenitor series. Comparisons of the calculated yields to observational metal-poor star data are also presented. Nucleosynthesis yields will be calculated for all elements and over a wide range of progenitor masses. These yields can be immensely useful for models of galactic chemical evolution.

[12]  arXiv:1701.05205 [pdf, other]
Title: Characterizing Exoplanets for Habitability
Comments: invited review; comments and feedback welcome
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

A habitable exoplanet is a world that can maintain stable liquid water on its surface. Techniques and approaches to characterizing such worlds are essential, as performing a census of Earth-like planets that may or may not have life will inform our understanding of how frequently life originates and is sustained on worlds other than our own. Observational techniques like high contrast imaging and transit spectroscopy can reveal key indicators of habitability for exoplanets. Both polarization measurements and specular reflectance from oceans (also known as "glint") can provide direct evidence for surface liquid water, while constraining surface pressure and temperature (from moderate resolution spectra) can indicate liquid water stability. Observations of variability (that indicates weather) from, as well as mapping of, exoplanets can provide indirect evidence of habitability, and measurements of water vapor or cloud profiles that indicate condensation near a surface could also provide evidence for habitability. Approaches to making the types of measurements that indicate habitability are diverse, and have different considerations for the required wavelength range, spectral resolution, maximum noise levels, stellar host temperature, and observing geometry.

[13]  arXiv:1701.05207 [pdf, other]
Title: The X-ray and Mid-Infrared luminosities in Luminous Type 1 Quasars
Comments: 16 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables. Accepted for publication in ApJ
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Several recent studies have reported different intrinsic correlations between the AGN mid-IR luminosity ($L_{MIR}$) and the rest-frame 2-10 keV luminosity ($L_{X}$) for luminous quasars. To understand the origin of the difference in the observed $L_{X}-L_{MIR}$ relations, we study a sample of 3,247 spectroscopically confirmed type 1 AGNs collected from Bo\"{o}tes, XMM-COSMOS, XMM-XXL-North, and the SDSS quasars in the Swift/XRT footprint spanning over four orders of magnitude in luminosity. We carefully examine how different observational constraints impact the observed $L_{X}-L_{MIR}$ relations, including the inclusion of X-ray non-detected objects, possible X-ray absorption in type 1 AGNs, X-ray flux limits, and star formation contamination. We find that the primary factor driving the different $L_{X}-L_{MIR}$ relations reported in the literature is the X-ray flux limits for different studies. When taking these effects into account, we find that the X-ray luminosity and mid-IR luminosity (measured at rest-frame $6\mu m$, or $L_{6\mu m}$) of our sample of type 1 AGNs follow a bilinear relation in the log-log plane: $\log L_X =(0.84\pm0.03)\times\log L_{6\mu m}/10^{45}{\rm erg\;s^{-1}} + (44.60\pm0.01)$ for $L_{6\mu m} < 10^{44.79}{\rm erg\;s^{-1}} $, and $\log L_X = (0.40\pm0.03)\times\log L_{6\mu m}/10^{45}{\rm erg\;s^{-1}} +(44.51\pm0.01)$ for $L_{6\mu m} \geq 10^{44.79}{\rm erg\;s^{-1}} $. This suggests that the luminous type 1 quasars have a shallower $L_{X}-L_{MIR}$ correlation than the approximately linear relations found in local Seyfert galaxies. This result is consistent with previous studies reporting a luminosity-dependent $L_{X}-L_{MIR}$ relation, and implies that assuming a linear $L_{X}-L_{MIR}$ relation to infer the neutral gas column density for X-ray absorption might overestimate the column densities in luminous quasars.

[14]  arXiv:1701.05211 [pdf, other]
Title: Is there a circumbinary planet around NSVS 14256825?
Comments: 17 pages, 9 figures, 4 tables, accepted to AJ
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The cyclic behaviour of (O-C) residuals of eclipse timings in the sdB+M eclipsing binary NSVS 14256825 was previously attributed to one or two Jovian-type circumbinary planets. We report 83 new eclipse timings that not only fill in the gaps in those already published but also extend the time span of the (O-C) diagram by three years. Based on the archival and our new data spanning over more than 17 years we re-examined the up to date system (O-C). The data revealed systematic, quasi-sinusoidal variation deviating from an older linear ephemeris by about 100 s. It also exhibits a maximum in the (O-C) near JD 2,456,400 that was previously unknown. We consider two most credible explanations of the (O-C) variability: the light propagation time due to the presence of an invisible companion in a distant circumbinary orbit, and magnetic cycles reshaping one of the binary components, known as the Applegate or Lanza-Rodono effect. We found that the latter mechanism is unlikely due to the insufficient energy budget of the M-dwarf secondary. In the framework of the third-body hypothesis, we obtained meaningful constraints on the Keplerian parameters of a putative companion and its mass. Our best-fitting model indicates that the observed quasi-periodic (O-C) variability can be explained by the presence of a brown dwarf with the minimal mass of 15 Jupiter masses rather than a planet, orbiting the binary in a moderately elliptical orbit (~ 0.175) with the period of ~ 10 years. Our analysis rules out two planets model proposed earlier.

[15]  arXiv:1701.05213 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Inelastic cross sections and rate coefficients for collisions between CO and H2
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM); Chemical Physics (physics.chem-ph)

A five-dimensional coupled states (5D-CS) approximation is used to compute cross sections and rate coefficients for CO+H2 collisions. The 5D-CS calculations are benchmarked against accurate six-dimensional close-coupling (6D-CC) calculations for transitions between low-lying rovibrational states. Good agreement between the two formulations is found for collision energies greater than 10 cm-1. The 5D-CS approximation is then used to compute two separate databases which include highly excited states of CO that are beyond the practical limitations of the 6D-CC method. The first database assumes an internally frozen H2 molecule and allows rovibrational transitions for v < 5 and j < 30, where v and j are the vibrational and rotational quantum numbers of the initial state of the CO molecule. The second database allows H2 rotational transitions for initial CO states with v < 5 and j < 10. The two databases are in good agreement with each other for transitions that are common to both basis sets. Together they provide data for astrophysical models which were previously unavailable.

[16]  arXiv:1701.05218 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Old Novae II: RR Pic, V533 Her and DI Lac
Comments: Accepted for publication in the Astronomical Journal, 12 figures
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The old novae V533 Her (Nova Her 1963), DI Lac (Nova Lac 1910) and RR Pic (Nova Pic 1891) are in (or near) their quiescent stage following their nova explosions and continue to accrete at a high rate in the aftermath of their explosions. They exhibit continua that are steeply rising into the FUV as well as absorption lines and emission lines of uncertain origin. All three have FUSE spectra which offer not only higher spectral resolution but also wavelength coverage extending down to the Lyman Limit. For DI Lac, we have matched these FUSE spectra with existing archival IUE spectral coverage to broaden the FUV wavelength coverage. We adopted the newly determined interstellar reddening corrections of Selvelli and Gilmozzi (2013). The dereddened FUV spectra have been modeled with our grids of optically thick accretion disks and hot, NLTE white dwarf photospheres.
The results of our modeling analysis indicate that the hot component in RR Pic and V533 Her is likely to be the accretion disk with a mass accretion of $10^{-8}M_{\odot}$/yr and $10^{-9}M_{\odot}$/yr respectively. However, the disk cannot produce the observed absorption lines. For the WD to be the source of the absorption lines in these two systems, it must be very hot with a radius several times its expected size (since the WD in these systems is massive, it has a smaller radius). For DI Lac we find the best fit to be a disk with $\dot{M}=10^{-10}M_{\odot}$/yr with a 30,000K WD.

[17]  arXiv:1701.05222 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Spectroscopy of the Southern Nova-like BB Doradus in an Intermediate State
Journal-ref: The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 833, page 146 (2016)
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We present a spectral analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph spectrum of the southern VY Scl nova-like variable BB Doradus, obtained as part of a Cycle 20 {\it HST/COS} survey of accreting white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables.
BB Dor was observed with {\it COS} during an intermediate state with a low mass accretion rate, thereby allowing an estimate of the white dwarf temperature. The results of our spectral analysis show that the white dwarf is a significant far ultraviolet component with a temperature of $\sim$35,000-$\sim$50,000$~$K, assuming a $0.80~M_{\odot}$ WD mass ($\log(g)=8.4$). The disk with a mass accretion rate of $\approx 10^{-10}~M_{\odot}~$yr$^{-1}$ contributes about 1/5 to 1/2 of the far ultraviolet flux.

[18]  arXiv:1701.05231 [pdf, other]
Title: Sound wave generation by a spherically symmetric outburst and AGN Feedback in Galaxy Clusters
Comments: Submitted, 19 pages, 12 figures and 3 tables
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We consider the evolution of an outburst in a uniform medium under spherical symmetry, having in mind AGN feedback in the intra cluster medium (ICM). For a given density and pressure of the medium, the spatial structure and energy partition at a given time $t_{age}$ (since the onset of the outburst) are fully determined by the total injected energy $E_{inj}$ and the duration $t_b$ of the outburst. We are particularly interested in the late phase evolution when the strong shock transforms into a sound wave. We studied the energy partition during such transition with different combinations of $E_{inj}$ and $t_b$. For an instantaneous outburst with $t_b\rightarrow 0$, which corresponds to the extension of classic Sedov-Taylor solution with counter-pressure, the fraction of energy that can be carried away by sound waves is $\lesssim$12% of $E_{inj}$. As $t_b$ increases, the solution approaches the "slow piston" limit, with the fraction of energy in sound waves approaching zero. We then repeat the simulations using radial density and temperature profiles measured in Perseus and M87/Virgo clusters. We find that the results with a uniform medium broadly reproduce an outburst in more realistic conditions once proper scaling is applied. We also develop techniques to map intrinsic properties of an outburst $(E_{inj}, t_b$ and $t_{age})$ to the observables like the Mach number of the shock and radii of the shock and ejecta. For the Perseus cluster and M87, the estimated $(E_{inj}, t_b$ and $t_{age})$ agree with numerical simulations tailored for these objects with $20-30\%$ accuracy.

[19]  arXiv:1701.05240 [pdf, other]
Title: Sample of Cataclysmic Variables from 400d X-ray Survey
Comments: published in Astronomy Letters (Pis'ma v Astronomicheskij Zhurnal)
Journal-ref: Astronomy Letters, Volume 42, Issue 4, pp.240-250, 2016
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We present a sample of cataclysmic variables (CVs) identified among the X-ray sources from the 400 square degree X-ray survey based on ROSAT pointing data (400d). The procedure of the CV selection among the X-ray sources using additional optical and infrared data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and WISE survey is described. The results of the optical observations of the selected objects carried out mainly with the Russian-Turkish 1.5-m telescope (RTT-150) and the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (BTA) are presented. Some observations have also been performed with the Sayan Observatory 1.6-m AZT-33IK telescope. Currently we selected eight CVs, four of which were found for the first time in our work. Based on this sample, we have obtained preliminary constraints on the CV X-ray luminosity function in the solar neighborhood in the low luminosity range, L_X ~ 10^29-10^30 erg s^-1 (0.5-2 keV). We show that the logarithmic slope of the CV X-ray luminosity function in this luminosity range is less steep than at L_X > 10^31 erg s^-1. From our CV X-ray luminosity function estimates it follows that few thousand CVs will be detected in theSpectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) observatory all-sky X-ray survey at high Galactic latitudes, which will allow to obtain much more accurate measurements of CV X-ray luminosity function in the luminosity range L_X < 10^30-10^31 erg s^-1.

[20]  arXiv:1701.05245 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The emission-line regions in the nucleus of NGC 1313 probed with GMOS-IFU: a supergiant/hypergiant candidate and a kinematically cold nucleus
Comments: 14 pages, 10 figures, 1 table, published in MNRAS
Journal-ref: MNRAS, 466, 749 (2017)
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

NGC 1313 is a bulgeless nearby galaxy, classified as SB(s)d. Its proximity allows high spatial resolution observations. We performed the first detailed analysis of the emission-line properties in the nuclear region of NGC 1313, using an optical data cube obtained with the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph. We detected four main emitting areas, three of them (regions 1, 2 and 3) having spectra typical of H II regions. Region 1 is located very close to the stellar nucleus and shows broad spectral features characteristic of Wolf-Rayet stars. Our analysis revealed the presence of one or two WC4-5 stars in this region, which is compatible with results obtained by previous studies. Region 4 shows spectral features (as a strong H$\alpha$ emission line, with a broad component) typical of a massive emission-line star, such as a luminous blue variable, a B[e] supergiant or a B hypergiant. The radial velocity map of the ionized gas shows a pattern consistent with rotation. A significant drop in the values of the gas velocity dispersion was detected very close to region 1, which suggests that the young stars there were formed from this cold gas, possibly keeping low values of velocity dispersion. Therefore, although detailed measurements of the stellar kinematics were not possible (due to the weak stellar absorption spectrum of this galaxy), we predict that NGC 1313 may also show a drop in the values of the stellar velocity dispersion in its nuclear region.

[21]  arXiv:1701.05250 [pdf, other]
Title: The implications of the surprising existence of a large, massive CO disk in a distant protocluster
Comments: Submitted to A&A. 14 pages, 8 figures and 4 tables. Comments are welcomed
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

It has yet to be established whether the properties of the gas in distant protocluster galaxies are significantly affected by their environment as they are in galaxies in local clusters. Through a deep, 64 hours of effective on-source integration with the ATCA, we discovered a very massive, M_mol=2.0+-0.2x10^11 M_sun, very extended, ~40 kpc, CO(1-0)-emitting disk in the protocluster surrounding the radio galaxy, MRC1138-262. The galaxy, at a redshift z_CO=2.1478, is a clumpy massive disk galaxy, M_star~5x10^11 M_sun, which lies 300 kpc in projection from MRC1138-262 and is a known H-alpha emitter, HAE229. The bulk of the CO emission shows a kinematic gradient along the major axis of the disk, consistent with rotation. A significant fraction of the CO emission lies outside of the UV/optical emitting galaxy and the galaxy has a molecular gas fraction, f_mol~30%. HAE229 follows the relation of normal field star-forming galaxies between star-formation rate and molecular gas mass. HAE229 is the first CO(1-0) detection of an ordinary, star-forming galaxy in a high-redshift protocluster and only the third robust CO(1-0) detection of an H-alpha emitting galaxy in an high-z overdensity. We compare a sample of cluster members at z>0.4 that are detected in low-order CO transitions with a similar sample of sources drawn from the field. We confirm recent findings that the CO-luminosity and FWHM are correlated in dusty starbursts and show that this relation is valid for normal high-z galaxies as well as those in overdensities. We do not find a clear dichotomy in the integrated Schmidt-Kennicutt relation for protocluster and field galaxies. Not finding any environmental dependence in the molecular gas content or star-formation efficiency of galaxies, suggests that environmentally-specific processes such as ram pressure stripping are not operating efficiently in high-z (proto)clusters. (abridged)

[22]  arXiv:1701.05252 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Revealing physical activity of GRB central engine with macronova/kilonova data
Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures. Accepted for publication in ApJL
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The modeling of Li-Paczy\'{n}ski macronova/kilonova signals gives reasonable estimate on the neutron-rich material ejected during the neutron star mergers. Usually the accretion disk is more massive than the macronova ejecta, with which the efficiencies of converting the disk mass into prompt emission of three merger-driven GRBs can hence be directly constrained. Supposing the macronovae/kilonovae associated with GRB 050709, GRB 060614 and GRB 130603B arose from radioactive decay of the r-process material, the upper limit on energy conversion efficiencies are found to be as low as $\sim 10^{-6}-10^{-4}$. Moreover, for all three events, neutrino annihilation is likely powerful enough to account for the brief gamma-ray flashes. Neutrino annihilation can also explain the "extended" emission lasting $\sim 100$ s in GRB 050709, but does not work for the one in GRB 060614. These progresses demonstrate that the macronova can serve as a novel probe of the central engine activity.

[23]  arXiv:1701.05269 [pdf, other]
Title: Scaling Relations of Mass, Velocity and Radius for Disk Galaxies
Authors: Earl J Schulz
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

I demonstrate four tight correlations of total baryonic mass, velocity and radius for a set of nearby disk galaxies: the Mass-Velocity relation $ Mt \propto V^4$; the Mass-Radius relation $ Mt \propto R^2$; the Radius-Velocity relation $R \propto V^2$; and the Mass-Radius-Velocity relation $ Mt \propto R V^2$. The Mass-Velocity relation is the familiar Baryonic Tully-Fisher relation(BTFR) and versions of the other three relations, using magnitude rather than baryonic mass, are also well known. These four observed correlations follow from a pair of more fundamental relations. First, the centripetal acceleration at the edge of the stellar disk is proportional to the acceleration predicted by Newtonian physics and secondly, this acceleration is a constant which is related to Milgrom's constant. The two primary relations can be manipulated algebraically to generate the four observed correlations and allow little room for dark matter inside the radius of the stellar disk. The primary relations do not explain the velocity of the outer gaseous disks of spiral galaxies which do not trace the Newtonian gravitational field of the observed matter.

[24]  arXiv:1701.05281 [pdf, other]
Title: EPIC 220204960: A Quadruple Star System Containing Two Strongly Interacting Eclipsing Binaries
Comments: 20 pages, 18 figures, 7 tables; accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We present a strongly interacting quadruple system associated with the K2 target EPIC 220204960. The K2 target itself is a Kp = 12.7 magnitude star at Teff ~ 6100 K which we designate as "B-N" (blue northerly image). The host of the quadruple system, however, is a Kp = 17 magnitude star with a composite M-star spectrum, which we designate as "R-S" (red southerly image). With a 3.2" separation and similar radial velocities and photometric distances, 'B-N' is likely physically associated with 'R-S', making this a quintuple system, but that is incidental to our main claim of a strongly interacting quadruple system in 'R-S'. The two binaries in 'R-S' have orbital periods of 13.27 d and 14.41 d, respectively, and each has an inclination angle of >89 degrees. From our analysis of radial velocity measurements, and of the photometric lightcurve, we conclude that all four stars are very similar with masses close to 0.4 Msun. Both of the binaries exhibit significant ETVs where those of the primary and secondary eclipses 'diverge' by 0.05 days over the course of the 80-day observations. Via a systematic set of numerical simulations of quadruple systems consisting of two interacting binaries, we conclude that the outer orbital period is very likely to be between 300 and 500 days. If sufficient time is devoted to RV studies of this faint target, the outer orbit should be measurable within a year.

[25]  arXiv:1701.05283 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Evidence for a Dusty Dark Dwarf Galaxy in the Quadruple Lens MG0414+0534
Comments: 8 pages, 4 figures, accepted in ApJL
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We report the $4 \, \sigma$ detection of a faint object with a flux of ~ 0.3 mJy, in the vicinity of the quadruply lensed QSO MG0414+0534 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter array (ALMA) Band 7. The object is most probably a dusty dark dwarf galaxy, which has not been detected in either the optical, near-infrared (NIR) or radio (cm) bands. An anomaly in the flux ratio of the lensed images observed in Band 7 and the mid-infrared (MIR) band and the reddening of the QSO light color can be simultaneously explained if we consider the object as a lensing substructure with an ellipticity ~ 0.7 at a redshift of $0.5 \lesssim z \lesssim 1$. Using the best-fit lens models with three lenses, we find that the dark matter plus baryon mass associated with the object is $\sim 10^9\, M_{\odot}$, the dust mass is $\sim 10^7\,M_{\odot}$ and the linear size is $\gtrsim 5\,$kpc. Thus our findings suggest that the object is a dusty dark dwarf galaxy. A substantial portion of faint submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the universe may be attributed to such dark objects.

[26]  arXiv:1701.05293 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: A Double-lined M-dwarf Eclipsing Binary from CSSxSDSS
Authors: Chien-Hsiu Lee (Subaru Telescope, NAOJ)
Comments: AJ accepted
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Eclipsing binaries offer a unique opportunity to determine basic stellar properties. With the advent of wide-field camera and all-sky time-domain surveys, thousands of eclipsing binaries have been charted via light curve classification, yet their fundamental properties remain unexplored, mainly due to the extensive efforts needed for spectroscopic follow-ups. In this paper we present the discovery of a short period (P=0.313 days) double-lined M-dwarf eclipsing binary, CSSJ114804.3+255132/SDSSJ114804.35+255132.6, by cross-matching binary light curves from Catalina Sky Surveys and spectroscopically classified M dwarfs from Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We obtain follow-up spectra using Gemini telescope, enabling us to determine the mass, radius, and temperature of the primary and secondary component to be M1 = 0.47\pm0.03(statistic)\pm0.03(systematic) M_sun, M2 = 0.46\pm0.03(statistic)\pm0.03(systematic) M_sun, R1 = 0.52\pm0.08(statistic)\pm0.07(systematic) R_sun, R2 = 0.60\pm0.08(statistic)\pm0.08(systematic) R_sun, T1 = 3560\pm100 K, and T2 = 3040\pm100 K, respectively. The systematic error was estimated using the difference between eccentric and non-eccentric fit. Our analysis also indicates that there is definitively 3rd-light contamination (66%) in the CSS photometry. The secondary star seems inflated, probably due to tidal locking of the close secondary companion, which is common for very short period binary systems. Future spectroscopic observations with high resolution will narrow down the uncertainties of stellar parameters for both component, rendering this system as a benchmark in studying fundamental properties of M dwarfs.

[27]  arXiv:1701.05300 [pdf, other]
Title: Objective Image Quality Assessment for High Resolution Photospheric Images by Median Filter Gradient Similarity
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

All next generation ground-based and space-based solar telescopes require a good quality assessment metric in order to evaluate their imaging performance. In this paper, a new image quality metric, the median filter gradient similarity (MFGS) is proposed for photospheric images. MFGS is a no-reference/blind objective image quality metric (IQM) by a measurement result between 0 and 1 and has been performed on short-exposure photospheric images captured by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) of the Fuxian Solar Observatory and by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard the Hinode satellite, respectively. The results show that: (1)the measured value of MFGS changes monotonically from 1 to 0 with degradation of image quality; (2)there exists a linear correlation between the measured values of MFGS and root-mean-square-contrast (RMS-contrast) of granulation; (3)MFGS is less affected by the image contents than the granular RMS-contrast. Overall, MFGS is a good alternative for the quality assessment of photospheric images.

[28]  arXiv:1701.05316 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: A Formulation of Consistent Particle Hydrodynamics in Strong Form
Comments: 42 pages, 34figures
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM); Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP); Computational Physics (physics.comp-ph)

In fluid dynamical simulations in astrophysics, large deformations are common and surface tracking is sometimes necessary. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method has been used in many of such simulations. Recently, however, it has been shown that SPH cannot handle contact discontinuities or free surfaces accurately. There are several reasons for this problem. The first one is that SPH requires that the density is continuous and differentiable. The second one is that SPH does not have the consistency, and thus the accuracy is zeroth order in space. In addition, we cannot express accurate boundary conditions with SPH. In this paper, we propose a novel, high-order scheme for particle-based hydrodynamics of compress- ible fluid. Our method is based on kernel-weighted high-order fitting polynomial for intensive variables. With this approach, we can construct a scheme which solves all of the three prob- lems described above. For shock capturing, we use a tensor form of von-Neumann-Richtmyer artificial viscosity. We have applied our method to many test problems and obtained excel- lent result. Our method is not conservative, since particles do not have mass or energy, but only their densities. However, because of the Lagrangian nature of our scheme, the violation of the conservation laws turned out to be small. We name this method Consistent Particle Hydrodynamics in Strong Form (CPHSF).

[29]  arXiv:1701.05337 [pdf, other]
Title: Precision cosmology with baryons: non-radiative hydrodynamics of galaxy groups
Authors: Manuel Rabold (1), Romain Teyssier (1) ((1) University of Zurich)
Comments: 27 pages, 5 tables, 19 colour figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

The effect of baryons on the matter power spectrum is likely to have an observable effect for future galaxy surveys, like Euclid or LSST. As a first step towards a fully predictive theory, we investigate the effect of non-radiative hydrodynamics on the structure of galaxy groups sized halos, which contribute the most to the weak lensing power spectrum. We perform high resolution (more than one million particles per halo and one kilo-parsec resolution) non-radiative hydrodynamical zoom-in simulations of a sample of 16 halos, comparing the profiles to popular analytical models. We find that the total mass profile is well fitted by a Navarro, Frenk & White model, with parameters slightly modified from the dark matter only simulation. We also find that the Komatsu & Seljak hydrostatic solution provides a good fit to the gas profiles, with however significant deviations, arising from strong turbulent mixing in the core and from non-thermal, turbulent pressure support in the outskirts. The turbulent energy follows a shallow, rising linear profile with radius, and correlates with the halo formation time. Using only three main structural halo parameters as variables (total mass, concentration parameter and central gas density), we can predict with an accuracy better than 20% the individual gas density and temperature profiles. For the average total mass profile, which is relevant for power spectrum calculations, we even reach an accuracy of 1%. The robustness of these predictions has been tested against resolution effects, different types of initial conditions and hydrodynamical schemes.

[30]  arXiv:1701.05350 [pdf, other]
Title: Blazar Jets Perturbed by Magneto-Gravitational Stresses in Supermassive Binaries
Comments: 20 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication by The Astrophysical Journal on Jan 8, 2017
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We study particle acceleration and radiative processes in Blazar jets under recurring conditions set by gravitational perturbations in supermassive binary systems. We consider the action from a companion orbiting a primary black hole of $\sim 10^8 \, M_{\odot}$, and perturbing its relativistic jet. We discuss how such conditions induce repetitive magneto-hydrodynamic stresses along the jet, and affect its inner electron acceleration and radiative processes. Specifically, we study how macroscopic perturbations related to increased jet "magnetization" end up into higher radiative outputs in the optical, X-ray and gamma-ray bands. We find first an increase in magnetic field strength as gauged in the optical band from the Synchrotron emission of electrons accelerated in kinetic processes stimulated by reconnecting magnetic lines. The energetic electrons then proceed to up-scatter the Synchrotron photons to GeV energies after the canonical Synchrotron-Self Compton radiation process. Our model implies a specific, recurring pattern in the optical to gamma-ray emissions, made of high peaks and wide troughs. Progressing accelerations caused by spreading reconnections will produce an additional Synchrotron keV component. Such outbursts provide a diagnostics for enhanced acceleration of electrons which can up-scatter photons into the TeV range. We discuss how our model applies to the BL Lac object PG 1553+113, arguably the best candidate to now for high amplitude, recurring modulations in its gamma-ray emissions. We also consider other BL Lacs showing correlated keV - TeV radiations such as Mrk 421.

[31]  arXiv:1701.05361 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Kinematic clues to the origins of starless HI clouds : dark galaxies or tidal debris ?
Comments: 15 pages, 12 figures (26 pages, 25 figures including appendix). Accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Isolated HI clouds with no optical counterparts are often taken as evidence for galaxy-galaxy interactions, though an alternative hypothesis is that these are primordial 'dark galaxies' which have not formed stars. Similarly, certain kinematic features in HI streams are also controversial, sometimes taken as evidence of dark galaxies but also perhaps explicable as the result of harassment. We numerically model the passage of a galaxy through the gravitational field of cluster. The galaxy consists of SPH particles for the gas and n-bodies for the stars and dark matter, while the cluster includes the gravitational effects of substructure using 400 subhalos (the effects of the intracluster medium are ignored). We find that harassment can indeed produce long HI streams and these streams can include kinematic features resembling dark galaxy candidates such as VIRGOHI21. We also show that apparent clouds with diameter < 20 kpc and velocity widths < 50 km/s are almost invariably produced in these simulations, making tidal debris a highly probable explanation. In contrast, we show that the frequency of isolated clouds of the same size but velocity width > 100 km/s is negligible - making this a very unlikely explanation for the observed clouds in the Virgo cluster with these properties.

[32]  arXiv:1701.05370 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: How unique is Plaskett's star? A search for organized magnetic fields in short period, interacting or post-interaction massive binary systems
Authors: Y. Naze (ULg), C. Neiner (ObsPM), J. Grunhut (ESO, Toronto Univ), S. Bagnulo (Armagh Obs), E. Alecian (IPAG, CNRS), G. Rauw (ULg), G.A. Wade (RMC), the BinaMIcS collaboration
Comments: 11 pages, accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Amongst O-type stars with detected magnetic fields, the fast rotator in the close binary called Plaskett's star shows a variety of unusual properties. Since strong binary interactions are believed to have occurred in this system, one may wonder about their potential role in generating magnetic fields. Stokes V spectra collected with the low-resolution FORS2 and high-resolution ESPaDOnS and Narval spectropolarimeters were therefore used to search for magnetic fields in 15 interacting or post-interaction massive binaries. No magnetic field was detected in any of them, with 0G always being within 2sigma of the derived values. For 17 out of 25 stars in the systems observed at high-resolution, the 90% upper limit on the individual dipolar fields is below the dipolar field strength of Plaskett's secondary; a similar result is found for five out of six systems observed at low resolution. If our sample is considered to form a group of stars sharing similar magnetic properties, a global statistical analysis results in a stringent upper limit of ~200G on the dipolar field strength. Moreover, the magnetic incidence rate in the full sample of interacting or post-interaction systems (our targets + Plaskett's star) is compatible with that measured from large surveys, showing that they are not significantly different from the general O-star population. These results suggest that binary interactions play no systematic role in the magnetism of such massive systems.

[33]  arXiv:1701.05386 [pdf, other]
Title: Application of data science techniques to disentangle X-ray spectral variation of super-massive black holes
Authors: S. Pike, K. Ebisawa (JAXA/ISAS), S. Ikeda, M. Morii (Institute of Statistical Mathematics), M. Mizumoto, E. Kusunoki (Univ. of Tokyo)
Comments: Journal of Space Science Informatics Japan, volume 6, 2017 (JAXA-RR), accepted
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

We apply three data science techniques, Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA), to simulated X-ray energy spectra of a particular class of super-massive black holes. Two competing physical models, one whose variable components are additive and the other whose variable components are multiplicative, are known to successfully describe X-ray spectral variation of these super-massive black holes, within accuracy of the contemporary observation. We hope to utilize these techniques to compare the viability of the models by probing the mathematical structure of the observed spectra, while comparing advantages and disadvantages of each technique. We find that PCA is best to determine the dimensionality of a dataset, while NMF is better suited for interpreting spectral components and comparing them in terms of the physical models in question. ICA is able to reconstruct the parameters responsible for spectral variation. In addition, we find that the results of these techniques are sufficiently different that applying them to observed data may be a useful test in comparing the accuracy of the two spectral models.

[34]  arXiv:1701.05391 [pdf, other]
Title: The variance of the locally measured Hubble parameter explained with different estimators
Comments: 16 pages, 5 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We study the expected variance of measurements of the Hubble constant, $H_0$, as calculated in either linear perturbation theory or using non-linear velocity power spectra derived from $N$-body simulations. We compare the variance with that obtained by carrying out mock observations in the N-body simulations, and show that the estimator typically used for the local Hubble constant in studies based on perturbation theory is different from the one used in studies based on N-body simulations. The latter gives larger weight to distant sources, which explains why studies based on N-body simulations tend to obtain a smaller variance than that found from studies based on the power spectrum. Although both approaches result in a variance too small to explain the discrepancy between the value of $H_0$ from CMB measurements and the value measured in the local universe, these considerations are important in light of the percent determination of the Hubble constant in the local universe.

[35]  arXiv:1701.05407 [pdf, other]
Title: The VLTI/MIDI view on the inner mass loss of evolved stars from the Herschel MESS sample
Comments: 43 pages, 31 figures; accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysics. Abstract shortened for compilation reasons
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The mass-loss process from evolved stars is a key ingredient for our understanding of many fields of astrophysics, including stellar evolution and the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium via stellar yields. One the main unsolved questions is the geometry of the mass-loss process. Taking advantage of the results from the Herschel Mass loss of Evolved StarS (MESS) programme, we initiated a coordinated effort to characterise the geometry of mass loss from evolved red giants at various spatial scales. For this purpose we used the MID-infrared interferometric Instrument (MIDI) to resolve the inner envelope of 14 asymptotic giant branch stars (AGBs) in the MESS sample. In this contribution we present an overview of the interferometric data collected within the frame of our Large Programme, and we also add archive data for completeness. We studied the geometry of the inner atmosphere by comparing the observations with predictions from different geometric models. Asymmetries are detected for five O-rich and S-type, suggesting that asymmetries in the N band are more common among stars with such chemistry. We speculate that this fact is related to the characteristics of the dust grains. Except for one star, no interferometric variability is detected, i.e. the changes in size of the shells of non-mira stars correspond to changes of the visibility of less than 10%. The observed spectral variability confirms previous findings from the literature. The detection of dust in our sample follows the location of the AGBs in the IRAS colour-colour diagram: more dust is detected around oxygen-rich stars in region II and in the carbon stars in region VII. The SiC dust feature does not appear in the visibility spectrum of UAnt and SSct, which are two carbon stars with detached shells. This finding has implications for the theory of SiC dust formation.

[36]  arXiv:1701.05409 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anticentre (LSS-GAC): the second release of value-added catalogues
Comments: 27 pages, 20 figures, accepted by MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present the second release of value-added catalogues of the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anticentre (LSS-GAC DR2). The catalogues present values of radial velocity $V_{\rm r}$, atmospheric parameters --- effective temperature $T_{\rm eff}$, surface gravity log$g$, metallicity [Fe/H], $\alpha$-element to iron (metal) abundance ratio [$\alpha$/Fe] ([$\alpha$/M]), elemental abundances [C/H] and [N/H], and absolute magnitudes ${\rm M}_V$ and ${\rm M}_{K_{\rm s}}$ deduced from 1.8 million spectra of 1.4 million unique stars targeted by the LSS-GAC since September 2011 until June 2014. The catalogues also give values of interstellar reddening, distance and orbital parameters determined with a variety of techniques, as well as proper motions and multi-band photometry from the far-UV to the mid-IR collected from the literature and various surveys. Accuracies of radial velocities reach 5kms$^{-1}$ for late-type stars, and those of distance estimates range between 10 -- 30 per cent, depending on the spectral signal-to-noise ratios. Precisions of [Fe/H], [C/H] and [N/H] estimates reach 0.1dex, and those of [$\alpha$/Fe] and [$\alpha$/M] reach 0.05dex. The large number of stars, the contiguous sky coverage, the simple yet non-trivial target selection function and the robust estimates of stellar radial velocities and atmospheric parameters, distances and elemental abundances, make the catalogues a valuable data set to study the structure and evolution of the Galaxy, especially the solar-neighbourhood and the outer disk.

[37]  arXiv:1701.05435 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Spatially resolved properties for extremely metal-poor star-forming galaxies with Wolf-Rayet features and high-ionization lines
Authors: C. Kehrig (Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, IAA-CSIC)
Comments: Invited review in workshop "Chemical Abundances in Gaseous Nebulae" held at Campos do Jordao (SP,Brazil) from 2th to 5th of november 2016. To be published in AAA Workshop Series 12. 10 pages, 7 figures
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Extremely metal-poor, high-ionizing starbursts in the local Universe provide unique laboratories for exploring in detail the physics of high-redshift systems. Also, their ongoing star-formation and haphazard morphology make them outstanding proxies for primordial galaxies. Using integral field spectroscopy, we spatially resolved the ISM properties and massive stars of two first-class low metallicity galaxies with Wolf-Rayet features and nebular HeII emission: Mrk178 and IZw18. In this review, we summarize our main results for these two objects.

[38]  arXiv:1701.05459 [pdf, other]
Title: Growing evidence that SNe Iax are not a one-parameter family: the case of PS1-12bwh
Authors: M. R. Magee (1), R. Kotak (1), S. A. Sim (1), D. Wright (1), S. J. Smartt (1), E. Berger (2), R. Chornock (3), R. J. Foley (4), D. A. Howell (5 and 6), N. Kaiser (7), E. A. Magnier (7), R. Wainscot (7), C. Waters (7) ((1) Queen's University Belfast, (2) Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, (3) Ohio University, (4) University of California, Santa Cruz (5) Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, (6) University of California, Santa Barbara, (7) University of Hawaii at Manoa)
Comments: 12 pages, 8 figures. Accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysics
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

In this study, we present observations of a type Iax supernova, PS1-12bwh, discovered during the Pan-STARRS1 3$\pi$-survey. Our analysis was driven by previously unseen pre-maximum, spectroscopic heterogeneity. While the light curve and post-maximum spectra of PS1-12bwh are virtually identical to those of the well-studied type Iax supernova, SN 2005hk, the $-$2 day spectrum of PS1-12bwh does not resemble SN 2005hk at a comparable epoch; instead, we found it to match a spectrum of SN 2005hk taken over a week earlier ($-$12 day). We are able to rule out the cause as being incorrect phasing, and argue that it is not consistent with orientation effects predicted by existing explosion simulations. To investigate the potential source of this difference, we performed radiative transfer modelling of both supernovae. We found that the pre-maximum spectrum of PS1-12bwh is well matched by a synthetic spectrum generated from a model with a lower density in the high velocity ($\gtrsim$6000 km~s$^{-1}$) ejecta than SN 2005hk. The observed differences between SN 2005hk and PS1-12bwh may therefore be attributed primarily to differences in the high velocity ejecta alone, while comparable densities for the lower velocity ejecta would explain the nearly identical post-maximum spectra. These two supernovae further highlight the diversity within the SNe Iax class, as well as the challenges in spectroscopically identifying and phasing these objects, especially at early epochs.

[39]  arXiv:1701.05460 [pdf, other]
Title: Shaping planetary nebulae with jets in inclined triple stellar systems
Comments: Will be submitted in two days to allow comments by readers
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We conduct three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of two opposite jets launched obliquely to the orbital plane around an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star and within its dense wind, and demonstrate the formation of a `messy' planetary nebula (PN), namely, a PN lacking any type of symmetry (highly irregular). In building the initial conditions we assume that a tight binary system orbits the AGB star, and that the orbital plane of the tight binary system is inclined to the orbital plane of the binary system and the AGB star (the triple system plane). We further assume that the accreted mass on to the tight binary system forms an accretion disk around one of the stars, and that the plane of the disk is tilted to the orbital plane of the triple system. The highly asymmetrical and filamentary structure that we obtain support the notion that messy PNe might be shaped by triple stellar systems.

[40]  arXiv:1701.05481 [pdf, other]
Title: Cosmic Ray (Stochastic) Acceleration from a Background Plasma
Comments: A talk presented at the conference "Cosmic Ray Origin - beyond the standard models" (San-Vito, Italy, 2016), submitted to Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We give a short review of processes of stochastic acceleration in the Galaxy. We discuss: how to estimate correctly the number of accelerated particles, and at which condition the stochastic mechanism is able to generate power-law nonthermal spectra. We present an analysis of stochastic acceleration in the Galactic halo and discuss whether this mechanism can be responsible for production of high energy electrons there, which emit gamma-ray and microwave emission from the giant Fermi bubbles. Lastly, we discuss whether the effects of stochastic acceleration can explain the CR distribution in the Galactic disk (CR gradient).

[41]  arXiv:1701.05482 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Constraining the age of a magnetar possibly associated with FRB 121102
Comments: 5 pages
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

The similarity of the host galaxy of FRB 121102 with those of long gamma-ray bursts and Type I super-luminous supernovae suggests that this FRB could be associated with a young magnetar. By assuming the FRB emission to be produced in the magnetosphere, we derive a lower limit on the age of the magnetar by enabling GHz emission freely escape from the dense relativistic wind of the magnetar. Another lower limit is also obtained by requiring the dispersion measure contributed by the wind electrons/positrons to be consistent with the observations of host galaxy. The energy sources of the FRB and the recently-discovered steady radio counterpart are not clear. As one possibility, these emission components could be powered by the rotational energy of the magnetar. If this is true, then the magnetar cannot be too old. These lower and upper limits on the magnetar age can provide stringent constraints on the emission models of the FRB as well as the steady radio counterpart. Additionally, it is also indicated that the FRB observations can be used to probe the physics of magnetar wind.

[42]  arXiv:1701.05496 [pdf, other]
Title: Radio detection of Extensive Air Showers (ECRS 2016)
Comments: XXV ECRS 2016 Proceedings - eConf C16-09-04.3
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

Detection of the mostly geomagnetically generated radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers provides an alternative to air-Cherenkov and air-fluorescence detection, since it is not limited to clear nights. Like these established methods, the radio signal is sensitive to the calorimetric energy and the position of the maximum of the electromagnetic shower component. This makes antenna arrays an ideal extension for particle-detector arrays above a threshold energy of about 100 PeV of the primary cosmic-ray particles. In the last few years the digital radio technique for cosmic-ray air showers again made significant progress, and there now is a consistent picture of the emission mechanisms confirmed by several measurements. Recent results by the antenna arrays AERA and Tunka-Rex confirm that the absolute accuracy for the shower energy is as good as the other detection techniques. Moreover, the sensitivity to the shower maximum of the radio signal has been confirmed in direct comparison to air-Cherenkov measurements by Tunka-Rex. The dense antenna array LOFAR can already compete with the established techniques in accuracy for cosmic-ray mass-composition. In the future, a new generation of radio experiments might drive the field: either by providing extremely large exposure for inclined cosmic-ray or neutrino showers or, like the SKA core in Australia with its several 10,000 antennas, by providing extremely detailed measurements.

[43]  arXiv:1701.05506 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Dark matter in dwarf galaxies
Authors: Matts Roos
Comments: 6 pages, no figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Although the cusp-core controversy for dwarf galaxies is seen as a problem, I argue that the cored central profiles can be explained by flattened cusps because they suffer from conflicting measurements and poor statistics and because there is a large number of conventional processes that could have flattened them since their creation, none of which requires new physics. Other problems, such as "too big to fail", are not discussed.

[44]  arXiv:1701.05541 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Asteroid 2014 YX49: a large transient Trojan of Uranus
Comments: 8 pages, 7 figures, 1 table. Accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Main Journal
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

In the outer Solar system, primordial Trojan asteroids may have remained dynamically stable for billions of years. Several thousands of them accompany Jupiter in its journey around the Sun and a similarly large population may be hosted by Neptune. In addition, recently captured or transient Jovian and Neptunian Trojans are not uncommon. In contrast, no Trojans of Saturn have been found yet and just one Uranian Trojan is known, 2011 QF99. Here, we discuss the identification of a second Trojan of Uranus: 2014 YX49. Like 2011 QF99, 2014 YX49 is a transient L4 Trojan although it orbits at higher inclination (25.55 degrees vs. 10.83 degrees), is larger (absolute magnitude of 8.5 vs. 9.7) and its libration period is slightly shorter (5.1 vs. 5.9 kyr); contrary to 2011 QF99, its discovery was not the result of a targeted survey. It is less stable than 2011 QF99; our extensive N-body simulations show that 2014 YX49 may have been following a tadpole trajectory ahead of Uranus for about 60 kyr and it can continue doing so for another 80 kyr. Our analysis suggests that it may remain as co-orbital for nearly 1 Myr. As in the case of 2011 QF99, the long-term stability of 2014 YX49 is controlled by Jupiter and Neptune, but it is currently trapped in the 7:20 mean motion resonance with Saturn. Consistently, the dynamical mechanism leading to the capture into and the ejection from the Trojan state involves ephemeral multibody mean motion resonances.

[45]  arXiv:1701.05548 [pdf, other]
Title: Localisation of gamma-ray interaction points in thick monolithic CeBr3 and LaBr3:Ce scintillators
Journal-ref: Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A 844C (2017) pp. 81-89
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM); Instrumentation and Detectors (physics.ins-det); Medical Physics (

Localisation of gamma-ray interaction points in monolithic scintillator crystals can simplify the design and improve the performance of a future Compton telescope for gamma-ray astronomy. In this paper we compare the position resolution of three monolithic scintillators: a 28x28x20 mm3 (length x breadth x thickness) LaBr3:Ce crystal, a 25x25x20 mm3 CeBr3 crystal and a 25x25x10 mm3 CeBr3 crystal. Each crystal was encapsulated and coupled to an array of 4x4 silicon photomultipliers through an optical window. The measurements were conducted using 81 keV and 356 keV gamma-rays from a collimated 133Ba source. The 3D position reconstruction of interaction points was performed using artificial neural networks trained with experimental data. Although the position resolution was significantly better for the thinner crystal, the 20 mm thick CeBr3 crystal showed an acceptable resolution of about 5.4 mm FWHM for the x and y coordinates, and 7.8 mm FWHM for the z-coordinate (crystal depth) at 356 keV. These values were obtained from the full position scans of the crystal sides. The position resolution of the LaBr3:Ce crystal was found to be considerably worse, presumably due to the highly diffusive optical in- terface between the crystal and the optical window of the enclosure. The energy resolution (FWHM) measured for 662 keV gamma-rays was 4.0% for LaBr3:Ce and 5.5% for CeBr3. The same crystals equipped with a PMT (Hamamatsu R6322-100) gave an energy resolution of 3.0% and 4.7%, respectively.