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[1]  arXiv:1404.5949 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: On the Crucial Cluster Andrews-Lindsay 1 and a 4% Distance Solution for its PN
Comments: To appear in Astronomy and Astrophysics
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Andrews-Lindsay 1 is a pertinent open cluster granted it may host the planetary nebula PHR 1315-6555, yet ambiguities linger concerning its fundamental parameters (>50% scatter). New multiband BVJHW(1-4) photometry for cluster and field stars, in concert with observations of recently discovered classical Cepheids, were used to constrain the reddening and velocity-distance profiles along the sight-line. That analysis yielded the following parameters for the cluster: E(J-H)=0.24+-0.03, d=10.0+-0.4 kpc (d(JH)=9.9+-0.6 kpc, d(BV)=10.1+-0.5 kpc), and log(t)=8.90+-0.15. The steep velocity-distance gradient along l~305 indicates that two remote objects sharing spatial and kinematic parameters (i.e., PHR 1315-6555 and Andrews-Lindsay 1) are associated, thus confirming claims that the PN is a cluster member (e.g., Parker et al.). The new distance for PHR 1315-6555 is among the most precise yet established for a Galactic PN (err_d=4%).

[2]  arXiv:1404.5950 [pdf, other]
Title: No new cosmological concordance with massive sterile neutrinos
Comments: 6 pages, to be submitted to PRL
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

It has been claimed recently that massive sterile neutrinos could bring about a new concordance between observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the large-scale structure (LSS) of the Universe, and local measurements of the Hubble constant, $H_0$. We demonstrate that this apparent concordance results from combining datasets which are in significant tension, even within this extended model, possibly indicating remaining systematic biases in the measurements. We further show that this tension remains when the cosmological model is further extended to include significant tensor modes, as suggested by the recent BICEP2 results. Using the Bayesian evidence, we show that the minimal $\Lambda$CDM model is strongly favoured over its neutrino extensions by various combinations of datasets. Robust data combinations yield stringent limits of $\sum m_\nu\lesssim0.3$ eV and $m_{\nu,{\rm sterile}}^{\rm eff} \lesssim 0.3$ eV at $95\%$ CL for the sum of active and sterile neutrinos, respectively.

[3]  arXiv:1404.5954 [pdf, other]
Title: The IR-resummed Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures
Comments: 37 pages, 9 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph); High Energy Physics - Theory (hep-th)

We present a new method to resum the effect of large scale motions in the Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures. Because the linear power spectrum in $\Lambda$CDM is not scale free the effects of the large scale flows are enhanced. Although previous EFT calculations of the equal-time density power spectrum at one and two loops showed a remarkable agreement with numerical results, they also showed a 2% residual which appeared related to the BAO oscillations. We show that this was indeed the case, explain the physical origin and show how a Lagrangian based calculation removes this differences. We propose a simple method to upgrade existing Eulerian calculations to effectively make them Lagrangian and compare the new results with existing fits to numerical simulations. Our new two-loop results agrees with numerical results up to $k\sim 0.6 h/$Mpc to within 1% with no oscillatory residuals. We also compute power spectra involving momentum which is significantly more affected by the large scale flows. We show how keeping track of these velocities significantly enhances the UV reach of the momentum power spectrum in addition to removing the BAO related residuals. We compute predictions for the real space correlation function around the BAO scale and investigate its sensitivity to the EFT parameters and the details of the resummation technique.

[4]  arXiv:1404.5956 [pdf, other]
Title: Nuclear star clusters in 228 spiral galaxies in the HST/WFPC2 archive: catalogue and comparison to other stellar systems
Comments: 25 pages, 18 figures, 6 tables, accepted in MNRAS. Full data tables included in the archive and also at this http URL
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present a catalogue of photometric and structural properties of 228 nuclear star clusters (NSCs) in nearby late-type disk galaxies. These new measurements are derived from a homogeneous analysis of all suitable WFPC2 images in the $HST$ archive. The luminosity and size of each NSC is derived from an iterative PSF-fitting technique, which adapts the fitting area to the effective radius ($r_{\rm eff}$) of the NSC, and uses a WFPC2-specific PSF model tailored to the position of each NSC on the detector. The luminosities of NSCs are $\leq\!10^8L_{\rm V,\odot}$, and their integrated optical colours suggest a wide spread in age. We confirm that most NSCs have sizes similar to Globular Clusters (GCs), but find that the largest and brightest NSCs occupy the regime between Ultra Compact Dwarf (UCD) and the nuclei of early-type galaxies in the size-luminosity plane. The overlap in size, mass, and colour between the different incarnations of compact stellar systems provides a support for the notion that at least some UCDs and the most massive Galactic GCs, may be remnant nuclei of disrupted disk galaxies. We find tentative evidence for the NSCs' $r_{\rm eff}$ to be smaller when measured in bluer filters, and discuss possible implications of this result. We also highlight a few examples of complex nuclear morphologies, including double nuclei, extended stellar structures, and nuclear $F606W$ excess from either recent (circum-)nuclear star formation and/or a weak AGN. Such examples may serve as case studies for ongoing NSC evolution via the two main suggested mechanisms, namely cluster merging and $in\ situ$ star formation.

[5]  arXiv:1404.5957 [pdf, other]
Title: Probing correlations of early magnetic fields using $μ$-distortion
Comments: 22 pages, 1 figure
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); High Energy Physics - Theory (hep-th)

The damping of a non-uniform magnetic field between the redshifts of about $10^4$ and $10^6$ injects energy into the photon-baryon plasma and causes the CMB to deviate from a perfect blackbody spectrum, producing a so-called $\mu$-distortion. We can calculate the correlation $\langle\mu T\rangle$ of this distortion with the temperature anisotropy $T$ of the CMB to search for a correlation $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ between the magnetic field $B$ and the curvature perturbation $\zeta$. Since the perturbations which produce the $\mu$-distortion will be much smaller scale than the relevant density perturbations, the observation of this correlation is sensitive to the squeezed limit of $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$, which is naturally parameterized by $b_{\text{NL}}$ (a parameter defined analogously to $f_{\text{NL}}$). We find that a PIXIE-like CMB experiments has a signal to noise $S/N\approx 1.0 \times b_{\text{NL}} (\tilde B_\mu/10\text{ nG})^2$, where $\tilde B_\mu$ is the magnetic field's strength on $\mu$-distortion scales normalized to today's redshift; thus, a 10 nG field would be detectable with $b_{\text{NL}}=\mathcal{O}(1)$. However, if the field is of inflationary origin, we generically expect it to be accompanied by a curvature bispectrum $\langle\zeta^3\rangle$; for field strengths $B_\mu\gtrsim 1$ nG, the signal of this bispectrum in $\langle\mu T\rangle$ would dominate over the signal from $b_{\text{NL}}$.
We also discuss the potential post-magnetogenesis sources of a $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ correlation and explain why there will be no contribution from the evolution of the magnetic field in response to the curvature perturbation.

[6]  arXiv:1404.5958 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Complexity on dwarf galaxies scale: A bimodal distribution function in Sculptor
Comments: 4 pages, 4 figures, 1 table, submitted to ApJ Letters
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

In previous work we have presented Schwarzschild models of the Sculptor dSph, demonstrating that this system could be embedded in dark matter halos that are either cusped or cored. Here we show that the non-parametric distribution function recovered through Schwarschild's method is bimodal in energy and angular momentum space for all best fitting mass models explored. We demonstrate that this bimodality is directly related to the two components known to be present in Sculptor through stellar populations analysis, although our method is purely dynamical in nature and does not use this prior information. It therefore constitutes independent confirmation of the existence of two physically distinct dynamical components in Sculptor and suggests a rather complex assembly history for this dwarf galaxy.

[7]  arXiv:1404.5959 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: A mass-dependent density profile for dark matter haloes including the influence of galaxy formation
Comments: 10 pages, 4 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We introduce a mass dependent density profile to describe the distribution of dark matter within galaxies, which takes into account the stellar-to-halo mass dependence of the response of dark matter to baryonic processes. The study is based on the analysis of hydrodynamically simulated galaxies from dwarf to Milky Way mass, drawn from the MaGICC project, which have been shown to match a wide range of disk scaling relationships. We find that the best fit parameters of a generic double power-law density profile vary in a systematic manner that depends on the stellar-to-halo mass ratio of each galaxy. Thus, the quantity Mstar/Mhalo constrains the inner ($\gamma$) and outer ($\beta$) slopes of dark matter density, and the sharpness of transition between the slopes($\alpha$), reducing the number of free parameters of the model to two. Due to the tight relation between stellar mass and halo mass, either of these quantities is sufficient to describe the dark matter halo profile including the effects of baryons. The concentration of the haloes in the hydrodynamical simulations is consistent with N-body expectations up to Milky Way mass galaxies, at which mass the haloes become twice as concentrated as compared with pure dark matter runs. This mass dependent density profile can be directly applied to rotation curve data of observed galaxies and to semi analytic galaxy formation models as a significant improvement over the commonly used NFW profile.

[8]  arXiv:1404.5960 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Unveiling the nature of the unidentified gamma-ray sources V: analysis of the radio candidates with the kernel density estimation
Authors: F. Massaro (Stanford University), R. D'Abrusco (SAO), A. Paggi (SAO), N. Masetti (INAF-IASF Bologna), M. Giroletti (IRA), G. Tosti (University of Perugia), Howard A. Smith (SAO), S. Funk (SLAC)
Comments: 7 oages, 2 figures, 4 tables, ApJS accepted for publication (pre-proof version)
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

Nearly one-third of the gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi are still unidentified, despite significant recent progress in this effort. On the other hand, all the gamma-ray extragalactic sources associated in the second Fermi-LAT catalog have a radio counterpart. Motivated by this observational evidence we investigate all the radio sources of the major radio surveys that lie within the positional uncertainty region of the unidentified gamma-ray sources (UGSs) at 95% level of confidence. First we search for their infrared counterparts in the all-sky survey performed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and then we analyze their IR colors in comparison with those of the known gamma-ray blazars. We propose a new approach, based on a 2-dimensional kernel density estimation (KDE) technique in the single [3.4]-[4.6]-[12] micron WISE color-color plot, replacing the constraint imposed in our previous investigations on the detection at 22 micron of each potential IR counterpart of the UGSs with associated radio emission. The main goal of this analysis is to find distant gamma-ray blazar candidates that, being too faint at 22 micron, are not detected by WISE and thus are not selected by our purely IR based methods. We find fifty-five UGS's likely correspond to radio sources with blazar-like IR signatures. Additional eleven UGSs having, blazar-like IR colors, have been found within the sample of sources found with deep recent ATCA observations.

[9]  arXiv:1404.5961 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Evidence of internal rotation and a helical magnetic field in the jet of the quasar NRAO150
Authors: Sol N. Molina (1), Iván Agudo (1,2,3), José L. Gómez (1), Thomas P. Krichbaum (4), Iván Martí-Vidal (5), Alan L. Roy (4) ((1) Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC (2) Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University (3) Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (4) Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (5) Chalmers University of Technology)
Comments: 19 pages, 17 figures, Accepted for publication in A&A
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The source NRAO150 is a very prominent millimeter to radio emitting quasar at redshift z=1.52 for which previous millimeter VLBI observations revealed a fast counterclockwise rotation of the innermost regions of the jet. Here we present new polarimetric multi-epoch VLBI-imaging observations of NRAO150 performed at 8, 15, 22, 43, and 86GHz with the VLBA and GMVA between 2006 and 2010. All new and previous observational evidence are consistent with an interpretation of the source behavior where the jet is seen at an extremely small angle to the line of sight, and the high frequency emitting regions in NRAO150 rotate at high speeds on the plane of the sky with respect to a reference point that does not need to be related to any particularly prominent jet feature. The observed polarization angle distribution at 22, 43, and 86 GHz during observing epochs with high polarization degree suggests that we have detected the toroidal component of the magnetic field threading the innermost jet plasma regions. This is also consistent with the lower degree of polarization detected at progressively poorer angular resolutions, where the integrated polarization intensity produced by the toroidal field is explained by polarization cancellation inside the observing beam. All this evidence is fully consistent with a kinematic scenario where the main kinematic and polarization properties of the 43 GHz emitting structure of NRAO150 are explained by the internal rotation of such emission regions around the jet axis when the jet is seen almost face on. A simplified model developed to fit helical trajectories to the observed kinematics of the 43 GHz features fully supports this hypothesis. This explains the kinematics of the innermost regions of the jet in NRAO150 in terms of internal jet rotation.

[10]  arXiv:1404.5964 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Interpreting the sub-linear Kennicutt-Schmidt relationship: The case for diffuse molecular gas
Comments: 8 pages, 4 figures, to appear in MNRAS, comments welcome
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Recent statistical analysis of two extragalactic observational surveys strongly indicate a sublinear Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relationship between the star formation rate (Sigsfr) and molecular gas surface density (Sigmol). Here, we consider the consequences of these results in the context of common assumptions, as well as observational support for a linear relationship between Sigsfr and the surface density of dense gas. If the CO traced gas depletion time (tau_mol) is constant, and if CO only traces star forming giant molecular clouds (GMCs), then the physical properties of each GMC must vary, such as the volume densities or star formation rates. Another possibility is that the conversion between CO luminosity and Sigmol, the XCO factor, differs from cloud-to-cloud. A more straightforward explanation is that CO permeates the hierarchical ISM, including the filaments and lower density regions within which GMCs are embedded. A number of independent observational results support this description, with the diffuse gas comprising at least 30% of the total molecular content. The CO bright diffuse gas can explain the sublinear KS relationship, and consequently leads to an increasing tau_mol with Sigmol. If Sigsfr linearly correlates with the dense gas surface density, a sublinear KS relationship indicates that the fraction of diffuse gas fdiff grows with Sigmol. In galaxies where Sigmol falls towards the outer disk, this description suggests that fdiff also decreases radially.

[11]  arXiv:1404.5967 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Temporal Correlations Between Optical and Gamma-ray Activity in Blazars
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We have been using the 0.76-m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT) at Lick Observatory to optically monitor a sample of 157 blazars that are bright in $\gamma$-rays, being detected with high significance (test-statistic TS $> 100$, i.e., $\ge 10\sigma$) in one year by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the {\it Fermi} Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We attempt to observe each source on a 3-day cadence with KAIT, subject to weather and seasonal visibility. The $\gamma$-ray coverage is essentially continuous. KAIT observations extend over much of the 5-year Fermi mission for several objects, and most have $>$100 optical measurements spanning the last three years. These blazars (flat-spectrum radio quasars and BL Lac objects) exhibit a wide range of flaring behavior. Using the discrete correlation function (DCF), here we search for temporal relationships between optical and $\gamma$-ray light curves in the 40 brightest sources in hopes of placing constraints on blazar acceleration and emission zones. We find strong optical/$\gamma$-ray correlation in many of these sources at roughly day timescales. A stacked average DCF of the 40 sources verifies this correlation trend, with a peak above 99% significance near a lag of 0 day. These findings strongly support the widely accepted leptonic models of blazar emission. However, we also find examples of apparently uncorrelated flares (optical flares with no $\gamma$-ray counterpart and $\gamma$-ray flares with no optical counterpart) that challenge simple, one-zone models of blazar emission. Moreover, we find that FSRQs tend to have $\gamma$-rays leading the optical, while intermediate and high synchrotron peak blazars with the most significant peaks have smaller lags/leads. It is clear that long-term monitoring at high cadence is necessary to reveal the underlying physical correlation, in many cases.

[12]  arXiv:1404.5968 [pdf, other]
Title: Disintegration of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) Shortly Before Perihelion: Evidence from Independent Data Sets
Comments: 46 pages, 25 figures, 17 tables; submitted to The Astrophysical Journal on 4/22/2014
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

As an Oort Cloud object with a record small perihelion distance of 2.7 Rsun and discovered more than a year before its encounter with the Sun, comet C/2012 S1 is a subject of considerable scientific interest. Its activity along the orbit's inbound leg evolved through a series of cycles. Two remarkable events preserved in SOHO's and/or STEREO's near-perihelion images of its tail were an early massive production of gravel at heliocentric distances of up to ~100 AU(!), evidently by the annealing of amorphous water ice on and near the nucleus' surface; and, about a week before perihelion, a rapid series of powerful explosions, from the comet's interior, of water with dust at extremely high rates, causing precipitous fragmentation of the nucleus, shattering it into a vast number of sublimating boulders, and ending up, a few days later, with a major, sudden drop in gas emission. The disintegration of the comet was completed by about 3.5 hours before perihelion, at a heliocentric distance of 5.2 Rsun, when C/2012 S1 ceased to exist as an active comet. The orbital motion in this period of time was subjected to progressively increasing outgassing-driven perturbations. A comprehensive orbital analysis results in successfully fitting the comet's observed motion from 2011 to ~7 hours before perihelion.

[13]  arXiv:1404.5969 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Direct $N$-body simulations of globular clusters - II. Palomar 4
Comments: 14 pages, 12 figures, 1 table
Journal-ref: MNRAS, 440, 3172-3183, (2014)
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We use direct $N$-body calculations to study the evolution of the unusually extended outer halo globular cluster Palomar 4 (Pal~4) over its entire lifetime in order to reproduce its observed mass, half-light radius, velocity dispersion and mass function slope at different radii.
We find that models evolving on circular orbits, and starting from a non-mass segregated, canonical initial mass function (IMF) can reproduce neither Pal 4's overall mass function slope nor the observed amount of mass segregation. Including either primordial mass segregation or initially flattened IMFs does not reproduce the observed amount of mass segregation and mass function flattening simultaneously. Unresolved binaries cannot reconcile this discrepancy either. We find that only models with both a flattened IMF and primordial segregation are able to fit the observations. The initial (i.e. after gas expulsion) mass and half-mass radius of Pal~4 in this case are about 57000 M${\odot}$ and 10 pc, respectively. This configuration is more extended than most globular clusters we observe, showing that the conditions under which Pal~4 formed must have been significantly different from that of the majority of globular clusters. We discuss possible scenarios for such an unusual configuration of Pal~4 in its early years.

[14]  arXiv:1404.5986 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Precipitation of Energetic Neutral Atoms and Induced Non-Thermal Escape Fluxes from the Martian Atmosphere
Comments: Submitted to the Astrophysical Journal
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

The precipitation of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs), produced through charge exchange (CX) collisions between solar wind (SW) ions and thermal atmospheric gases, is investigated. Subsequent induced non-thermal escape fluxes have been carried out for the Martian atmosphere. Detailed modeling of the ENA energy input and determination of connections between parameters of precipitating ENAs and resulting escape fluxes, reflection coefficients of fast atoms from the Mars atmosphere, and altitude dependent ENA energy distributions are established using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the precipitation process with accurate quantum mechanical (QM) cross sections. Detailed descriptions of secondary hot (SH) atoms and molecules induced by ENAs have been obtained for a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for atmospheric escape and evolution. The effects of using isotropic hard sphere (HS) cross sections as compared to realistic, anisotropic quantum cross sections are examined for energy-deposition profiles, intensities and energy distributions of atomic and molecular escape fluxes, and time dependent atmospheric heating. 3D MC simulations have been carried out using a step-by-step transport method to track large ensembles of ENAs in a time-dependent manner as they propagate into the Martian atmosphere and transfer their energy to the ambient atoms and molecules. Altitude-dependent rates of atmospheric heating, thermalization depths, the altitude profiles of the production rates of SH atoms and molecules, and induced, non-thermal, escape fluxes have been determined. All MC results were obtained for both realistic, anisotropic cross sections and compared with a simplified model employing isotropic, HS cross sections.

[15]  arXiv:1404.5998 [pdf, other]
Title: Turbulence-Driven Coronal Heating and Improvements to Empirical Forecasting of the Solar Wind
Comments: 12 pages, 11 figures; accepted to ApJ
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Forecasting models of the solar wind often rely on simple parameterizations of the magnetic field that ignore the effects of the full magnetic field geometry. In this paper, we present the results of two solar wind prediction models that consider the full magnetic field profile and include the effects of Alfv\'en waves on coronal heating and wind acceleration. The one-dimensional MHD code ZEPHYR self-consistently finds solar wind solutions without the need for empirical heating functions. Another 1D code, introduced in this paper (The Efficient Modified-Parker-Equation-Solving Tool, TEMPEST), can act as a smaller, stand-alone code for use in forecasting pipelines. TEMPEST is written in Python and will become a publicly available library of functions that is easy to adapt and expand. We discuss important relations between the magnetic field profile and properties of the solar wind that can be used to independently validate prediction models. ZEPHYR provides the foundation and calibration for TEMPEST, and ultimately we will use these models to predict observations and explain space weather created by the bulk solar wind. We are able to reproduce with both models the general anticorrelation seen in comparisons of observed wind speed at 1 AU and the flux tube expansion factor. There is significantly less spread than comparing the results of the two models than between ZEPHYR and a traditional flux tube expansion relation. We suggest that the new code, TEMPEST, will become a valuable tool in the forecasting of space weather.

[16]  arXiv:1404.6001 [pdf, other]
Title: Hierarchical Star Formation in Nearby LEGUS Galaxies
Comments: 9 pages, 4 figures, accepted for ApJL
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Hierarchical structure in ultraviolet images of 12 late-type LEGUS galaxies is studied by determining the numbers and fluxes of nested regions as a function of size from ~1 to ~200 pc, and the number as a function of flux. Two starburst dwarfs, NGC 1705 and NGC 5253, have steeper number-size and flux-size distributions than the others, indicating high fractions of the projected areas filled with star formation. Nine subregions in 7 galaxies have similarly steep number-size slopes, even when the whole galaxies have shallower slopes. The results suggest that hierarchically structured star-forming regions several hundred parsecs or larger represent common unit structures. Small galaxies dominated by only a few of these units tend to be starbursts. The self-similarity of young stellar structures down to parsec scales suggests that star clusters form in the densest parts of a turbulent medium that also forms loose stellar groupings on larger scales. The presence of super star clusters in two of our starburst dwarfs would follow from the observed structure if cloud and stellar subregions more readily coalesce when self-gravity in the unit cell contributes more to the total gravitational potential.

[17]  arXiv:1404.6002 [pdf, other]
Title: Multi-epoch Sub-arcsecond [Fe II] Spectroimaging of the DG Tau Outflows with NIFS. II. On the Nature of the Bipolar Outflow Asymmetry
Comments: 16 pages, 10 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The origin of bipolar outflow asymmetry in young stellar objects (YSOs) remains poorly understood. It may be due to an intrinsically asymmetric outflow launch mechanism, or it may be caused by the effects of the ambient medium surrounding the YSO. Answering this question is an important step in understanding outflow launching. We have investigated the bipolar outflows driven by the T Tauri star DG Tauri on scales of hundreds of AU, using the Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) on Gemini North. The approaching outflow consists of a well-collimated jet, nested within a lower-velocity disc wind. The receding outflow is composed of a single-component bubble-like structure. We analyse the kinemat- ics of the receding outflow using kinetic models, and determine that it is a quasi-stationary bubble with an expanding internal velocity field. We propose that this bubble forms because the receding counterjet from DG Tau is obstructed by a clumpy ambient medium above the circumstellar disc surface, based on similarities between this structure and those found in the modeling of active galactic nuclei outflows. We find evidence of interaction between the obscured counterjet and clumpy ambient material, which we attribute to the large molecular envelope around the DG Tau system. An analytical model of a momentum-driven bubble is shown to be consistent with our interpretation. We conclude that the bipolar outflow from DG Tau is intrinsically symmetric, and the observed asymmetries are due to environmental effects. This mechanism can potentially be used to explain the observed bipolar asymmetries in other YSO outflows.

[18]  arXiv:1404.6014 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Detection of the Gravitational Lens Magnifying a Type Ia Supernova
Comments: 32 pages, 10 figures. Accepted for publication in Science
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

Objects of known brightness, like Type Ia supernovae (SNIa), can be used to measure distances. If a massive object warps spacetime to form multiple images of a background SNIa, a direct test of cosmic expansion is also possible. However, these lensing events must first be distinguished from other rare phenomena. Recently, a supernova was found to shine much brighter than normal for its distance, which resulted in a debate: was it a new type of superluminous supernova or a normal SNIa magnified by a hidden gravitational lens? Here we report that a spectrum obtained after the supernova faded away shows the presence of a foreground galaxy--the first found to strongly magnify a SNIa. We discuss how more lensed SNIa may be found than previously predicted.

[19]  arXiv:1404.6018 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: ASERA: A Spectrum Eye Recognition Assistant for Quasar Spectra
Comments: 13 pages, 1 table, 6 figures, submitted to Astronomy and Computing
Journal-ref: 2013, Astronomy and Computing, Volume 3, p. 65-69
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

Spectral type recognition is an important and fundamental step of large sky survey projects in the data reduction for further scientific research, like parameter measurement and statistic work. It tends out to be a huge job to manually inspect the low quality spectra produced from massive spectroscopic survey, where the automatic pipeline may not provide confident type classification results. In order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of spectral classification, we develop a semi-automated toolkit named ASERA, A Spectrum Eye Recognition Assistant. The main purpose of ASERA is to help the user in quasar spectral recognition and redshift measurement. Furthermore it can also be used to recognize various types of spectra of stars, galaxies and AGNs (Active Galactic Nucleus). It is an interactive software allowing the user to visualize observed spectra, superimpose template spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and interactively access related spectral line information. It is an efficient and user-friendly toolkit for accurate classification of spectra observed by LAMOST (the Large Sky Area Multi-object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope). The toolkit is available in two modes: a Java standalone application and a Java applet. ASERA has a few functions, such as wavelength and flux scale setting, zoom in and out, redshift estimation, spectral line identification, which helps user to improve the spectral classification accuracy especially for low quality spectra and reduce the labor of eyeball check. The function and performance of this tool is displayed through the recognition of several quasar spectra and a late type stellar spectrum from the LAMOST Pilot survey. Its future expansion capabilities are discussed.

[20]  arXiv:1404.6038 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Detailed molecular observations toward the Double Helix Nebula
Comments: 36 pages, 17 figures, 1 table, accepted to ApJS
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The Double Helix Nebula (DHN), located 100 pc above Sgr A* in the Galactic center (GC), is a unique structure whose morphology suggests it is a magnetic feature (Morris, Uchida & Do 2006). Recent molecular observations toward the DHN by Enokiya et al. (2014) revealed two candidate molecular counterparts of the DHN at radial velocities of -35 km/s and 0 km/s and discussed the model in which the DHN has its origin at the circumnuclear disk in the GC. In this paper, new CO observations toward the DHN using the CSO and Mopra telescopes are presented. The higher-resolution observations of ~1 pc scale reveal the detailed distributions and kinematics of the two CO counterparts (the 0 km/s and -35 km/s features) and provide new information on their physical conditions. As a result, we find that the 0 km/s feature with a mass of 3.3x10^4 Msun coincides with the infrared emission of the DHN, indicating clear association with the DHN. The association of the -35 km/s feature, with a mass of 0.8x10^4 Msun, is less clear compared with the 0 km/s feature, but the complementary distribution between the molecular gas and the DHN and velocity variation along the DHN support its association with the DHN. The two molecular features are highly excited, as shown by the relatively high CO J=2-1/J=1-0 intensity ratios of ~1.0, and have kinetic temperatures of ~30 K, consistent with the typical molecular clouds in the GC.

[21]  arXiv:1404.6050 [pdf, other]
Title: Imaging polarimetry of the rotating Bok globule CB67
Comments: 8 pages, 6 figures, 2 tables
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Polarimetric observations of about 50 stars located in a close vicinity of the Bok globule CB67 having significantly nonspherical shape and rapid rotation are performed. The data obtained are compared with the available observations of this globule at radio and submillimeter wavelengths as well as some theoretical calculations. It is found that the elongation and the rotation moment of CB67 are oriented rather perpendicular to the magnetic fields, which is unusual for Bok globules and is difficult to be explained from the theoretical point of view.

[22]  arXiv:1404.6060 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Broad band polarimetric follow-up of Type IIP SN 2012aw
Comments: 11 pages, 6 figures, 4 tables, Accepted for publication in MNRAS main-journal
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We present the results based on R-band polarimetric follow-up observations of the nearby (~10 Mpc) Type II-plateau SN 2012aw. Starting from ~10 days after the SN explosion, these polarimetric observations cover ~90 days (during the plateau phase) and are distributed over 9 epochs. To characterize the Milky Way interstellar polarization (ISP_MW ), we have observed 14 field stars lying in a radius of 10 degree around the SN. We have also tried to subtract the host galaxy dust polarization component assuming that the dust properties in the host galaxy are similar to that observed for Galactic dust and the general magnetic field follow the large scale structure of the spiral arms of a galaxy. After correcting the IS_PMW , our analysis infer that SN 2012aw has maximum polarization of 0.85% +- 0.08% but polarization angle does not show much variation with a weighted mean value of ~138 degree. However, if both ISP_MW and host galaxy polarization (ISP_HG ) components are subtracted from the observed polarization values of SN, maximum polarization of the SN becomes 0.68% +- 0.08%. The distribution of Q and U parameters appears to follow a loop like structure. The evolution of polarimetric light curve (PLC) properties of this event is also compared with other well studied core-collapse supernovae of similar type.

[23]  arXiv:1404.6066 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Accelerated Evolution of Ly$α$ Luminosity Function at $\textit{z} \gtrsim 7$ Revealed by the Subaru Ultra-Deep Survey for Ly$α$ Emitters at $\textit{z}=7.3$
Comments: 15pages, 14 figures, 5 tables, submitted to ApJ
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present the ultra-deep Subaru narrowband imaging survey for Lya emitters (LAEs) at $z=7.3$ in SXDS and COSMOS fields with a total integration time of 106 hours. Exploiting our new sharp bandwidth filter, NB101, installed on Suprime-Cam, we have reached $L(Lya)=2.4\times10^{42} \ erg \ s^{-1}$ ($5\sigma$) for $z=7.3$ LAEs, about 4 times deeper than previous Subaru $z \gtrsim 7$ studies, which allows us to reliably investigate evolution of Lya luminosity function (LF), for the first time, down to the luminosity limit same as those of Subaru $z=3.1-6.6$ LAE samples. Surprisingly, we only find three and four LAEs in SXDS and COSMOS fields, respectively, while one expects a total of $\sim 65$ LAEs by our survey in the case of no Lya LF evolution from $z=6.6$ to $7.3$.We identify a decrease of Lya LF from $z=6.6$ to $7.3$ at the $>90\%$ confidence level from our $z=7.3$ Lya LF.Moreover, the evolution of Lya LF is clearly accelerated at $z>6.6$ beyond the measurement uncertainties including cosmic variance. Because no such accelerated evolution of UV-continuum LF or cosmic star-formation rate (SFR) is found at $z\sim 7$, but suggested only at $z>8$ (Oesch et al. 2013, Bouwens et al. 2014), this accelerated Lya LF evolution is explained by physical mechanisms different from a pure SFR decrease but related to Lya production and escape in the process of cosmic reionization. Because a simple accelerating increase of IGM neutral hydrogen absorbing Lya would not reconcile with Thomson scattering optical depth measurements from WMAP and Planck, our findings may support new physical pictures suggested by recent theoretical studies, such as the existence of HI clumpy clouds within cosmic ionized bubbles selectively absorbing Lya and the large ionizing photon escape fraction of galaxies making weak Lya emission.

[24]  arXiv:1404.6077 [pdf, other]
Title: Galactic interstellar turbulence in the southern sky seen through spatial gradients of the polarization vector
Comments: accepted for publication on A&A 13 pages, 10 figures
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Radio synchrotron polarization maps of the Galaxy can be used to infer the properties of interstellar turbulence in the diffuse warm ionized medium (WIM). In this paper, we investigate the spatial gradient of linearly polarized synchrotron emission ($|\nabla\textbf{P}|/|\textbf{P}|$) as a tracer of turbulence, the relationship of the gradient to the sonic Mach number of the WIM, and changes in morphology of the gradient as a function of Galactic position in the southern sky. We use data from the S-band Polarization All Sky Survey (S-PASS) to image the spatial gradient of the linearly polarized synchrotron emission ($|\nabla \textbf{P}|/|\textbf{P}|$) of the entire southern sky at $2.3$~GHz. The spatial gradient of linear polarization reveals rapid changes of the density and magnetic fluctuations in the WIM due to magnetic turbulence as a function of Galactic position; we make comparisons of these data to ideal MHD numerical simulations. In order to constrain the sonic Mach number ($M_{s}$), we apply a high order moments analysis to the observations and to the simulated diffuse, isothermal ISM with ideal magneto-hydrodynamic turbulence. We find that polarization gradient maps reveal elongated structures, which we associate with turbulence in the ISM. Our analysis corroborates the view of a turbulent WIM in a transonic regime $M_{s}\lesssim 2$. Filamentary structures with typical widths down to the angular resolution are seen and the observed morphologies match closely with numerical simulations and in some cases H$\alpha$ contours. The $|\nabla \textbf{P}|/|\textbf{P}|$ intensity is found to be approximately log-normal distributed. No systematic variations of the sonic Mach number are observed as a function of Galactic coordinates, which is consistent with turbulence in the WIM inferred by the analysis of H$\alpha$ data.

[25]  arXiv:1404.6079 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: On the convergence of Magnetorotational turbulence in stratified isothermal shearing boxes
Comments: 10 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ Letters
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We consider the problem of convergence in stratified isothermal shearing boxes with zero net magnetic flux. We present results with the highest resolution to-date--up to 200 grid-point per pressure scale height--that show no clear evidence of convergence. Rather, the Maxwell stresses continue to decrease with increasing resolution. We propose some possible scenarios to explain the lack of convergence based on multi-layer dynamo systems.

[26]  arXiv:1404.6090 [pdf, other]
Title: Molecular gas heating mechanisms, and star formation feedback in merger/s tarbursts: NGC 6240 and Arp 193 as case studies
Comments: 54 pages, 19 figures, accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We used the SPIRE/FTS instrument aboard the Herschel Space Observatory (HSO) to obtain the Spectral Line Energy Distributions (SLEDs) of CO from J=4-3 to J=13-12 of Arp 193 and NGC 6240, two classical merger/starbursts selected from our molecular line survey of local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs: L_{IR}>=10^{11} L_{sol}). The high-J CO SLEDs are then combined with ground-based low-J CO, {13}CO, HCN, HCO+, CS line data and used to probe the thermal and dynamical states of their large molecular gas reservoirs. We find the two CO SLEDs strongly diverging from J=4-3 onwards, with NGC6240 having a much higher CO line excitation than Arp193, despite their similar low-J CO SLEDs and L_{FIR}/L_{CO,1-0}, L_{HCN}/L_{CO} (J=1-0) ratios (proxies of star formation efficiency and dense gas mass fraction). In Arp193, one of the three most extreme starbursts in the local Universe, the molecular SLEDs indicate a small amount ~(5-15)% of dense gas (n>=10^{4}cm^{-3}) unlike NGC6240 where most of the molecular gas (~(60-70)%) is dense n~(10^4-10^5)cm^{-3}. Strong star-formation feedback can drive this disparity in their dense gas mass fractions, and also induce extreme thermal and dynamical states for the molecular gas.In NGC6240, and to a lesser degree in Arp193, we find large molecular gas masses whose thermal states cannot be maintained by FUV photons from Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs). We argue that this may happen often in metal-rich merger/starbursts, strongly altering the initial conditions of star formation. ALMA can now directly probe these conditions across cosmic epoch, and even probe their deeply dust-enshrouded outcome, the stellar IMF averaged over galactic evolution.

[27]  arXiv:1404.6092 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Three new X-ray emitting sdO stars discovered with Chandra
Authors: N. La Palombara (1), P. Esposito (1), S. Mereghetti (1), A. Tiengo (1,2,3) (1 - INAF/IASF Milano, Italy, 2 - IUSS Pavia, Italy, 3 - INFN Pavia, Italy)
Comments: 6 pages. Accepted for publication by Astronomy and Astrophysics
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

X-ray observations of sdO stars are a useful tool to investigate their properties, but so far only two sdO stars were detected at X-rays. We observed a complete flux-limited sample of 19 sdO stars with the Chandra HRC-I camera to measure the count rate of the detected sources or to set a tight upper limit on it for the undetected sources. We obtained a robust detection of BD+37 1977 and Feige 34 and a marginal detection of BD+28 4211. The estimated luminosity of BD+37 1977 is above 10^31 erg/s, which is high enough to suggest the possible presence of an accreting compact companion. This possibility is unlikely for all the other targets (both detected and undetected), since in their case L_X < 10^30 erg/s. On the other hand, for all 19 targets the estimated value of L_X (or its upper limit) implies an X-ray/bolometric flux ratio that agrees with log(L_X/L_bol) = -6.7 +/- 0.5, which is the range of values typical of main-sequence and giant O stars. Therefore, for Feige 34 and BD+28 4211 the observed X-ray flux is most probably due to intrinsic emission. The same is possibile for the 16 undetected stars.

[28]  arXiv:1404.6093 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Sharp inflaton potentials and bi-spectra: Effects of smoothening the discontinuity
Comments: 28 pages, 4 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph); High Energy Physics - Theory (hep-th)

Sharp shapes in the inflaton potentials often lead to short departures from slow roll which, in turn, result in deviations from scale invariance in the scalar power spectrum. Typically, in such situations, the scalar power spectrum exhibits a burst of features associated with modes that leave the Hubble radius either immediately before or during the epoch of fast roll. Moreover, one also finds that the power spectrum turns scale invariant at smaller scales corresponding to modes that leave the Hubble radius at later stages, when slow roll has been restored. In other words, the imprints of brief departures from slow roll, arising out of sharp shapes in the inflaton potential, are usually of a finite width in the scalar power spectrum. Intuitively, one may imagine that the scalar bi-spectrum too may exhibit a similar behavior, i.e. a restoration of scale invariance at small scales, when slow roll has been reestablished. However, in the case of the Starobinsky model (viz. the model described by a linear inflaton potential with a sudden change in its slope) involving the canonical scalar field, it has been found that, a rather sharp, though short, departure from slow roll can leave a lasting and significant imprint on the bi-spectrum. The bi-spectrum in this case is found to grow linearly with the wavenumber at small scales, a behavior which is clearly unphysical. In this work, we study the effects of smoothening the discontinuity in the Starobinsky model on the scalar bi-spectrum. Focusing on the equilateral limit, we analytically show that, for smoother potentials, the bi-spectrum indeed turns scale invariant at suitably large wavenumbers. We also confirm the analytical results numerically using our newly developed code BINGO. We conclude with a few comments on certain related points.

[29]  arXiv:1404.6094 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Stellar laboratories III. New Ba V, Ba VI, and Ba VII oscillator strengths and the barium abundance in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE0503-289
Authors: T. Rauch (1), K. Werner (1), P. Quinet (2,3), J. W. Kruk (4) ((1) Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Eberhard Karls University, Tuebingen, Germany, (2) Astrophysique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Mons - UMONS, Belgium, (3) IPNAS, Universite de Liege, Liege, Belgium, (4) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, USA)
Comments: 36 pages, 8 figures
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Reliable Ba V - VII oscillator strengths are used to identify Ba lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ba abundances. We newly calculated Ba V - VII oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Ba lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE0503-289. For the first time, we identified highly ionized Ba in the spectra of hot white dwarfs. We detected Ba VI and Ba VII lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE0503-289. The Ba VI / Ba VII ionization equilibrium is well reproduced with the previously determined effective temperature of 70000 K and surface gravity of $\log g = 7.5$. The Ba abundance is $3.5 \pm 0.5 \times 10^{-4}$ (mass fraction, about 23000 times the solar value). In the FUSE spectrum of G191-B2B, we identified the strongest Ba VII line (at 993.41 \AA) only, and determined a Ba abundance of $4.0 \pm 0.5 \times 10^{-6}$ (about 265 times solar). Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a pre-requisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Ba VI - VII line profiles in two white dwarfs' (G191-B2B and RE0503-289) far-ultraviolet spectra were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. This allowed to determine the photospheric Ba abundance of these two stars precisely.

[30]  arXiv:1404.6102 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Before the first supernova: combined effects of HII regions and winds on molecular clouds
Comments: 21 pages, 19 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We model the combined effects of photoionization and momentum--driven winds from O--stars on molecular clouds spanning a parameter space of initial conditions. The dynamical effects of the winds are very modest. However, in the lower--mass clouds, they influence the morphologies of the HII regions by creating 10pc--scale central cavities.\\ The inhomogeneous structures of the model GMCs make them highly permeable to photons, ionized gas and supernova ejecta, and the leaking of ionized gas in particular strongly affects their evolution, reducing the effectiveness of feedback. Nevertheless, feedback is able to expel large fractions of the mass of the lower escape--velocity clouds. Its impact on star formation is more modest, decreasing final star formation efficiencies by 10--20$\%$, and the rate of change of the star formation efficiency per freefall time by about one third. However, the clouds still form stars substantially faster than observed GMCs.

[31]  arXiv:1404.6108 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Constraining the vertical structure of the Milky Way rotation by microlensing in a finite-width global disk model
Comments: 10 pages, 10 figures
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

In this paper we model the vertical structure of mass distribution of the Milky Way galaxy in the framework of a finite-width global disk model. Assuming the Galactic rotation curve only, we test inside the solar orbit the predictions of the model for two measurable and unrelated to each other processes: the gravitational microlensing that allows to fix the disk width-scale by the best fit to measurements, and the vertical gradient of rotation modelled in the quasi-circular orbits approximation. The former is sensitive to the gravitating mass in compact objects and the latter is sensitive to all kinds of gravitating matter. The analysis points to a small width-scale of the considered disks and, at most, insignificant contribution of non-baryonic dark mater in the solar circle. The predicted high vertical gradient values in the rotation are consistent with the gradient measurements.

[32]  arXiv:1404.6117 [pdf, other]
Title: A Review of Solar Type III Radio Bursts
Comments: 30 pages, 6 figures, accepted in Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Solar type III radio bursts are an important diagnostic tool in the understanding of solar accelerated electron beams. They are a signature of propagating beams of nonthermal electrons in the solar atmosphere and the solar system. Consequently, they provide information on electron acceleration and transport, and the conditions of the background ambient plasma they travel through. We review the observational properties of type III bursts with an emphasis on recent results and how each property can help identify attributes of electron beams and the ambient background plasma. We also review some of the theoretical aspects of type III radio bursts and cover a number of numerical efforts that simulate electron beam transport through the solar corona and the heliosphere.

[33]  arXiv:1404.6122 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: HSTEP -- Homogeneous Studies of Transiting Extrasolar Planets
Authors: John Southworth (Keele University, UK)
Comments: 6-page conference proceedings (IAUS 293, Beijing, August 2012). The TEPCat catalogue can be found at this http URL
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

I give a summary of the HSTEP project: an effort to calculate the physical properties of the known transiting extrasolar planets using a homogeneous approach. I discuss the motivation for the project, list the 83 planets which have already been studied, run through some important aspects of the methodology, and finish with a synopsis of the results. The results have been compiled into an online catalogue: TEPCat.

[34]  arXiv:1404.6123 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Lithium and oxygen in globular cluster dwarfs and the early disc accretion scenario
Authors: M.Salaris (1), S. Cassisi (2) ((1) Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, UK (2) INAF- Osservatorio Astronomico Collurania, Teramo, I)
Comments: 8 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in A&A
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

A new scenario --early disc accretion-- has been recently proposed to explain the discovery of multiple stellar populations in Galactic globular clusters. According to this model, the existence of well defined (anti)-correlations amongst light element abundances (i.e. C, N, O, Na) in the photospheres of stars belonging to the same cluster (and the associated helium enrichment), is caused by accretion of the ejecta of short lived interacting massive binary systems (and single fast rotating massive stars) on fully convective pre-main sequence low- and very low-mass stars, during the early stages of the cluster evolution. We investigated the constraints provided by considering simultaneously the observed spread of lithium and oxygen (and when possible also sodium) abundances for samples of turn-off stars in NGC6752, NGC6121 (M4), and NGC104 (47Tuc), and the helium abundance of their multiple main sequences. These observations provide a very powerful test for the accretion scenario, because the observed O, Li and He abundance distributions at the turn off can be used to constrain the composition (and mass) of the accreted matter, and the timescales of the polluting stars. In case of NGC6752 we could not find a physically consistent solution. In case of M4, spectroscopic errors are too large compared to the intrinsic spread, to constrain the properties of the accreted matter. As for 47Tuc, we could find a physically consistent solution for the abundances of He and O (and Na) in the accreted gas, and predict the abundances of these elements in the accreted matter only if pollution happens with timescales of ~1 Myr, hence polluters are objects with masses of the order of several tens of solar masses (abridged).

[35]  arXiv:1404.6135 [pdf, other]
Title: The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets XXXV. The interesting case of HD41248: stellar activity, no planets?
Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

The search for planets orbiting metal-poor stars is of uttermost importance for our understanding of the planet formation models. However, no dedicated searches have been conducted so far for very low mass planets orbiting such objects. Only a few cases of low mass planets orbiting metal-poor stars are thus known. Amongst these, HD41248 is a metal-poor, solar-type star on which a resonant pair of super-Earth like planets has In the present paper we present a new planet search program that is using the HARPS spectrograph to search for Neptunes and Super-Earths orbiting a sample of metal-poor FGK dwarfs. We then present a detailed analysis of an additional 162 radial velocity measurements of HD41248, obtained within this program, with the goal of confirming the existence of the proposed planetary system. We analyzed the precise radial velocities, obtained with the HARPS spectrograph, together with several stellar activity diagnostics and line profile indicators. A careful analysis shows no evidence for the planetary system previously announced. One of the signals, with a period of about 25 days, is shown to be related to the rotational period of the star, and is clearly seen in some of the activity proxies. The remaining signal (P~18 days) could not be convincingly retrieved in the new data set. We discuss possible causes for the complex (evolving) signals observed in the data of HD41248, proposing that they may be explained by the appearance and disappearance of active regions on the surface of a star with strong differential rotation, or by a combination of the sparse data sampling and active region evolution.

[36]  arXiv:1404.6142 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: A Tentative Size-Luminosity Relation for the Iron Emission-Line Region in Quasars
Comments: 5 pages, 3 figures, ApJL published
Journal-ref: 2014, ApJ, 783L, 34C
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

New reverberation mapping measurements of the size of the optical iron emission-line region in quasars are provided, and a tentative size-luminosity relation for this component is reported. Combined with lag measurements in low-luminosity sources, the results imply an emission-region size that is comparable to and at most twice that of the H$\beta$ line, and is characterized by a similar luminosity dependence. This suggests that the physics underlying the formation of the optical iron blends in quasars may be similar to that of other broad emission lines.

[37]  arXiv:1404.6144 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Collisional modelling of the debris disc around HIP 17439
Comments: Astronomy and Astrophysics (accepted for publication). 11 pages, 8 figures
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

We present an analysis of the debris disc around the nearby K2 V star HIP 17439. In the context of the Herschel DUNES key programme the disc was observed and spatially resolved in the far-IR with the Herschel PACS and SPIRE instruments. In a first model, Ertel et al. (2014) assumed the size and radial distribution of the circumstellar dust to be independent power laws. There, by exploring a very broad range of possible model parameters several scenarios capable of explaining the observations were suggested. In this paper, we perform a follow-up in-depth collisional modelling of these scenarios trying to further distinguish between them. In our models we consider collisions, direct radiation pressure, and drag forces, i.e. the actual physical processes operating in debris discs. We find that all scenarios discussed in Ertel et al. are physically sensible and can reproduce the observed SED along with the PACS surface brightness profiles reasonably well. In one model, the dust is produced beyond 120au in a narrow planetesimal belt and is transported inwards by Poynting-Robertson and stellar wind drag. A good agreement with the observed radial profiles would require stellar winds by about an order of magnitude stronger than the solar value, which is not supported, although not ruled out, by observations. Another model consists of two spatially separated planetesimal belts, a warm inner and a cold outer one. This scenario would probably imply the presence of planets clearing the gap between the two components. Finally, we show qualitatively that the observations can be explained by assuming the dust is produced in a single, but broad planetesimal disc with a surface density of solids rising outwards, as expected for an extended disc that experiences a natural inside-out collisional depletion. Prospects of discriminating between the competing scenarios by future observations are discussed.

[38]  arXiv:1404.6147 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: A spider-like outflow in Barnard 5 - IRS 1: The transition from a collimated jet to a wide-angle outflow?
Authors: Luis A. Zapata (UNAM), Hector G. Arce (Yale University), Erin Brassfield (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA), Aina Palau (UNAM), Nimesh Patel (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA), Jaime E. Pineda (ETH Zurich)
Comments: Accepted by MNRAS
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We present line and continuum observations made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) of the young stellar object Barnard 5 - IRS1 located in the Perseus molecular cloud. Our $^{12}$CO(2-1) line observations resolve the high-velocity bipolar northeast-southwest outflow associated with this source. We find that the outflowing gas shows different structures at three different velocity regimes, in both lobes, resulting in a spider-like morphology. In addition to the low-velocity, cone-like (wide-angle) lobes that have previously been observed, we report the presence of intermediate-velocity parabolic shells emerging very close to the Class I protostar, as well as high velocity molecular bullets that appear to be associated to the optical/IR jet emanating from this source. These compact high-velocity features reach radial velocities of about 50 km s$^{-1}$ away from the cloud velocity. We interpret the peculiar spider-like morphology is a result of the molecular material being entrained by a wind with both a collimated jet-like component and a wide-angle component. We suggest the outflow is in a transitional evolutionary phase between a mostly jet-driven flow and an outflow in which the entrainment is dominated by the wide-angle wind component. We also detect 1300 $\mu$m continuum emission at the position of the protostar, which likely arises from the dusty envelope and disk surrounding the protostar. Finally, we report the detection of $^{13}$CO(2-1) and SO(6$_5$-5$_4$) emission arising from the outflow and the location of the young stellar object.

[39]  arXiv:1404.6149 [pdf, other]
Title: Distinguishing an ejected blob from alternative flare models at the Galactic centre with GRAVITY
Comments: 11 pages, 9 figures, accepted by MNRAS
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The black hole at the Galactic centre exhibits regularly flares of radiation, the origin of which is still not understood. In this article, we study the ability of the near-future GRAVITY infrared instrument to constrain the nature of these events. We develop realistic simulations of GRAVITY astrometric data sets for various flare models. We show that the instrument will be able to distinguish an ejected blob from alternative flare models, provided the blob inclination is >= 45deg, the flare brightest magnitude is 14 <= mK <= 15 and the flare duration is >= 1h30.

[40]  arXiv:1404.6153 [pdf]
Title: Modeling Convective Core Overshoot and Diffusion in Procyon Constrained by Asteroseismic Data
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We compare evolved stellar models, which match Procyons mass and position in the HR diagram, to current ground-based asteroseismic observations. Diffusion of helium and metals along with two conventional core overshoot descriptions and the Kuhfuss nonlocal theory of convection are considered. We establish that one of the two published asteroseismic data reductions for Procyon, which mainly differ in their identification of even versus odd l-values, is a significantly more probable and self-consistent match to our models than the other. The most probable models according to our Bayesian analysis have evolved to just short of turnoff, still retaining a hydrogen convective core. Our most probable models include Y and Z diffusion and have conventional core overshoot between 0.9 and 1.5 pressure scale heights, which increases the outer radius of the convective core by between 22% to 28%, respectively. We discuss the significance of this comparatively higher than expected core overshoot amount in terms of internal mixing during evolution. The parameters of our most probable models are similar regardless of whether adiabatic or nonadiabatic model p-mode frequencies are compared to the observations, although, the Bayesian probabilities are greater when the nonadiabatic model frequencies are used. All the most probable models (with or without core overshoot, adiabatic or nonadiabatic model frequencies, diffusion or no diffusion, including priors for the observed HRD location and mass or not) have masses that are within one sigma of the observed mass 1.497+/-0.037 Msun.

[41]  arXiv:1404.6156 [pdf, other]
Title: On the Performance of Quasar Reverberation Mapping in the Era of Time-Domain Photometric Surveys
Comments: 15 pages, 14 figures, ApJ published
Journal-ref: 2014, ApJ, 785, 140C
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

We quantitatively assess, by means of comprehensive numerical simulations, the ability of broad-band photometric surveys to recover the broad emission line region (BLR) size in quasars under various observing conditions and for a wide range of object properties. Focusing on the general characteristics of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), we find that the slope of the size-luminosity relation for the BLR in quasars can be determined with unprecedented accuracy, of order a few percent, over a broad luminosity range and out to $z\sim 3$. In particular, major emission lines for which the BLR size can be reliably measured with LSST include H$\alpha$, MgII $\lambda 2799$, CIII] $\lambda 1909$, CIV $\lambda 1549$, and Ly$\alpha$, amounting to a total of $\gtrsim 10^5$ time-delay measurements for all transitions. Combined with an estimate for the emission line velocity dispersion, upcoming photometric surveys will facilitate the estimation of black hole masses in AGN over a broad range of luminosities and redshifts, allow for refined calibrations of BLR size-luminosity-redshift relations in different transitions, as well as lead to more reliable cross-calibration with other black hole mass estimation techniques.

[42]  arXiv:1404.6160 [pdf, other]
Title: Cosmological Invisible Decay of Light Sterile Neutrinos
Comments: 5 pages
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); High Energy Physics - Experiment (hep-ex); High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph)

We introduce a cosmological invisible decay of the sterile neutrino with the eV-scale mass indicated by short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments in order to allow its full thermalization in the early Universe. We show that the fit of the cosmological data is practically as good as the fit obtained with a stable sterile neutrino without mass constraints, which has been recently considered by several authors for the explanation of the observed suppression of small-scale matter density fluctuations and for a solution of the tension between the Planck and BICEP2 measurements of the tensor to scalar ratio of large-scale fluctuations. Moreover, the extra relativistic degree of freedom corresponding to a fully thermalized sterile neutrino is correlated with a larger value of the Hubble constant, which is in agreement with local measurements.

[43]  arXiv:1404.6173 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: New hyperon equations of state for supernovae and neutron stars in density dependent hadron field theory
Comments: 36 pages, 9 figures, 11 tables, submitted to ApJS
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Nuclear Theory (nucl-th)

We develop new hyperon equation of state (EoS) tables for core-collapse supernova simulations and neutron stars. These EoS tables are based on a density dependent relativistic hadron field theory where baryon-baryon interaction is mediated by mesons, using the parameter set DD2 from Typel et al. (2010) for nucleons. Furthermore, light and heavy nuclei along with the interacting nucleons are treated in the nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) model of Hempel and Schaffner-Bielich which includes excluded volume effects. Of all possible hyperons, we consider only the contribution of $\Lambda$s. We have developed two variants of hyperonic EoS tables: in the np$\Lambda \phi$ case the repulsive hyperon-hyperon interaction mediated by the strange $\phi$ meson is taken into account, in the np$\Lambda$ case it is not. The EoS tables for two cases encompass wide range of density ($10^{-12}$ to $\sim$ 1 fm$^{-3}$), temperature (0.1 to 158.48 MeV) and proton fraction (0.01 to 0.60). The effects of $\Lambda$ hyperons on thermodynamic quantities such as free energy per baryon, pressure, or entropy per baryon are investigated and found to be significant at higher densities. The cold, $\beta$-equilibrated EoS (with the crust included self-consistently) results in a 2.1 M$_{\odot}$ maximum mass neutron star for np$\Lambda \phi$ case whereas that of np$\Lambda$ case is 1.95 M$_{\odot}$. The np$\Lambda \phi$ EoS represents the first supernova EoS table involving hyperons which is directly compatible with the recently measured 2 M$_{\odot}$ neutron stars.

[44]  arXiv:1404.6184 [pdf, other]
Title: Aperture Array Configurations for SKA1 Core
Authors: Keith Grainge
Journal-ref: 2014, SKA Memo 151
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

This memo considers some aspects of the configuration of the SKA1 Low Frequency Aperture Array, both at the element and station level. At the element level I propose a possible scenario for forming station beams where elements are shared between stations and apodisation is implemented, with the aim of improving filling factor, overall sensitivity and sidelobe performance; the disadvantages of such a scheme with regards to beam former requirements and shortest available baseline are also discussed. At the station level, a randomised configuration within a filled central region together with spiral arms is explored.

[45]  arXiv:1404.6199 [pdf, other]
Title: Shear mixing in stellar radiative zones I. Effect of thermal diffusion and chemical stratification
Comments: 10 pages, 9 figures, accepted in A&A
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Turbulent transport of chemical elements in radiative zones of stars is taken into account in current stellar evolution codes thanks to phenomenologically derived diffusion coefficients. Recent local numerical simulations (Prat & Ligni\`eres 2013, A&A, 551, L3) suggest that the coefficient for radial turbulent diffusion due to radial differential rotation satisfies $D_{\rm t}\simeq0.058\kappa/Ri$, in qualitative agreement with Zahn's model. However, this model does not apply when differential rotation is strong with respect to stable thermal stratification or when chemical stratification has a significant dynamical effect, a situation encountered at the outer boundary of nuclear burning convective cores. We extend our numerical study to consider the effects of chemical stratification and of strong shear, and compare with prescriptions used in stellar evolution codes. We perform local, direct numerical simulations of stably stratified, homogeneous, sheared turbulence in the Boussinesq approximation. The regime of large thermal diffusivities, typical of stellar radiative zones, is reached thanks to the so-called small-P\'eclet-number approximation, which is an asymptotic development of the Boussinesq equations in this regime. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient with respect to chemical stratification is explored in this approximation. Maeder's extension of Zahn's model in the strong-shear regime is not supported by our results, which are better described by a model found in the geophysical literature. As regards the effect of chemical stratification, our quantitative estimate of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the mean gradient of mean molecular weight leads to the formula $D_{\rm t}\simeq 0.45\kappa(0.12-Ri_\mu)/Ri$, which is compatible in the weak-shear regime with the model of Maeder & Meynet (1996, A&A, 313, 140).

[46]  arXiv:1404.6208 [pdf, other]
Title: A Numerical Method for Studying Super-Eddington Mass Transfer in Double White Dwarf Binaries
Comments: 55 pages, 19 figures
Journal-ref: Astrophysical Journal Supplement, Volume 199, Page 35 (2012)
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We present a numerical method for the study of double white dwarf (DWD) binary systems at the onset of super-Eddington mass transfer. We incorporate the physics of ideal inviscid hydrodynamical flow, Newtonian self-gravity, and radiation transport on a three-dimensional uniformly rotating cylindrical Eulerian grid. Care has been taken to conserve the key physical quantities such as angular momentum and energy. Our new method conserves total energy to a higher degree of accuracy than other codes that are presently being used to model mass-transfer in DWD systems. We present the results of verification tests and we simulate the first 20+ orbits of a binary system of mass ratio q = 0.7 at the onset of dynamically unstable direct impact mass transfer. The mass transfer rate quickly exceeds the critical Eddington limit by many orders of magnitude, and thus we are unable to model a trans-Eddington phase. It appears that radiation pressure does not significantly effect the accretion flow in the highly super-Eddington regime. An optically thick common envelope forms around the binary within a few orbits. Although this envelope quickly exceeds the spatial domain of the computational grid, the fraction of the common envelope that exceeds zero gravitational binding energy is extremely small, suggesting that radiation-driven mass loss is insignificant in this regime. It remains to be seen whether simulations that capture the trans-Eddington phase of such flows will lead to the same conclusion or show that substantial material gets expelled.

[47]  arXiv:1404.6237 [pdf, other]
Title: Is the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic-Ray Excess Observed by the Telescope Array Correlated with IceCube Neutrinos?
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The Telescope Array (TA) has observed a statistically significant excess in cosmic-rays with energies above 57 EeV in a region of approximately 1150 square degrees centered on coordinates (R.A. = 146.7, Dec. = 43.2). We note that the location of this excess correlates with two of the 28 extraterrestrial neutrinos recently observed by IceCube. The overlap between the two IceCube neutrinos and the TA excess is statistically significant at the 2$\sigma$ level. Furthermore, the spectrum and intensity of the IceCube neutrinos is consistent with a single power-law emission spectrum which would also produce the TA excess. Finally, the location of the excess is also spatially coincident with the blazar Mkr 421. If this association is confirmed by future data, this may prove to be the first ultra-high energy cosmic-ray point source.

[48]  arXiv:1404.6248 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The Nature of Scientific Proof in the Age of Simulations
Authors: Kevin Heng
Comments: Published in American Scientist: Volume 102, Number 3, Pages 174 to 177 (this http URL)
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM); Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

Is numerical mimicry a third way of establishing truth?