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J.P. Magué & B. Ménard



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[1]  arXiv:1704.08252 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Chemical Enhancements in Shock-accelerated Particles: Ab-initio Simulations
Authors: Damiano Caprioli (1 and 2), Dennis T. Yi (2), Anatoly Spitkovsky (2) ((1) University of Chicago, (2) Princeton University)
Comments: 6 pages, 4 figures, submitted to PRL
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); High Energy Physics - Theory (hep-th); Geophysics (physics.geo-ph); Plasma Physics (physics.plasm-ph)

We study the thermalization, injection, and acceleration of ions with different mass/charge ratios, $A/Z$, in non-relativistic collisionless shocks via hybrid (kinetic ions-fluid electrons) simulations. In general, ions thermalize to a post-shock temperature proportional to $A$. When diffusive shock acceleration is efficient, ions develop a non-thermal tail whose extent scales with $Z$ and whose normalization is enhanced as $(A/Z)^2$, so that incompletely-ionized heavy ions are preferentially accelerated. We discuss how these findings can explain observed heavy-ion enhancements in Galactic cosmic rays.

[2]  arXiv:1704.08254 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: On the deuterium abundance and the importance of stellar mass loss in the interstellar and intergalactic medium
Authors: Freeke van de Voort (1 and 2), Eliot Quataert (3), Claude-André Faucher-Giguère (4), Dušan Kereš (5), Philip F. Hopkins (6), T. K. Chan (5), Robert Feldmann (7), Zachary Hafen (4) ((1) HITS (2) Yale (3) UC Berkeley (4) Northwestern (5) UCSD (6) Caltech (7) Zurich)
Comments: Submitted to MNRAS. Comments welcome
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We quantify the gas-phase abundance of deuterium in cosmological zoom-in simulations from the Feedback In Realistic Environments project. The cosmic deuterium fraction decreases with time, because mass lost from stars is deuterium-free. At low metallicity, our simulations confirm that the deuterium abundance is very close to the primordial value. The deuterium abundance decreases towards higher metallicity, with very small scatter between the deuterium and oxygen abundance. We compare our simulations to existing high-redshift observations in order to determine a primordial deuterium fraction of (2.549 +/- 0.033) x 10^-5 and stress that future observations at higher metallicity can also be used to constrain this value. At fixed metallicity, the deuterium fraction decreases slightly with decreasing redshift, due to the increased importance of mass loss from intermediate-mass stars. We find that the evolution of the average deuterium fraction in a galaxy correlates with its star formation history. Our simulations are consistent with observations of the Milky Way's interstellar medium: the deuterium fraction at the solar circle is 83-92% of the primordial deuterium fraction. We use our simulations to make predictions for future observations. In particular, the deuterium abundance is lower at smaller galactocentric radii and in higher mass galaxies, showing that stellar mass loss is more important for fuelling star formation in these regimes (and can even dominate). Gas accreting onto galaxies has a deuterium fraction above that of the galaxies' interstellar medium, but below the primordial fraction, because it is a mix of gas accreting from the intergalactic medium and gas previously ejected or stripped from galaxies.

[3]  arXiv:1704.08255 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Constraining the mass of accreting black holes in ultraluminous X-ray sources with ultrafast outflows
Authors: Davide Fiacconi (1,2), Ciro Pinto (1), Dominic J. Walton (1), Andrew C. Fabian (1) ((1) Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, (2) Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge)
Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures, 1 table, accepted for publication in MNRAS Letters
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

The nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) -- off-nuclear extra-galactic sources with luminosity, assumed isotropic, $\gtrsim 10^{39}$ erg s$^{-1}$ -- is still debated. One possibility is that ULXs are stellar black holes accreting beyond the Eddington limit. This view has been recently reinforced by the discovery of ultrafast outflows at $\sim 0.1$-$0.2c$ in the high resolution spectra of a handful of ULXs, as predicted by models of supercritical accretion discs. Under the assumption that ULXs are powered by super-Eddington accretion onto black holes, we use the properties of the observed outflows to self-consistently constrain their masses and accretion rates. We find masses $\lesssim 100$ M$_{\odot}$ and typical accretion rates $\sim 10^{-5}$ M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, i.e. $\approx 10$ times larger than the Eddington limit calculated with a radiative efficiency of 0.1. However, the emitted luminosity is only $\approx 10\%$ beyond the Eddington luminosity, because most of the energy released in the inner part of the accretion disc is used to accelerate the wind, which implies radiative efficiency $\sim 0.01$. Our results are consistent with a formation model where ULXs are black hole remnants of massive stars evolved in low-metallicity environments.

[4]  arXiv:1704.08258 [pdf, other]
Title: Probing dark matter annihilation in the Galaxy with antiprotons and gamma rays
Comments: 11 pages + references, 4 figures
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph)

A possible hint of dark matter annihilation has been found in Cuoco, Korsmeier and Kr\"amer (2017) from an analysis of recent cosmic-ray antiproton data from AMS-02 and taking into account cosmic-ray propagation uncertainties by fitting at the same time dark matter and propagation parameters. Here, we extend this analysis to a wider class of annihilation channels. We find consistent hints of a dark matter signal with an annihilation cross-section close to the thermal value and with masses in range between 40 and 130 GeV depending on the annihilation channel. Furthermore, we investigate in how far the possible signal is compatible with the Galactic center gamma-ray excess and recent observation of dwarf satellite galaxies by performing a joint global fit including uncertainties in the dark matter density profile. As an example, we interpret our results in the framework of the Higgs portal model.

[5]  arXiv:1704.08260 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Novel modelling of ultra-compact X-ray binary evolution - stable mass transfer from white dwarfs to neutron stars
Comments: 6 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS Letters
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

Tight binaries of helium white dwarfs (He WDs) orbiting millisecond pulsars (MSPs) will eventually "merge" due to gravitational damping of the orbit. The outcome has been predicted to be the production of long-lived ultra-compact X-ray binaries (UCXBs), in which the WD transfers material to the accreting neutron star (NS). Here we present complete numerical computations, for the first time, of such stable mass transfer from a He WD to a NS. We have calculated a number of complete binary stellar evolution tracks, starting from pre-LMXB systems, and evolved these to detached MSP+WD systems and further on to UCXBs. The minimum orbital period is found to be as short as 5.6 minutes. We followed the subsequent widening of the systems until the donor stars become planets with a mass of ~0.005 Msun after roughly a Hubble time. Our models are able to explain the properties of observed UCXBs with high helium abundances and we can identify these sources on the ascending or descending branch in a diagram displaying mass-transfer rate vs. orbital period.

[6]  arXiv:1704.08261 [pdf, other]
Title: Lessons from the Auriga discs: The hunt for the Milky Way's ex-situ disc is not yet over
Comments: 13 pages, 11 figures, submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We characterize the contribution from accreted material to the galactic discs of the Auriga Project, a set of high resolution magnetohydrodynamic cosmological simulations of late-type galaxies performed with the moving-mesh code AREPO. Our goal is to explore whether a significant accreted (or ex-situ) stellar component in the Milky Way disc could be hidden within the near-circular orbit population, which is strongly dominated by stars born in-situ. One third of our models shows a significant ex-situ disc but this fraction would be larger if constraints on orbital circularity were relaxed. Most of the ex-situ material ($\gtrsim 50\%$) comes from single massive satellites ($> 6 \times 10^{10}~M_{\odot}$). These satellites are accreted with a wide range of infall times and inclination angles (up to $85^{\circ}$). Ex-situ discs are thicker, older and more metal-poor than their in-situ counterparts. They show a flat median age profile, which differs from the negative gradient observed in the in-situ component. As a result, the likelihood of identifying an ex-situ disc in samples of old stars on near-circular orbits increases towards the outskirts of the disc. We show three examples that, in addition to ex-situ discs, have a strongly rotating dark matter component. Interestingly, two of these ex-situ stellar discs show an orbital circularity distribution that is consistent with that of the in-situ disc. Thus, they would not be detected in typical kinematic studies.

[7]  arXiv:1704.08264 [pdf, other]
Title: A Massive Prestellar Clump Hosting no High-Mass Cores
Comments: 20 pages, 4 figures, Accepted in ApJ
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

The Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.23-00.19 hosts a massive (1,500 Msun), cold (12 K), and 3.6-70 um IR dark clump (MM1) that has the potential to form high-mass stars. We observed this prestellar clump candidate with the SMA (~3.5" resolution) and JVLA (~2.1" resolution) in order to characterize the early stages of high-mass star formation and to constrain theoretical models. Dust emission at 1.3 mm wavelength reveals 5 cores with masses <15 Msun. None of the cores currently have the mass reservoir to form a high-mass star in the prestellar phase. If the MM1 clump will ultimately form high-mass stars, its embedded cores must gather a significant amount of additional mass over time. No molecular outflows are detected in the CO (2-1) and SiO (5-4) transitions, suggesting that the SMA cores are starless. By using the NH3 (1,1) line, the velocity dispersion of the gas is determined to be transonic or mildly supersonic (DeltaV_nt}/DeltaV_th ~1.1-1.8). The cores are not highly supersonic as some theories of high-mass star formation predict. The embedded cores are 4 to 7 times more massive than the clump thermal Jeans mass and the most massive core (SMA1) is 9 times less massive than the clump turbulent Jeans mass. These values indicate that neither thermal pressure nor turbulent pressure dominates the fragmentation of MM1. The low virial parameters of the cores (0.1-0.5) suggest that they are not in virial equilibrium, unless strong magnetic fields of ~1-2 mG are present. We discuss high-mass star formation scenarios in a context based on IRDC G028.23-00.19, a study case believed to represent the initial fragmentation of molecular clouds that will form high-mass stars.

[8]  arXiv:1704.08266 [pdf, other]
Title: $Suzaku$ Measurements of Hot Halo Emission at Outskirts for Two Poor Galaxy Groups: NGC 3402 and NGC 5129
Comments: 34 pages, 12 figures and 9 tables
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We present $Suzaku$ off-center observations of two poor galaxy groups, NGC 3402 and NGC 5129, with temperatures below 1 keV. Through spectral decomposition, we measure their surface brightnesses and temperatures out to 330 and 680 times the critical density of the universe for NGC 3402 and NGC 5129, respectively. These quantities are consistent with extrapolations from existing inner measurements of the two groups. With the refined X-ray luminosities, both groups prefer $L_X-T$ relations without a break in the group regime. Furthermore, we measure the electron number densities and hydrostatic masses at these radii. We find that the electron number density profiles require three $\beta$ model components, with nearly flat slopes in the 3$^{rd}$ $\beta$ component for both groups. However, we find the effective slope in the outskirts to be $\beta_{out}$ = 0.59 and 0.49 for NGC 3402 and NGC 5129, respectively. Adding the gas mass measured from the X-ray data and stellar mass from group galaxy members, we measure baryon fractions of $f_b$ = 0.113 $\pm$ 0.013 and 0.091 $\pm$ 0.006 for NGC 3402 and NGC 5129, respectively. Combining other poor groups with well measured X-ray emission to the outskirts, we find an average baryon fraction of $f_{b,ave}$ = 0.100 $\pm$ 0.004 for X-ray bright groups with temperatures between 0.8$-$1.3 keV, extending existing constraints to lower mass systems.

[9]  arXiv:1704.08274 [pdf, other]
Title: Dusty spirals versus gas kinematics in the inner kiloparsec of Four Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei
Comments: 20 pages, accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We used the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph Integral Field Unit to map the gas distribution, excitation and kinematics within the inner kiloparsec of four nearby low-luminosity active galaxies: NGC3982, NGC4501, NGC2787 and NGC4450. The observations cover the spectral range 5600-7000{\AA} at a velocity resolution of 120km/s and spatial resolution ranging from 50 to 70pc at the galaxies. Extended emission in H{\alpha}, [NII]{\lambda}{\lambda}6548,6583, [SII]{\lambda}{\lambda}6716,6730 over most of the field-of-view is observed for all galaxies, while only NGC3982 shows [OI]{\lambda}6300 extended emission. The H{\alpha} equivalent widths combined with the [NII]/H{\alpha} line ratios reveal that NGC3982 and NGC4450 harbor Seyfert nuclei surrounded by regions with LINER excitation, while NGC2787 and NGC4501 harbor LINER nuclei. NGC3982 shows a partial ring of recent star-formation at 500pc from the nucleus, while in NGC4501 a region at 500pc west of the nucleus shows LINER excitation but has been interpreted as an aging HII region with the gas excitation dominated by shocks from supernovae. The line-of-sight velocity field of the gas shows a rotation pattern for all galaxies, with deviations from pure disk rotation observed in NGC3982, NGC4501 and NGC4450. For NGC4501 and NGC4450, many of these deviations are spatially coincident with dust structures seen in optical continuum images, leading to the interpretation that the deviations are due to shocks in the gas traced by the dust. A speculation is that these shocks lead to loss of angular momentum, allowing the gas to be transferred inwards to feed the AGN. In the case of NGC2787, instead of deviations in the rotation field, we see a misalignment of 40{^\circ} between the orientation of the line of nodes of the gas rotation and the photometric major axis of the galaxy. Evidence of compact nuclear outflows are seen in NGC4501 and NGC4450.

[10]  arXiv:1704.08278 [pdf, other]
Title: Redshifts for galaxies in radio continuum surveys from Bayesian model fitting of HI 21-cm lines
Comments: 10 pages, 8 figures, comments welcome. The anaylsis code is available at this https URL The busy read should direct their attention to Figure 4. Submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

We introduce a new Bayesian HI spectral line fitting technique capable of obtaining spectroscopic redshifts for millions of galaxies in radio surveys with the Square Kilometere Array (SKA). This technique is especially well-suited to the low signal-to-noise regime that the redshifted 21-cm HI emission line is expected to be observed in, especially with SKA Phase 1, allowing for robust source detection. After selecting a set of continuum objects relevant to large, cosmological-scale surveys with the first phase of the SKA dish array (SKA1-MID), we simulate data corresponding to their HI line emission as observed by the same telescope. We then use the MultiNest nested sampling code to find the best-fitting parametrised line profile, providing us with a full joint posterior probability distribution for the galaxy properties, including redshift. This provides high quality redshifts, with redshift errors $\Delta z / z <10^{-5}$, from radio data alone for some 1.8 million galaxies in a representative 5000 square degree survey with the SKA1-MID instrument with up-to-date sensitivity profiles. Interestingly, we find that the SNR definition commonly used in forecast papers does not correlate well with the actual detectability of an HI line using our method. We further detail how our method could be improved with per-object priors and how it may be also used to give robust constraints on other observables such as the HI mass function. We also make our line fitting code publicly available for application to other data sets.

[11]  arXiv:1704.08282 [pdf, other]
Title: Phosphorus Abundances in FGK Stars
Comments: 11 pages, 5 figures, Accepted to ApJ
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We measured phosphorus abundances in 22 FGK dwarfs and giants that span --0.55 $<$ [Fe/H] $<$ 0.2 using spectra obtained with the Phoenix high resolution infrared spectrometer on the Kitt Peak National Observatory Mayall 4m telescope, the Gemini South Telescope, and the Arcturus spectral atlas. We fit synthetic spectra to the P I feature at 10581 $\AA$ to determine abundances for our sample. Our results are consistent with previously measured phosphorus abundances; the average [P/Fe] ratio measured in [Fe/H] bins of 0.2 dex for our stars are within $\sim$ 1 $\sigma$ compared to averages from other IR phosphorus studies. Our study provides more evidence that models of chemical evolution using the results of theoretical yields are under producing phosphorus compared to the observed abundances. Our data better fit a chemical evolution model with phosphorus yields increased by a factor of 2.75 compared to models with unadjusted yields. We also found average [P/Si] = 0.02 $\pm$ 0.07 and [P/S] = 0.15 $\pm$ 0.15 for our sample, showing no significant deviations from the solar ratios for [P/Si] and [P/S] ratios.

[12]  arXiv:1704.08284 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: EPIC 210894022b - A short period super-Earth transiting a metal poor, evolved old star
Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The star EPIC 210894022 has been identified from a light curve acquired through the K2 space mission as possibly orbited by a transiting planet. Our aim is to confirm the planetary nature of the object and derive its fundamental parameters. We combine the K2 photometry with reconnaissance spectroscopy and radial velocity (RV) measurements obtained using three separate telescope and spectrograph combinations. The spectroscopic synthesis package SME has been used to derive the stellar photospheric parameters that were used as input to various stellar evolutionary tracks in order to derive the parameters of the system. The planetary transit was also validated to occur on the assumed host star through adaptive imaging and statistical analysis. The star is found to be located in the background of the Hyades cluster at a distance at least 4 times further away from Earth than the cluster itself. The spectrum and the space velocities of EPIC 210894022 strongly suggest it to be a member of the thick disk population. We find that the star is a metal poor ([Fe/H]=-0.53+/-0.05 dex) and alpha-rich somewhat evolved solar-like object of spectral type G3 with Teff=5730+/-50 K, logg=4.15+/-0.1 (cgs), radius of 1.3+/-0.1 R_Sun, and mass of 0.88+/-0.02 M_Sun. The RV detection together with the imaging confirms with a high level of significance that the transit signature is caused by a super-Earth orbiting the star EPIC 210894022. We measure a mass of 8.6+/-3.9 M_Earth and a radius of 1.9+/-0.2 R_Earth. A second more massive object with a period longer than about 120 days is indicated by a long term linear acceleration. With an age of > 10 Gyrs this system is one of the oldest where planets is hitherto detected. Further studies of this planetary system is important since it contains information about the planetary formation process during a very early epoch of the history of our Galaxy.

[13]  arXiv:1704.08296 [pdf, other]
Title: X-ray constraints on the fraction of obscured AGN at high accretion luminosities
Comments: MNRAS accepted
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

The wide-area XMM-XXL X-ray survey is used to explore the fraction of obscured AGN at high accretion luminosities, $L_X (\rm 2-10 \, keV) > 10^{44} \, erg \,s ^{-1}$, and out to redshift $z\approx1.5$. The sample covers an area of about $\rm14\,deg^2$ and provides constraints on the space density of powerful AGN over a wide range of neutral hydrogen column densities extending beyond the Compton-thick limit, $\rm N_H\approx10^{24}\,cm^{-2}$. The fraction of obscured Compton-thin ($\rm N_H=10^{22}-10^{24}\,cm^{-2}$) AGN is estimated to be $\approx0.35$ for luminosities $L_X(\rm 2-10\,keV)>10^{44}\,erg\,s^{-1}$ independent of redshift. For less luminous sources the fraction of obscured Compton-thin AGN increases from $0.45\pm0.10$ at $z=0.25$ to $0.75\pm0.05$ at $z=1.25$. Studies that select AGN in the infrared via template fits to the observed Spectral Energy Distribution of extragalactic sources estimate space densities at high accretion luminosities consistent with the XMM-XXL constraints. There is no evidence for a large population of AGN (e.g. heavily obscured) identified in the infrared and missed at X-ray wavelengths. We further explore the mid-infrared colours of XMM-XXL AGN as a function of accretion luminosity, column density and redshift. The fraction of XMM-XXL sources that lie within the mid-infrared colour wedges defined in the literature to select AGN is primarily a function of redshift. This fraction increases from about 20-30% at z=0.25 to about 50-70% at $z=1.5$.

[14]  arXiv:1704.08298 [pdf, other]
Title: Relativistic Jets in Core Collapse Supernovae
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

After several decades of extensive research the mechanism driving core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) is still unclear. A common mechanism is a neutrino driven outflow, but others have been proposed. Among those, a long-standing idea is that jets play an important role in SN explosions. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that accompany rare and powerful CCSNe, sometimes called "hypernovae", provide a clear evidence for a jet activity. The relativistic GRB jet punches a hole in the stellar envelope and produces the observed gamma-rays far outside the progenitor star. While SNe and jets coexist in long GRBs, the relation between the mechanisms driving the hypernova and the jet is unknown. Also unclear is the relation between the rare hypernovae and the more common CCSNe. Here we {present observational evidence that indicates} that choked jets are active in CCSNe types that are not associated with GRBs. A choked jet deposits all its energy in a cocoon. The cocoon eventually breaks out from the star releasing energetic material at very high, yet sub-relativistic, velocities. This fast moving material has a unique signature that can be detected in early time SN spectra. We find a clear evidence for this signature in several CCSNe, all involving progenitors that have lost all, or most, of their hydrogen envelope prior to the explosion. These include CCSNe that don't harbor GRBs or any other relativistic outflows. Our findings suggest a continuum of central engine activities in different types of CCSNe and call for rethinking of the explosion mechanism of regular CCSNe

[15]  arXiv:1704.08301 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: FRB as Products of Accretion Disc Funnels
Authors: J. I. Katz
Comments: 3 pp
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The repeating FRB 121102, the only FRB with an accurately determined position, is associated with a variable persistent radio source consistent with a low luminosity active galactic nucleus. I suggest that FRB originate in the accretion disc funnels of intermediate mass black holes. Narrowly collimated radiation is emitted along the wandering instantaneous angular momentum axis of accreted matter. We observe this emission as a fast radio burst when it sweeps across the direction to the observer. This model constrains the mass of the black hole to values below those of galactic nuclei. It predicts, in contrast to neutron star (pulsar or SGR) models, that repeating FRB will not be periodic and will be co-located with persistent but variable radio sources resulting from the off-axis emission. The model is analogous, on smaller spatial, lower mass and accretion rate and shorter temporal scales, to AGN making double radio sources, with FRB corresponding to blazars in which the jets point toward us.

[16]  arXiv:1704.08325 [pdf]
Title: Light Curve Modelling and Evolutionary Status of the Short Period Binary 1SWASP J092328.76+435044
Comments: 14 pages
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Light curve modeling for the newly discovered system 1SWASP J092328.76+435044 was carried out by using a new BVR complete light curves. A spotted model was applied to treat the asymmetry of the light curves. The output model was obtained by means of Wilson-Devinney code, which reveals that the massive component is hotter than the less massive one with about \Delta T ~ 400K. A total of 8 new times of minima were estimated. The evolutionary state of the system components was investigated based on the estimated physical parameters.

[17]  arXiv:1704.08336 [pdf, other]
Title: Properties of Strong and Weak Propellers from MHD Simulations
Comments: 31 pages, 23 figures, submitted to New Astronomy
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We investigate the properties of magnetized stars in the propeller regime using axisymmetric numerical simulations. We modelled the propeller regime for stars with realistically large magnetospheres (5-7 stellar radii), so that our results could be applied to different types of magnetized stars, including Classical T Tauri stars, cataclysmic variables, and accreting millisecond pulsars. A wide range of propeller strengths has been studied, from very strong propellers (where the magnetosphere rotates much more rapidly than the inner disk) to very weak propellers (where the magnetosphere rotates only slightly faster than the inner disc. In both propellers, matter is accumulated at the inner disc for the majority of the time, while episodes of accretion onto the star and ejection into the wind are relatively brief. The efficiency of the propeller, which characterizes the part of inner disk matter flowing into the wind, strongly depends on the fastness parameter omega_s: propeller efficiency increases with omega_s. The properties of the winds are different in strong and weak propellers. In the strong propellers, matter is accelerated rapidly above the escape velocity and flows at a relatively small opening angle of 40-45 degrees. In the weak propellers, matter may flow faster or slower than the escape velocity and at a large opening angle of 60-70 degrees. A star-disk system loses energy and angular momentum. A part of the rotational energy of the star is ejected to the magnetically-dominated (Poynting flux) jet, which is only present in the strong propellers. The other part of the energy flows from the inner disk into a propeller-driven wind. A star spins down partly due to the flow of angular momentum from the star to the corona or to the Poynting flux jet along the open field lines, and partly due to the flow of angular momentum to the inner disk along the closed field lines.

[18]  arXiv:1704.08342 [pdf, other]
Title: Can interacting dark energy solve the $H_0$ tension?
Comments: 10 pages, 6 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

The answer is Yes! We indeed find that interacting dark energy can alleviate the current tension on the value of the Hubble constant $H_0$ between the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies constraints obtained from the Planck satellite and the recent direct measurements reported by Riess et al. 2016. The combination of these two datasets points towards an evidence for a non-zero dark matter-dark energy coupling $\xi$ at more than two standard deviations, with $\xi=-0.26_{-0.12}^{+0.16}$ at $95\%$ CL. However the $H_0$ tension is better solved when the equation of state of the interacting dark energy component is allowed to freely vary, with a phantom-like equation of state $w=-1.184\pm0.064$ (at $68 \%$ CL), ruling out the pure cosmological constant case, $w=-1$, again at more than two standard deviations. When Planck data are combined with external datasets, as BAO, JLA Supernovae Ia luminosity distances, cosmic shear or lensing data, we find good consistency with the cosmological constant scenario and no compelling evidence for a dark matter-dark energy coupling.

[19]  arXiv:1704.08348 [pdf, other]
Title: No evidence for feedback: Unexceptional Low-ionization winds in Host galaxies of Low Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei at Redshift z ~1
Comments: 24 pages, 11 figures, accepted in ApJ
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We study winds in 12 X-ray AGN host galaxies at z ~ 1. We find, using the low-ionization Fe II 2586 absorption in the stacked spectra, that the probability distribution function (PDF) of the centroid velocity shift in AGN has a median, 16th and 84th percentiles of (-87, -251, +86) km/s respectively. The PDF of the velocity dispersion in AGN has a median, 84th and 16th percentile of (139, 253, 52) km/s respectively. The centroid velocity and the velocity dispersions are obtained from a two component (ISM+wind) absorption line model. The equivalent width PDF of the outflow in AGN has median, 84th and 16th percentiles of (0.4, 0.8, 0.1) Angstrom. There is a strong ISM component in Fe II 2586 absorption with (1.2, 1.5, 0.8) Angstrom, implying presence of substantial amount cold gas in the host galaxies. For comparison, star-forming and X-ray undetected galaxies at a similar redshift, matched roughly in stellar mass and galaxy inclination, have a centroid velocity PDF with percentiles of (-74, -258, +90) km/s, and a velocity dispersion PDF percentiles of (150, 259, 57) km/s. Thus, winds in the AGN are similar to star-formation-driven winds, and are too weak to escape and expel substantial cool gas from galaxies. Our sample doubles the previous sample of AGN studied at z ~ 0.5 and extends the analysis to z ~ 1. A joint reanalysis of the z ~ 0.5 AGN sample and our sample yields consistent results to the measurements above.

[20]  arXiv:1704.08363 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: An Expanded Chemo-dynamical Sample of Red Giants in the Bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud
Authors: Ying-Yi Song (1), Mario Mateo (1), Matthew G. Walker (2), Ian U. Roederer (1 and 3) ((1) University of Michigan, USA, (2) Carnegie Mellon University, USA, (3) JINA-CEE, USA)
Comments: 21 pages, 11 figures, 6 tables, accepted for publication in AJ
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We report new spectroscopic observations obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System of 308 red giants (RGs) located in two fields near the photometric center of the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud. This sample consists of 131 stars observed in previous studies (in one field) and 177 newly-observed stars (in the second field) selected specifically to more reliably establish the metallicity and age distributions of the bar. For each star, we measure its heliocentric line-of-sight velocity, surface gravity and metallicity from its high-resolution spectrum (effective temperatures come from photometric colors). The spectroscopic Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams---modulo small offsets in surface gravities---reveal good agreement with model isochrones. The mean metallicity of the 177-RG sample is $\rm [Fe/H]=-0.76\pm0.02$ with a metallicity dispersion $\sigma=0.28\pm0.03$. The corresponding metallicity distribution---corrected for selection effects---is well fitted by two Gaussian components: one metal-rich with a mean $-0.66\pm0.02$ and a standard deviation $0.17\pm0.01$, and the other metal-poor with $-1.20\pm0.24$ and $0.41\pm0.06$. The metal-rich and metal-poor populations contain approximately 85% and 15% of stars, respectively. We also confirm the velocity dispersion in the bar center decreases significantly from $31.2\pm4.3$ to $18.7\pm1.9$ km s$^{-1}$ with increasing metallicity over the range $-2.09$ to $-0.38$. Individual stellar masses are estimated using the spectroscopic surface gravities and the known luminosities. We find that lower mass hence older RGs have larger metallicity dispersion and lower mean metallicity than the higher-mass, younger RGs. The estimated masses, however, extend to implausibly low values ($\rm \sim 0.1~M_{\odot}$) making it impossible to obtain an absolute age-metallicity or age distribution of the bar.

[21]  arXiv:1704.08366 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Measurement of the small-scale structure of the intergalactic medium using close quasar pairs
Comments: Accepted for publication on Science
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

The distribution of diffuse gas in the intergalactic medium (IGM) imprints a series of hydrogen absorption lines on the spectra of distant background quasars known as the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest. Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations predict that IGM density fluctuations are suppressed below a characteristic scale where thermal pressure balances gravity. We measured this pressure-smoothing scale by quantifying absorption correlations in a sample of close quasar pairs. We compared our measurements to hydrodynamical simulations, where pressure smoothing is determined by the integrated thermal history of the IGM. Our findings are consistent with standard models for photoionization heating by the ultraviolet radiation backgrounds that reionized the universe.

[22]  arXiv:1704.08367 [pdf, other]
Title: The MUSE view of He 2-10: no AGN ionization but a sparkling starburst
Comments: 11 pages, 8 Figures, Accepted for publication in A&A
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We study the physical and dynamical properties of the ionized gas in the prototypical HII galaxy Henize 2-10 using MUSE integral field spectroscopy. The large scale dynamics is dominated by extended outflowing bubbles, probably the results of massive gas ejection from the central star forming regions. We derive a mass outflow rate dMout/dt~0.30 Msun/yr, corresponding to mass loading factor eta~0.4, in range with similar measurements in local LIRGs. Such a massive outflow has a total kinetic energy that is sustainable by the stellar winds and Supernova Remnants expected in the galaxy. We use classical emission line diagnostic to study the dust extinction, electron density and ionization conditions all across the galaxy, confirming the extreme nature of the highly star forming knots in the core of the galaxy, which show high density and high ionization parameter. We measure the gas phase metallicity in the galaxy taking into account the strong variation of the ionization parameter, finding that the external parts of the galaxy have abundances as low as 12 + log(O/H)~8.3, while the central star forming knots are highly enriched with super solar metallicity. We find no sign of AGN ionization in the galaxy, despite the recent claim of the presence of a super massive active Black Hole in the core of He~2-10. We therefore reanalyze the X-ray data that were used to propose the presence of the AGN, but we conclude that the observed X-ray emission can be better explained with sources of a different nature, such as a Supernova Remnant.

[23]  arXiv:1704.08370 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Determining the population properties of spinning black holes
Comments: 10 pages, 5 figures, 1 table. Submitted to PRD
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

There are at least two formation scenarios consistent with the first gravitational-wave observations of binary black hole mergers. In field models, black hole binaries are formed from stellar binaries that may undergo common envelope evolution. In dynamic models, black hole binaries are formed through capture events in globular clusters. Both classes of models are subject to significant theoretical uncertainties. Nonetheless, the conventional wisdom holds that the distribution of spin orientations of dynamically merging black holes is nearly isotropic while field-model black holes prefer to spin in alignment with the orbital angular momentum. We present a framework in which observations of black hole mergers can be used to measure ensemble properties of black hole spin such as the typical black hole spin misalignment. We show how to obtain constraints on population hyperparameters using minimal assumptions so that the results are not strongly dependent on the uncertain physics of formation models. These data-driven constraints will facilitate tests of theoretical models and help determine the formation history of binary black holes using information encoded in their observed spins. We demonstrate that the ensemble properties of binary detections can be used to search for and characterize the properties of two distinct populations of black hole mergers.

[24]  arXiv:1704.08431 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Water abundance in four of the brightest water sources in the southern sky
Comments: Published in RAA. 11 figures
Journal-ref: RAA, 16, 39 (2016)
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We estimated the ortho-{\rm{H$_2$O}} abundances of G267.9--1.1, G268.4--0.9, G333.1--0.4 and G336.5--1.5, four of the brightest ortho-{\rm{H$_2$O}} sources in the southern sky observed by the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (ortho-{\rm{H$_2$O}} 1$_{10}$ -- 1$_{01}$ line, 556.936~GHz). The typical molecular clumps in our sample have H$_2$ column densities of $10 ^{22}$ to $10 ^{23}${\,}cm$^{-2}$ and ortho-{\rm{H$_2$O}} abundances of 10$^{-10}$. Compared with previous studies, the ortho-{\rm{H$_2$O}} abundances are at a low level, which can be caused by the low temperatures of these clumps. To estimate the ortho-{\rm{H$_2$O}} abundances, we used the CS $J = 2 \to 1$ line (97.98095~GHz) and CS $J = 5 \to 4$ (244.93556~GHz) line observed by{ the} Swedish-ESO 15\,m Submillimeter Telescope (SEST) to calculate the temperatures of the clumps and the 350~$\upmu$m dust continuum observed by{ the} Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) telescope to estimate the H$_2$ column densities. The observations of {\rm{N$_2$H$^+$}} ($J = 1 \to 0$) for these clumps were also acquired by SEST and the corresponding abundances were estimated. The {\rm{N$_2$H$^+$}} abundance in each clump shows a common decreasing trend toward the center and {a} typical abundance range from 10$^{-11}$ to 10$^{-9}$.

[25]  arXiv:1704.08433 [pdf, other]
Title: The SAMI Galaxy Survey: Kinematics of Dusty Early-Type Galaxies
Comments: 13 pages, 9 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Recently, large samples of visually classified early-type galaxies (ETGs) containing dust have been identified using space-based infrared observations with the Herschel Space Telescope. The presence of large quantities of dust in massive ETGs is peculiar as X-ray halos of these galaxies are expected to destroy dust in 10 Myr (or less). This has sparked a debate regarding the origin of the dust: is it internally produced by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, or is it accreted externally through mergers? We examine the 2D stellar and ionised gas kinematics of dusty ETGs using IFS observations from the SAMI galaxy survey, and integrated star-formation rates, stellar masses, and dust masses from the GAMA survey. Only 8% (4/49) of visually-classified ETGs are kinematically consistent with being dispersion-supported systems. These "dispersion-dominated galaxies" exhibit discrepancies between stellar and ionised gas kinematics, either offsets in the kinematic position angle or large differences in the rotational velocity, and are outliers in star-formation rate at a fixed dust mass compared to normal star-forming galaxies. These properties are suggestive of recent merger activity. The remaining 90% of dusty ETGs have low velocity dispersions and/or large circular velocities, typical of "rotation-dominated galaxies". These results, along with the general evidence of published works on X-ray emission in ETGs, suggest that they are unlikely to host hot, X-ray gas consistent with their low stellar mass when compared to dispersion-dominated galaxies. This means dust will be long lived and thus these galaxies do not require external scenarios for the origin of their dust content.

[26]  arXiv:1704.08434 [pdf, other]
Title: The Formation of S0 Galaxies with Counter-Rotating Neutral and Molecular Hydrogen
Comments: 16 pages, 11 figues, 3 tables, accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

The observation of counter rotation in galaxies (i.e. gas that rotates in the opposite direction to the stellar component or two co-spatial stellar populations with opposite rotation) is becoming more commonplace with modern integral field spectroscopic surveys. In this paper we explore the emergence of counter-rotation (both stellar and gaseous) in S0 galaxies from smoothed-particle hydrodynamics simulations of 1/10 mass ratio minor mergers between a 10^10.8 solar mass disk galaxy with a bulge-to-total ration of 0.17 and a gas rich companion (gas-to-stellar mass fraction of 5.0). These simulations include a self-consistent treatment of gas dynamics, star formation, the production/destruction of H2 and dust, and the time evolution of the interstellar radiation field. We explore the effect of retrograde versus prograde obits, gas and bulge mass fractions of the primary galaxy, and orbital parameters of the companion. The key requirement for producing counter rotation in stars or gas in a merger remnant is a retrograde primary, while the relative spin of the companion affects only the radial extent of the accreted gas. We also find that including a significant amount of gas in the primary can prevent the emergence of counter-rotating gas, although accreted stars retain counter-rotation. Bulge mass and orbit have a secondary effect, generally influencing the final distribution of accreted stars and gas within the framework outlined above. In addition to our primary focus of counter-rotating components in galaxies, we also make some predictions regarding the SFRs, H2 distributions, and dust in minor merger remnants.

[27]  arXiv:1704.08438 [pdf, other]
Title: An outburst powered by the merging of two stars inside the envelope of a giant
Authors: Shlomi Hillel, Ron Schreier, Noam Soker (Technion, Israel)
Comments: Will be submitted in two days, to allow comments by readers
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We conduct three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of energy deposition into the envelope of a red giant star as a result of the merger of two close main sequence stars or brown dwarfs, and show that the outcome is a highly non-spherical outflow. Such a violent interaction of a triple stellar system can explain the formation of `messy', i.e., lacking any kind of symmetry, planetary nebulae (PNe) and similar nebulae around evolved stars. We do not simulate the merging process, but simply assume that after the tight binary system enters the envelope of the giant star the interaction with the envelope causes the two components, stars or brown dwarfs, to merge and liberate gravitational energy. We deposit the energy over a time period of about nine hours, which is about one per cent of the the orbital period of the merger product around the center of the giant star. The ejection of the fast hot gas and its collision with previously ejected mass are very likely to lead to a transient event, i.e., an intermediate luminosity optical transient (ILOT).

[28]  arXiv:1704.08441 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Fates of the dense cores formed by fragmentation of filaments: do they fragment again or not?
Comments: 13 pages, 11 figures, 4 tables, submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Fragmentation of filaments into dense cores is thought to be an important step in forming stars. The bar-mode instability of spherically collapsing cores found in previous linear analysis invokes a possibility of re-fragmentation of the cores due to their ellipsoidal (prolate or oblate) deformation. To investigate this possibility, here we perform three-dimensional self-gravitational hydrodynamics simulations that follow all the way from filament fragmentation to subsequent core collapse. We assume the gas is polytropic with index \gamma, which determines the stability of the bar-mode. For the case that the fragmentation of isolated hydrostatic filaments is triggered by the most unstable fragmentation mode, we find the bar mode grows as collapse proceeds if \gamma < 1.1, in agreement with the linear analysis. However, it takes more than ten orders-of-magnitude increase in the central density for the distortion to become non-linear. In addition to this fiducial case, we also study non-fiducial ones such as the fragmentation is triggered by a fragmentation mode with a longer wavelength and it occurs during radial collapse of filaments and find the distortion rapidly grows. In most of astrophysical applications, the effective polytropic index of collapsing gas exceeds 1.1 before ten orders-of-magnitude increase in the central density. Thus, supposing the fiducial case of filament fragmentation, re-fragmentation of dense cores would not be likely and their final mass would be determined when the filaments fragment.

[29]  arXiv:1704.08449 [pdf, other]
Title: The full spectral radiative properties of Proxima Centauri
Comments: 12 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysics
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

The discovery of Proxima b, a terrestrial temperate planet, presents the opportunity of studying a potentially habitable world in optimal conditions. A key aspect to model its habitability is to understand the radiation environment of the planet in the full spectral domain. We characterize the X-rays to mid-IR radiative properties of Proxima with the goal of providing the top-of-atmosphere fluxes on the planet. We also aim at constraining the fundamental properties of the star. We employ observations from a large number of facilities and make use of different methodologies to piece together the full spectral energy distribution of Proxima. In the high-energy domain, we pay particular attention to the contribution by rotational modulation, activity cycle, and flares so that the data provided are representative of the overall radiation dose received by the atmosphere of the planet. We present the full spectrum of Proxima covering 0.7 to 30000 nm. The integration of the data shows that the top-of-atmosphere average XUV irradiance on Proxima b is 0.293 W m^-2, i.e., nearly 60 times higher than Earth, and that the total irradiance is 877+/-44 W m^-2, or 64+/-3% of the solar constant but with a significantly redder spectrum. We also provide laws for the XUV evolution of Proxima corresponding to two scenarios. Regarding the fundamental properties of Proxima, we find M=0.120+/-0.003 Msun, R=0.146+/-0.007 Rsun, Teff=2980+/-80 K, and L=0.00151+/-0.00008 Lsun. In addition, our analysis reveals a ~20% excess in the 3-30 micron flux of the star that is best interpreted as arising from warm dust in the system. The data provided here should be useful to further investigate the current atmospheric properties of Proxima b as well as its past history, with the overall aim of firmly establishing the habitability of the planet.

[30]  arXiv:1704.08451 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Confirmation of Large Super-Fast Rotator (144977) 2005 EC127
Comments: 20 pages; 4 figures
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

(144977) 2005 EC127 is an V-/A-type inner-main-belt asteroid with a diameter of 0.6 +- 0.1 km. Asteroids of this size are believed to have rubble-pile structure, and, therefore, cannot have a rotation period shorter than 2.2 hours. However, our measurements show that asteroid 2005 EC127 completes one rotation in 1.65 +- 0.01 hours with a peak-to-peak light-curve variation of ~0.5 mag. Therefore, this asteroid is identified as a large super-fast rotator. Either a rubble-pile asteroid with a bulk density of ~6 g cm^-3 or an asteroid with an internal cohesion of 47 +- 30 Pa can explain 2005 EC127. However, the scenario of high bulk density is very unlikely for asteroids. To date, only six large super-fast rotators, including 2005 EC127, have been reported, and this number is very small when compared with the much more numerous fast rotators. We also note that none of the six reported large SFRs are classified as C-type asteroids.

[31]  arXiv:1704.08461 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Clustering of quasars in a wide luminosity range at redshift 4 with Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam wide field imaging
Comments: 20 pages, 10 figures, submitted to PASJ
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We examine the clustering of quasars over a wide luminosity range, by utilizing 901 quasars at $\overline{z}_{\rm phot}\sim3.8$ with $-24.73<M_{\rm 1450}<-22.23$ photometrically selected from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) S16A Wide2 date release and 342 more luminous quasars at $3.4<z_{\rm spec}<4.6$ having $-28.0<M_{\rm 1450}<-23.95$ from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) that fall in the HSC survey fields. We measure the bias factors of two quasar samples by evaluating the cross-correlation functions (CCFs) between the quasar samples and 25790 bright $z\sim4$ Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) in $M_{\rm 1450}<-21.25$ photometrically selected from the HSC dataset. Over an angular scale of \timeform{10.0"} to \timeform{1000.0"}, the bias factors are $5.93^{+1.34}_{-1.43}$ and $2.73^{+2.44}_{-2.55}$ for the low and high luminosity quasars, respectively, indicating no luminosity dependence of quasar clustering at $z\sim4$. It is noted that the bias factor of the luminous quasars estimated by the CCF is smaller than that estimated by the auto-correlation function (ACF) over a similar redshift range, especially on scales below \timeform{40.0"}. Moreover, the bias factor of the less-luminous quasars implies the minimal mass of their host dark matter halos (DMHs) is $0.3$-$2\times10^{12}h^{-1}M_{\odot}$, corresponding to a quasar duty cycle of $0.001$-$0.06$.

[32]  arXiv:1704.08487 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Optical spectroscopy of the Be/X-ray Binary V850 Cen/GX 304-1 during faint X-ray periodical activity
Comments: 7 pages, 5 figures, Accepted for publication on A&A
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

Be/X-ray binaries are the most populous class of High Mass X-ray Binaries. Their X-ray duty cycle is tightly related to the optical companion wind activity, which in turn can be studied through optical spectroscopical dedicated observations. We study optical spectral features of the Be circumstellar disk to test their long-term variability and their relation with the X-ray activity. Special attention has been given to the H$\alpha$ emission line, that is one of the best tracers of the disk conditions. We obtained optical broadband medium resolution spectra from a dedicated campaign with the Anglo-Australian Telescope and the Southern African Large Telescope in 2014-2015. Data span over one entire binary orbit, and cover both X-ray quiescent and moderately active periods. We used Balmer emission lines to follow the evolution of the circumstellar disk. We observe prominent spectral features, like double-peaked H$\alpha$ and H$\beta$ emission lines. The H$\alpha$ V/R ratio significantly changes over a time scale of about one year. Our observations are consistent with a system observed at a large inclination angle ($i\gtrsim60^{\circ}$). The derived circumstellar disk size shows that the disk evolves from a configuration that prevents accretion onto the neutron star, to one that allows only moderate accretion. This is in agreement with the contemporary observed X-ray activity. Our results are interpreted within the context of inefficient tidal truncation of the circumstellar disk, as expected for this source's binary configuration. We derived the H$\beta$-emitting region size, which results about half of the corresponding H$\alpha$-emitting disk, and constrain the luminosity class of V850 Cen as III-V, consistent with the previously proposed class.}

[33]  arXiv:1704.08494 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Gigahertz-peaked spectra pulsars and thermal absorption model
Comments: Accepted for publication in ApJ, 28 pages, 8 figures
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We present the results of our radio interferometric observations of pulsars at 325 MHz and 610 MHz using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We used the imaging method to estimate the flux densities of several pulsars at these radio frequencies. The analysis of the shapes of the pulsar spectra allowed us to identify five new gigahertz-peaked spectra (GPS) pulsars. Using the hypothesis that the spectral turnovers are caused by thermal free-free absorption in the interstellar medium, we modeled the spectra of all known objects of this kind. Using the model, we were able to put some observational constrains on the physical parameters of the absorbing matter, which allows us to distinguish between the possible sources of absorption. We also discuss the possible effects of the existence of GPS pulsars on future search surveys, showing that the optimal frequency range for finding such objects would be from a few GHz (for regular GPS sources) to possibly 10 GHz for pulsars and radio-magnetars exhibiting very strong absorption.

[34]  arXiv:1704.08495 [pdf, other]
Title: Effect of the Early Reionization on the Cosmic Microwave Background and Cosmological Parameter Estimates
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph); High Energy Physics - Theory (hep-th)

The early reionization (ERE) is supposed to be a physical process which happens after recombination, but before the instantaneous reionization caused by the first generation of stars. We investigate the effect of the ERE on the temperature and polarization power spectra of cosmic microwave background (CMB), and adopt principal components analysis (PCA) to model-independently reconstruct the ionization history during the ERE. In addition, we also discuss how the ERE affects the cosmological parameter estimates, and find that the ERE does not impose any significant influences on the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ and the neutrino mass at the sensitivities of current experiments. The better CMB polarization data can be used to give a tighter constraint on the ERE and might be important for more precisely constraining cosmological parameters in the future.

[35]  arXiv:1704.08498 [pdf]
Title: Updates on the background estimates for the X-IFU instrument onboard of the ATHENA mission
Journal-ref: Proc. SPIE 9905, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray, 990563 (11 July 2016)
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

ATHENA, with a launch foreseen in 2028 towards the L2 orbit, addresses the science theme "The Hot and Energetic Universe", coupling a high-performance X-ray Telescope with two complementary focal-plane instruments. One of these, the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) is a TES based kilo-pixel array providing spatially resolved high-resolution spectroscopy (2.5 eV at 6 keV) over a 5 arcmin FoV. The background for this kind of detectors accounts for several components: the diffuse Cosmic X-ray Background, the low energy particles (<~100 keV) focalized by the mirrors and reaching the detector from inside the field of view, and the high energy particles (>~100 MeV) crossing the spacecraft and reaching the focal plane from every direction. Each one of these components is under study to reduce their impact on the instrumental performances. This task is particularly challenging, given the lack of data on the background of X-ray detectors in L2, the uncertainties on the particle environment to be expected in such orbit, and the reliability of the models used in the Monte Carlo background computations. As a consequence, the activities addressed by the group range from the reanalysis of the data of previous missions like XMM-Newton, to the characterization of the L2 environment by data analysis of the particle monitors onboard of satellites present in the Earth magnetotail, to the characterization of solar events and their occurrence, and to the validation of the physical models involved in the Monte Carlo simulations. All these activities will allow to develop a set of reliable simulations to predict, analyze and find effective solutions to reduce the particle background experienced by the X-IFU, ultimately satisfying the scientific requirement that enables the science of ATHENA. While the activities are still ongoing, we present here some preliminary results already obtained by the group.

[36]  arXiv:1704.08532 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Are chains of type I radio bursts generated by similar processes as drifting pulsation structures observed during solar flares?
Authors: Marian Karlicky
Comments: 7 pages, 7 figures
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We present examples of the both types of bursts and show their similarities and differences. Then for chains of type I bursts a similar model as for drifting pulsation structures (DPSs) is proposed. We show that similarly as in the DPS, the chains of type I bursts can be generated by the fragmented magnetic reconnection associated with plasmoids interactions. To support this new model of chains of type I bursts, we present an effect of merging of two plasmoids to one larger plasmoid on the radio spectrum of DPS. This process can also explain the "wavy" appearance of some chains of type I bursts. Then we show that the chains of type I bursts with the "wavy" appearance can be used for estimation of the magnetic field strength in their sources. We think that differences of chains of type I bursts and DPSs are mainly owing to different regimes of the magnetic field reconnection. While in the case of chains of type I bursts the magnetic reconnection and plasmoid interactions are in the quasi-separatrix layer of the active region in more or less quasi-saturated regime, in the case of DPSs, observed in the impulsive phase of eruptive flares, the magnetic reconnection and plasmoids interactions are in the current sheet formed under the flare magnetic rope, which moves upwards and forces this magnetic reconnection.

[37]  arXiv:1704.08541 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The Ring Produced by an Extra-Galactic Superbubble in Flat Cosmology
Authors: L. Zaninetti
Comments: 22 pages , 16 figures
Journal-ref: Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology, 3, 339-359 (2017)
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

A superbubble which advances in a symmetric Navarro--Frenk--White density profile or in an auto-gravitating density profile generates a thick shell with a radius that can reach 10 kpc. The application of the symmetric and asymmetric image theory to this thick 3D shell produces a ring in the 2D map of intensity and a characteristic `U' shape in the case of 1D cut of the intensity. A comparison of such a ring originating from a superbubble is made with the Einstein's ring. A Taylor approximation of order 10 for the angular diameter distance is derived in order to deal with high values of the redshift.

[38]  arXiv:1704.08552 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: First results from BISTRO -- a SCUBA-2 polarimeter survey of the Gould Belt
Comments: 12 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present the first results from the B-fields In STar-forming Region Observations (BISTRO) survey, using the Sub-millimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) camera, with its associated polarimeter (POL-2), on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in Hawaii. We discuss the survey's aims and objectives. We describe the rationale behind the survey, and the questions which the survey will aim to answer. The most important of these is the role of magnetic fields in the star formation process on the scale of individual filaments and cores in dense regions. We describe the data acquisition and reduction processes for POL-2, demonstrating both repeatability and consistency with previous data. We present a first-look analysis of the first results from the BISTRO survey in the OMC 1 region. We see that the magnetic field lies approximately perpendicular to the famous 'integral filament' in the densest regions of that filament. Furthermore, we see an 'hour-glass' magnetic field morphology extending beyond the densest region of the integral filament into the less-dense surrounding material, and discuss possible causes for this. We also discuss the more complex morphology seen along the Orion Bar region. We examine the morphology of the field along the lower-density north-eastern filament. We find consistency with previous theoretical models that predict magnetic fields lying parallel to low-density, non-self-gravitating filaments, and perpendicular to higher-density, self-gravitating filaments.

[39]  arXiv:1704.08559 [pdf, other]
Title: The constant slow-roll inflationary model
Authors: Qing Gao
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); High Energy Physics - Theory (hep-th)

By using the relations between the slow-roll parameters and the power spectrum for the single field slow-roll inflation, we derive the scalar spectral tilt $n_s$ and the tensor to scalar ratio $r$ for the constant slow-roll inflation and obtain the constraint on the slow-roll parameter $\eta$ from the Planck 2015 results. The inflationary potential for the constant slow-roll inflation is then reconstructed in the framework of both general relativity and scalar-tensor theory of gravity, and compared with the recently reconstructed E model potential. In the strong coupling limit, we show that the $\eta$ attractor is reached.

[40]  arXiv:1704.08599 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Multifractal Analysis of Pulsar Timing Residuals: Assessment of Gravitational Waves Detection
Comments: 17 pages, 13 figures and 2 tables
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM); Data Analysis, Statistics and Probability (physics.data-an)

Relying on multifractal behavior of pulsar timing residuals ({\it PTR}s), we examine the capability of Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) and Multifractal Detrending Moving Average Analysis (MF-DMA) modified by Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Adaptive Detrending (AD), to detect footprint of gravitational waves (GWs) superimposed on {\it PTR}s. Mentioned methods enable us to clarify the type of GWs which is related to the value of Hurst exponent. We introduce three strategies based on generalized Hurst exponent and width of singularity spectrum, to determine the dimensionless amplitude of GWs. For a stochastic gravitational wave background with characteristic strain spectrum as $\mathcal{H}_c(f)\sim \mathcal{A}f^{\zeta}$, the dimensionless amplitude greater than $\mathcal{A}\gtrsim 10^{-17}$ can be recognized irrespective to value of $\zeta$. We also utilize MF-DFA and MF-DMA to explore 20 millisecond pulsars observed by Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA). Our analysis demonstrates that there exists a cross-over in fluctuation function versus time scale for observed timing residuals representing a universal property and equates to $s_{\times}\sim60$ days. To asses multifractal nature of observed timing residuals, we apply AD and SVD algorithms on time series as pre-processes to remove superimposed trends as much as possible. The scaling exponents determined by MF-DFA and MF-DMA confirm that, all data are classified in non-stationary class elucidating second universality feature. The value of corresponding Hurst exponent is in interval $H \in [0.35,0.85]$. The $q$-dependency of generalized Hurst exponent demonstrates observed {\it PTR}s have multifractal behavior and the source of this multifractality is mainly devoted to correlation of data which is another universality of observed data sets.

[41]  arXiv:1704.08621 [pdf, other]
Title: Spatially resolved images of reactive ions in the Orion Bar
Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A letters (4 figures and 5 tables with Appendices)
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We report high angular resolution (4.9" x 3.0") images of reactive ions SH+, HOC+, and SO+ toward the Orion Bar photodissociation region (PDR). We used ALMA-ACA to map several rotational lines at 0.8 mm, complemented with multi-line observations obtained with the IRAM 30m telescope. The SH+ and HOC+ emission is restricted to a narrow layer of 2"- to 10"-width (~800 to 4000 AU depending on the assumed PDR geometry) that follows the vibrationally excited H2^* emission. Both ions efficiently form very close to the H/H2 transition zone, at a depth of A_V < 1 mag into the neutral cloud, where abundant C+, S+, and H2^* coexist. SO+ peaks slightly deeper into the cloud. The observed ions have low rotational temperatures (T_rot~10-30 K << T_k) and narrow line-widths (~2-3 km/s), a factor of ~2 narrower that those of the lighter reactive ion CH+. This is consistent with the higher reactivity and faster radiative pumping rates of CH+ compared to the heavier ions, which are driven relatively faster toward smaller velocity dispersion by elastic collisions and toward lower T_rot by inelastic collisions. We estimate column densities and average physical conditions from a non-LTE excitation model (n(H2)~10^5-10^6 cm^-3, n(e^-)~10 cm^-3, and T_k~200 K). Regardless of the excitation details, SH+ and HOC+ clearly trace the most exposed layers of the UV-irradiated molecular cloud surface, whereas SO+ arises from slightly more shielded layers.

[42]  arXiv:1704.08636 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Magnetorotational Dynamo Action in the Shearing Box
Comments: 7 pages, 9 figures, 1 table
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Fluid Dynamics (physics.flu-dyn); Plasma Physics (physics.plasm-ph); Space Physics (physics.space-ph)

Magnetic dynamo action caused by the magnetorotational instability is studied in the shearing-box approximation with no imposed net magnetic flux. Consistent with recent studies, the dynamo action is found to be sensitive to the aspect ratio of the box: it is much easier to obtain in tall boxes (stretched in the direction normal to the disk plane) than in long boxes (stretched in the radial direction). Our direct numerical simulations indicate that the dynamo is possible in both cases, given a large enough magnetic Reynolds number. To explain the relatively larger effort required to obtain the dynamo action in a long box, we propose that the turbulent eddies caused by the instability most efficiently fold and mix the magnetic field lines in the radial direction. As a result, in the long box the scale of the generated strong azimuthal (stream-wise directed) magnetic field is always comparable to the scale of the turbulent eddies. In contrast, in the tall box the azimuthal magnetic flux spreads in the vertical direction over a distance exceeding the scale of the turbulent eddies. As a result, different vertical sections of the tall box are permeated by large-scale nonzero azimuthal magnetic fluxes, facilitating the instability. In agreement with this picture, the cases when the dynamo is efficient are characterized by a strong intermittency of the local azimuthal magnetic fluxes.

[43]  arXiv:1704.08642 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The angular power spectrum measurement of the Galactic synchrotron emission in two fields of the TGSS survey
Comments: 6 pages, 1 table, 3 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRAS Letters. The definitive version will be available at this http URL
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

Characterizing the diffuse Galactic synchrotron emission at arcminute angular scales is needed to reliably remove foregrounds in cosmological 21-cm measurements. The study of this emission is also interesting in its own right. Here, we quantify the fluctuations of the diffuse Galactic synchrotron emission using visibility data for two of the fields observed by the TIFR GMRT Sky Survey (TGSS). We have used the 2D Tapered Gridded Estimator (TGE) to estimate the angular power spectrum $(C_{\ell})$ from the visibilities. We find that the sky signal, after subtracting the point sources, is likely dominated by the diffuse Galactic synchrotron radiation across the angular multipole range $240 \le \ell \lesssim 500$.
We present a power law fit, $C_{\ell}=A\times\big(\frac{1000}{l}\big)^{\beta}$, to the measured $C_{\ell}$ over this $\ell$ range. We find that $(A,\beta)$ have values $(356\pm109~{\rm mK^2},2.8\pm0.3)$ and $(54\pm26~{\rm mK^2},2.2\pm0.4)$ in the two fields. For the second field, however, there is indication of a significant residual point source contribution, and for this field we interpret the measured $C_{\ell}$ as an upper limit for the diffuse Galactic synchrotron emission. While in both fields the slopes are consistent with earlier measurements, the second field appears to have an amplitude which is considerably smaller compared to similar measurements in other parts of the sky.

[44]  arXiv:1704.08656 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Luminous Efficiency Estimates of Meteors -I. Uncertainty analysis
Comments: Accepted Dec 20, 2016 to Planetary and Space Science
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

The luminous efficiency of meteors is poorly known, but critical for determining the meteoroid mass. We present an uncertainty analysis of the luminous efficiency as determined by the classical ablation equations, and suggest a possible method for determining the luminous efficiency of real meteor events. We find that a two-term exponential fit to simulated lag data is able to reproduce simulated luminous efficiencies reasonably well.

[45]  arXiv:1704.08663 [pdf, other]
Title: Three-Dimensional Structure of the Magnetic Field in the Disk of the Milky Way
Comments: Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 23 April, 2017
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present Rotation Measures (RM) of the diffuse Galactic synchrotron emission from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS) and compare them to RMs of extragalactic sources in order to study the large-scale reversal in the Galactic magnetic field (GMF). Using Stokes Q, U and I measurements of the Galactic disk collected with the Synthesis Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, we calculate RMs over an extended region of the sky, focusing on the low longitude range of the CGPS (l=52deg to l=72deg). We note the similarity in the structures traced by the compact sources and the extended emission and highlight the presence of a gradient in the RM map across an approximately diagonal line, which we identify with the well-known field reversal of the Sagittarius-Carina arm. We suggest that the orientation of this reversal is a geometric effect resulting from our location within a GMF structure arising from current sheets that are not perpendicular to the Galactic plane, as is required for a strictly radial field reversal, but that have at least some component parallel to the disk. Examples of models that fit this description are the three-dimensional dynamo-based model of Gressel et al. (2013) and a Galactic scale Parker spiral (Akasofu & Hakamada 1982), although the latter may be problematic in terms of Galactic dynamics. We emphasize the importance of constructing three-dimensional models of the GMF to account for structures like the diagonal RM gradient observed in this dataset.