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[1]  arXiv:1702.07344 [pdf, other]
Title: Variability of the symbiotic X-ray binary GX 1+4: Enhanced activity near periastron passage
Comments: 8 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication in A&A
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Context. GX 1+4 belongs to a rare class of X-ray binaries with red giant donors, symbiotic X-ray binaries. The system has a history of complicated variability on multiple timescales in the optical light and X-rays. The nature of this variability remains poorly understood. Aims. We study variability of GX 1+4 on long time-scale in X-ray and optical bands. Methods. The presented X-ray observations are from INTEGRAL Soft Gamma-Ray Imager and RXTE All Sky Monitor. The optical observations are from INTEGRAL Optical Monitoring Camera. Results. The variability of GX 1+4 both in optical light and hard X-ray emission (>17 keV) is dominated by ~50-70d quasi-periodic changes. The amplitude of this variability is highest during the periastron passage, while during the potential neutron star eclipse the system is always at minimum, which confirms the 1161d orbital period that has had been proposed for the system based on radial velocity curve. Neither the quasi-periodic variability or the orbital period are detected in soft X-ray emission (1.3-12.2 keV), where the binary shows no apparent periodicity.

[2]  arXiv:1702.07348 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: On the robustness of the H$β$ Lick index as a cosmic clock in passive early-type galaxies
Comments: 20 pages, 11 figures, 1 table. Accepted for publication in MNRAS Main Journal
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We examine the H$\beta$ Lick index in a sample of $\sim 24000$ massive ($\rm log(M/M_{\odot})>10.75$) and passive early-type galaxies extracted from SDSS at z<0.3, in order to assess the reliability of this index to constrain the epoch of formation and age evolution of these systems. We further investigate the possibility of exploiting this index as "cosmic chronometer", i.e. to derive the Hubble parameter from its differential evolution with redshift, hence constraining cosmological models independently of other probes. We find that the H$\beta$ strength increases with redshift as expected in passive evolution models, and shows at each redshift weaker values in more massive galaxies. However, a detailed comparison of the observed index with the predictions of stellar population synthesis models highlights a significant tension, with the observed index being systematically lower than expected. By analyzing the stacked spectra, we find a weak [NII]$\lambda6584$ emission line (not detectable in the single spectra) which anti-correlates with the mass, that can be interpreted as a hint of the presence of ionized gas. We estimated the correction of the H$\beta$ index by the residual emission component exploiting different approaches, but find it very uncertain and model-dependent. We conclude that, while the qualitative trends of the observed H$\beta$-z relations are consistent with the expected passive and downsizing scenario, the possible presence of ionized gas even in the most massive and passive galaxies prevents to use this index for a quantitative estimate of the age evolution and for cosmological applications.

[3]  arXiv:1702.07349 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: X-ray spectroscopy of the z=6.4 quasar J1148+5251
Comments: 9 pages, 3 figures, 1 table, MNRAS in press
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We present the 78-ks Chandra observations of the $z=6.4$ quasar SDSS J1148+5251. The source is clearly detected in the energy range 0.3-7 keV with 42 counts (with a significance $\gtrsim9\sigma$). The X-ray spectrum is best-fitted by a power-law with photon index $\Gamma=1.9$ absorbed by a gas column density of $\rm N_{\rm H}=2.0^{+2.0}_{-1.5}\times10^{23}\,\rm cm^{-2}$. We measure an intrinsic luminosity at 2-10 keV and 10-40 keV equal to $\sim 1.5\times 10^{45}~\rm erg~s^{-1}$, comparable with luminous local and intermediate-redshift quasar properties. Moreover, the X-ray to optical power-law slope value ($\alpha_{\rm OX}=-1.76\pm 0.14$) of J1148 is consistent with the one found in quasars with similar rest-frame 2500 \AA ~luminosity ($L_{\rm 2500}\sim 10^{32}~\rm erg~s^{-1}$\AA$^{-1}$). Then we use Chandra data to test a physically motivated model that computes the intrinsic X-ray flux emitted by a quasar starting from the properties of the powering black hole and assuming that X-ray emission is attenuated by intervening, metal-rich ($Z\geq \rm Z_{\odot}$) molecular clouds distributed on $\sim$kpc scales in the host galaxy. Our analysis favors a black hole mass $M_{\rm BH} \sim 3\times 10^9 \rm M_\odot$ and a molecular hydrogen mass $M_{\rm H_2}\sim 2\times 10^{10} \rm M_\odot$, in good agreement with estimates obtained from previous studies. We finally discuss strengths and limits of our analysis.

[4]  arXiv:1702.07350 [pdf, other]
Title: VALES: III. The calibration between the dust continuum and interstellar gas content of star-forming galaxies
Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS. 5 pages, including 2 figures and 1 table
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present the calibration between the dust continuum luminosity and interstellar gas content obtained from the Valpara\'{i}so ALMA Line Emission Survey (VALES) sample of 67 main-sequence star-forming galaxies at 0.02<$z$<0.35. We use CO(1-0) observations from the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) to trace the molecular gas mass, $M_{\mathrm{H}_{2}}$, and estimate the rest-frame monochromatic luminosity at 850 $\mu$m, $L_{\nu_{850}}$, by extrapolating the dust continuum from MAGPHYS modelling of the far-ultraviolet to submillimetre spectral energy distribution sampled by the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Adopting $\alpha_{\rm CO}$ = 6.5 (K km s$^{-1}$ pc$^{2}$)$^{-1}$, the average ratio of $L_{\nu_{850}}/M_{\mathrm{H}_{2}}$ = (6.4$\pm$1.4)$\times10^{19}$ erg s$^{-1}$ Hz$^{-1}$ $\mathrm{M}_{\odot}^{-1}$, in excellent agreement with literature values. We obtain a linear fit of $\log_{10}$ ($M_{\mathrm{H}_{2}}/\mathrm{M}_{\odot}$) = (0.92$\pm$0.02) $\log_{10}$ ($L_{\nu_{850}}$/erg s$^{-1}$ Hz$^{-1}$)-(17.31$\pm$0.59). We provide relations between $L_{\nu_{850}}$, $M_{\mathrm{H}_{2}}$ and $M_{\mathrm{ISM}}$ when combining the VALES and literature samples, and adopting a Galactic $\alpha_{\rm CO}$ value.

[5]  arXiv:1702.07351 [pdf, other]
Title: The Mass and Momentum Outflow Rates of Photoionized Galactic Outflows
Comments: 10 pages, 5 figures. Submitted to MNRAS, comments are welcome
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Galactic outflows are believed to play an important role in regulating star formation in galaxies, but estimates of the outflowing mass and momentum have historically been based on uncertain assumptions. Here, we measure the mass, momentum, and energy outflow rates of seven nearby star-forming galaxies using ultraviolet absorption lines and observationally motivated estimates for the density, metallicity, and radius of the outflow. Low-mass galaxies generate outflows faster than their escape velocities with mass outflow rates up to twenty times larger than their star formation rates. These outflows from low-mass galaxies also have momenta larger than provided from supernovae alone, indicating that multiple momentum sources drive these outflows. Only 1-20% of the supernovae energy is converted into kinetic energy, and this fraction decreases with increasing stellar mass such that low-mass galaxies drive more efficient outflows. We find scaling relations between the outflows and the stellar mass of their host galaxies (M$_\ast$) at the 2-3$\sigma$ significance level. The mass-loading factor, or the mass outflow rate divided by the star formation rate, scales as M$_\ast^{-0.4}$ and with the circular velocity as v$_\mathrm{circ}^{-1.5}$. The scaling of the mass-loading factor is similar to recent simulations, but the observations are a factor of five smaller, possibly indicating that there is a substantial amount of unprobed gas in a different ionization phase. The outflow momenta are consistent with a model where star formation drives the outflow while gravity counteracts this acceleration.

[6]  arXiv:1702.07352 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Temporary Capture of Asteroids by an Eccentric Planet
Comments: Accepted for publication in AJ, 14 pages and 6 figures
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

We have investigated the probability of temporary capture of asteroids in eccentric orbits by a planet in a circular or an eccentric orbit through analytical and numerical calculations. We found that in the limit of the circular orbit, the capture probability is $\sim 0.1\%$ of encounters to the planet's Hill sphere, independent of planetary mass and semimajor axis. In general, the temporary capture becomes more difficult as the planet's eccentricity ($e_{\rm p}$) increases. We found that the capture probability is almost independent of $e_{\rm p}$ until a critical value ($e_{\rm p}^{\rm c}$) that is given by $\simeq$ 5 times the Hill radius scaled by the planet's semimajor axis. For $e_{\rm p} > e_{\rm p}^{\rm c}$, the probability decreases approximately in proportion to $e_{\rm p}^{-1}$. The current orbital eccentricity of Mars is several times larger than $e_{\rm p}^{\rm c}$. However, since the range of secular change in Martian eccentricity overlaps $e_{\rm p}^{\rm c}$, the capture of minor bodies by the past Mars is not ruled out.

[7]  arXiv:1702.07353 [pdf, other]
Title: Detailed abundances from integrated-light spectroscopy: Milky Way globular clusters
Authors: S. S. Larsen (1), J. P. Brodie (2), J. Strader (3) ((1) Radboud University, Nijmegen, (2) UCO/Lick, (3) Michigan State Univ.)
Comments: 35 pages, 16 figures, accepted for A&A
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We test the performance of our analysis technique for integrated-light spectra by applying it to seven well-studied Galactic GCs that span a wide range of metallicities. Integrated-light spectra were obtained by scanning the slit of the UVES spectrograph on the ESO Very Large Telescope across the half-light diameters of the clusters. We modelled the spectra using resolved HST colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), as well as theoretical isochrones, in combination with standard stellar atmosphere and spectral synthesis codes. The abundances of Fe, Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, and Ba were compared with literature data for individual stars in the clusters. The typical differences between iron abundances derived from our integrated-light spectra and those compiled from the literature are less than 0.1 dex. A larger difference is found for one cluster (NGC 6752), and is most likely caused primarily by stochastic fluctuations in the numbers of bright red giants within the scanned area. As expected, the alpha-elements (Ca, Ti) are enhanced by about 0.3 dex compared to the Solar-scaled composition, while the [Cr/Fe] ratios are close to Solar. When using up-to-date line lists, our [Mg/Fe] ratios also agree well with literature data. Our [Na/Fe] ratios are, on average, 0.08-0.14 dex lower than average values quoted in the literature, and our [Ba/Fe] ratios may be overestimated by 0.20-0.35 dex at the lowest metallicities. We find that analyses based on theoretical isochrones give very similar results to those based on resolved CMDs. Overall, the agreement between our integrated-light abundance measurements and the literature data is satisfactory. Refinements of the modelling procedure, such as corrections for stellar evolutionary and non-LTE effects, might further reduce some of the remaining offsets.

[8]  arXiv:1702.07354 [pdf, other]
Title: Polarization in Monte Carlo radiative transfer and dust scattering polarization signatures of spiral galaxies
Authors: Christian Peest (1 and 2), Peter Camps (1), Marko Stalevski (1, 3 and 4), Maarten Baes (1), Ralf Siebenmorgen (2) ((1) Universiteit Gent, (2) European Southern Observatory, (3) Universidad de Chile, (4) Astronomical Observatory Belgrade)
Comments: 15 pages, 10 figures, accepted by Astronomy and Astrophysics
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Polarization is an important tool to further the understanding of interstellar dust and the sources behind it. In this paper we describe our implementation of polarization that is due to scattering of light by spherical grains and electrons in the dust Monte Carlo radiative transfer code SKIRT. In contrast to the implementations of other Monte Carlo radiative transfer codes, ours uses co-moving reference frames that rely solely on the scattering processes. It fully supports the peel-off mechanism that is crucial for the efficient calculation of images in 3D Monte Carlo codes. We develop reproducible test cases that push the limits of our code. The results of our program are validated by comparison with analytically calculated solutions. Additionally, we compare results of our code to previously published results. We apply our method to models of dusty spiral galaxies at near-infrared and optical wavelengths. We calculate polarization degree maps and show them to contain signatures that trace characteristics of the dust arms independent of the inclination or rotation of the galaxy.

[9]  arXiv:1702.07355 [pdf, other]
Title: Connecting the first galaxies with ultra faint dwarfs in the Local Group: chemical signatures of Population~III stars
Comments: 20 pages, 11 figures, Submitted to ApJ
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We investigate the star formation history and chemical evolution of isolated analogues of Local Group (LG) ultra faint dwarf galaxies (UFDs; stellar mass range of $10^3$ solar mass $<M_{\ast}<10^6$ solar mass), from the era of the first generation of stars down to $z=0$, by performing a suite of cosmological hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations. We confirm that reionization, combined with supernova feedback, is primarily responsible for the truncated star formation in dwarf galaxies. Our work further demonstrates the importance of Population~III stars and the associated external metal-enrichment in producing low-metallicity stars ($\rm [Fe/H]\lesssim-4$), and for the origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. We find that dwarf galaxies are composite systems, assembled from multiple progenitor haloes, some of which hosted only Population~II stars formed in environments externally enriched by SNe in neighboring haloes. We show that such external enrichment process naturally produces extremely low-metallicity Pop~II stars. Our simulations can also reproduce the population of CEMP stars by including Pop~III SNe with their intrinsically high $\rm [C/Fe]$ yields. We show that $\alpha$-elements are enhanced at all metallicities, in particular for haloes with $\rm M_{vir}\lesssim2\times10^9$ solar mass, implying that the gas in such small dwarfs has preferentially been contaminated by Type~II SNe from Pop~III and massive Pop~II stars. We illustrate how the simulated chemical enrichment can be used to constrain the star formation histories (SFHs) of true observed dwarf galaxies. Our results indicate that observed UFDs lacking stars with $\rm [Fe/H]>-1.04$ are likely to have SFHs truncated prior to $z=3$. Finally, we predict the existence of extremely low-metallicity stars in LG UFD galaxies that preserve the pure chemical signatures of Pop~III nucleosynthesis.

[10]  arXiv:1702.07357 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: AGN vs. host galaxy properties in the COSMOS field
Comments: 13 pages, 11 fugures, accepted for publication in A&A
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

The coeval AGN and galaxy evolution and the observed local relations between SMBHs and galaxy properties suggest some connection or feedback between SMBH growth and galaxy build-up. We looked for correlations between properties of X-ray detected AGN and their FIR detected host galaxies, to find quantitative evidences for this connection, highly debated in the latest years. We exploit the rich multi-wavelength data set available in the COSMOS field for a large sample (692 sources) of AGN and their hosts, in the redshift range $0.1<z<4$. We use X-ray data to select AGN and determine their properties (intrinsic luminosity and nuclear obscuration), and broad-band SED fitting to derive host galaxy properties (stellar mass $M_*$ and star formation rate SFR). We find that the AGN 2-10 keV luminosity ($L_{\rm X}$) and the host $8-1000~\mu m$ star formation luminosity ($L_{\rm IR}^{\rm SF}$) are significantly correlated. However, the average host $L_{\rm IR}^{\rm SF}$ has a flat distribution in bins of AGN $L_{\rm X}$, while the average AGN $L_{\rm X}$ increases in bins of host $L_{\rm IR}^{\rm SF}$, with logarithmic slope of $\sim0.7$, in the redshifts range $0.4<z<1.2$. We also discuss the comparison between the distribution of these two quantities and the predictions from hydro-dynamical simulations. Finally we find that the average column density ($N_H$) shows a positive correlation with the host $M_*$, at all redshifts, but not with the SFR (or $L_{\rm IR}^{\rm SF}$). This translates into a negative correlation with specific SFR. Our results are in agreement with the idea that BH accretion and SF rates are correlated, but occur with different variability time scales. The presence of a positive correlation between $N_H$ and host $M_*$ suggests that the X-ray $N_H$ is not entirely due to the circum-nuclear obscuring torus, but may also include a contribution from the host galaxy.

[11]  arXiv:1702.07361 [pdf, other]
Title: Imaging the Schwarzschild-radius-scale Structure of M87 with the Event Horizon Telescope using Sparse Modeling
Comments: 16 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We propose a new imaging technique for radio and optical/infrared interferometry. The proposed technique reconstructs the image from the visibility amplitude and closure phase, which are standard data products of short-millimeter very long baseline interferometers such as the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) and optical/infrared interferometers, by utilizing two regularization functions: the $\ell_1$-norm and total variation (TV) of the brightness distribution. In the proposed method, optimal regularization parameters, which represent the sparseness and effective spatial resolution of the image, are derived from data themselves using cross validation (CV). As an application of this technique, we present simulated observations of M87 with the EHT based on four physically motivated models. We confirm that $\ell_1$+TV regularization can achieve an optimal resolution of $\sim 20-30$% of the diffraction limit $\lambda/D_{\rm max}$, which is the nominal spatial resolution of a radio interferometer. With the proposed technique, the EHT can robustly and reasonably achieve super-resolution sufficient to clearly resolve the black hole shadow. These results make it promising for the EHT to provide an unprecedented view of the event-horizon-scale structure in the vicinity of the super-massive black hole in M87 and also the Galactic center Sgr A*.

[12]  arXiv:1702.07370 [pdf, other]
Title: sdA in SDSS DR12 are Overwhelmingly Not Extremely Low-Mass (ELM) White Dwarfs
Comments: 7 pages, 3 figures, 2 tables. As appears in the ASP Conference Series proceedings of "20th European Workshop Workshop on White Dwarfs" held at the University of Warwick, UK on July 25-29th, 2016
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

In a search for new white dwarfs in DR12 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Kepler et al. (2016) found atmospheric parameters for thousands of objects with effective temperatures below 20,000 K and surface gravities between 5.5 < log(g) < 6.5. They classified these objects as cool subdwarfs -- sdA -- and speculated that many may be extremely low-mass (ELM) white dwarfs (helium-core white dwarfs with masses below 0.3 Msun). We present evidence -- using radial velocities, photometric colors, and reduced proper motions -- that the vast majority (>99%) of these objects are unlikely to be ELM white dwarfs. Their true identity remains an interesting question.

[13]  arXiv:1702.07376 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Tides in a body librating about a spin-orbit resonance. Generalisation of the Darwin-Kaula theory
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

The Darwin-Kaula theory of bodily tides is intended for celestial bodies in nonresonant spin states, as well as for bodies in spin-orbit resonances with no libration. We demonstrate that this theory, in its customary form, is inapplicable to a body caught in a spin-orbit resonance and librating in it. Specifically, in the presence of libration, the actual spectrum of Fourier tidal modes differs from the conventional spectrum rendered by the Darwin-Kaula theory for a non-librating celestial object. This necessitates derivation of formulae for the tidal torque and the tidal heating rate, that are applicable under libration.
We derive the tidal spectrum for longitudinal libration with one and two main frequencies, generalisation to more main frequencies being straightforward. (By main frequencies we understand those emerging due to the triaxiality of the librating body.) We also calculate the tidal torque. This torque provides correction to the triaxiality-caused physical libration. Our theory is not self-consistent: we assume that the tidal torque is much smaller than the triaxiality-caused torque; so the additional libration due to tides is much weaker than the main libration due to the permanent triaxiality.
Finally, we calculate the tidal dissipation rate in a body experiencing forced libration in longitude.

[14]  arXiv:1702.07377 [pdf, other]
Title: Neutral gas heating by X-rays in primitive galaxies: Infrared observations of IZw18 with Herschel
Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

(abridged) The dominant thermal mechanisms in the neutral interstellar medium, which acts as a star-forming gas reservoir, are uncertain in extremely metal-poor galaxies. Our objective is to identify the heating mechanisms in one such galaxy, IZw18, and assess the diagnostic value of fine-structure cooling lines. We also seek to constrain the mass of H$_2$, which, despite being an important catalyst and tracer of star formation, remains elusive in this object. Building on a previous photoionization model within a multi-sector topology, we provide additional constraints from the [CII] and [OI] lines and the dust mass recently measured with Herschel. The heating of the HI region appears to be mainly due to photoionization by radiation from a bright X-ray binary source, while photoelectric effect (PE) is negligible. The [CII] and [OI] lines imply an average X-ray luminosity of $4\times10^{40}$ erg s$^{-1}$, while the [NeV] upper limits bring strong constraints to the soft X-ray flux arising from the binary. A negligible amount of H$_2$ is predicted, but $\lesssim10^7$ M$_\odot$ of H$_2$ may be hidden in sufficiently dense clouds of order $\lesssim10$ pc in size. Regardless of the presence of significant amounts of H$_2$, [CII] and [OI] do not trace the so-called CO-dark gas, but the almost purely atomic medium. Although the [CII]+[OI]/TIR ratio is close to values found in more metal-rich sources, it cannot be safely used as a PE heating efficiency proxy. This ratio seems to be kept stable due to a correlation between the X-ray luminosity and the star-formation rate. We propose that X-ray heating is an important process in extremely metal-poor sources. The weak PE heating due to the low dust-to-gas ratio could be compensated for by the larger occurrence and power of X-ray binaries in low-metallicity galaxies. We speculate that X-ray heating may quench star formation.

[15]  arXiv:1702.07382 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The Relation Between Fundamental Constants and Particle Physics Parameters
Comments: Published in the proceedings of the Conference on Varying Constants and Fundamental Cosmology VARCOSMOFUN16. Modified from the Universe style to process properly in arXiv
Journal-ref: Universe (2017) 3, 1, 6, 1-8
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph)

The observed constraints on the variability of the proton to electron mass ratio $\mu$ and the fine structure constant $\alpha$ are used to establish constraints on the variability of the Quantum Chromodynamic Scale and a combination of the Higgs Vacuum Expectation Value and the Yukawa couplings. Further model dependent assumptions provide constraints on the Higgs VEV and the Yukawa couplings separately. A primary conclusion is that limits on the variability of dimensionless fundamental constants such as $\mu$ and $\alpha$ provide important constraints on the parameter space of new physics and cosmologies.

[16]  arXiv:1702.07414 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The density of mid-sized Kuiper belt objects from ALMA thermal observations
Comments: AJ, in press
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

The densities of mid-sized Kuiper belt objects are a key constraint into understanding the assembly of objects in the outer solar system. These objects are critical for understanding the currently unexplained transition from the smallest Kuiper belt objects with densities lower than that of water to the largest objects with significant rock content. Mapping this transition is made difficult by the uncertainties in the diameters of these objects, which maps into an even larger uncertainty in volume and thus density. The substantial collecting area of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array allows significantly more precise measurements of thermal emission from outer solar system objects and could potentially greatly improve the density measurements. Here we use new thermal observations of four objects with satellites to explore the improvements possible with millimeter data. We find that effects due to effective emissivity at millimeter wavelengths make it difficult to use the millimeter data directly to find diameters and thus volumes for these bodies. In addition, we find that when including the effects of model uncertainty, the true uncertainties on the sizes of outer solar system objects measured with radiometry are likely larger than those previously published. Substantial improvement in object sizes will likely require precise occultation measurements.

[17]  arXiv:1702.07418 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Hydrodynamical and radio evolution of young supernova remnant G1.9+0.3 based on the model of diffusive shock acceleration
Authors: M. Z. Pavlović
Comments: 16 pages, 11 figures, 1 table; Accepted for publication in MNRAS main journal
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The radio evolution of, so far the youngest known, Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G1.9+0.3 is investigated by using three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic modeling and non-linear kinetic theory of cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in SNRs. We include consistent numerical treatment of magnetic field amplification (MFA) due to resonant streaming instability. Under the assumption that SNR G1.9+0.3 is the result of a type Ia supernova explosion located near the Galactic centre, using widely accepted values for explosion energy 10$^{51}$ erg and ejecta mass 1.4 $M_{\odot}$, the non-thermal continuum radio emission is calculated. The main purpose of the paper is to explain radio flux brightening measured over recent decades and also predict its future temporal evolution. We estimate that the SNR is now $\sim$ 120 years old, expanding in ambient density of 0.02 cm$^{-3}$ and explain its steep radio spectral index only by means of efficient non-linear diffusive shock acceleration (NLDSA). We also make comparison between simulations and observations of this young SNR, in order to test the models and assumptions suggested. Our model prediction of a radio flux density increase of $\sim$ 1.8 per cent yr$^{-1}$ during last two decades agrees well with measured values. We synthesize synchrotron spectrum from radio to X-ray and it fits well VLA, MOST, Chandra and NuSTAR measurements. We also propose simplified evolutionary model of the SNR in gamma-rays and suggest it may be a promising target for gamma-ray observations at TeV energies with the future generation of instruments like CTA. SNR G1.9+0.3 is the only known Galactic SNR with the increasing flux density and we present here the prediction that flux density will start to decrease approximately 500 years from now. We conclude this is a general property of SNRs in free expansion phase.

[18]  arXiv:1702.07428 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Rotational splitting and asteroseismic modelling of the delta Scuti star EE Camelopardalis
Authors: Xinghao Chen, Yan Li
Comments: 9 pages, 5 figures, 4 tables. accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

According to the rotational splitting law of g modes, the frequency spectra of EE Cam can be disentangled only with oscillation modes of $\ell$ = 0, 1, and 2. Fifteen sets of rotational splits are found, containing five sets of $\ell=1$ multiplets and ten sets of $\ell=2$ multiplets. The rotational period of EE Cam is deduced to be $P_{\rm rot}$ = $1.84_{-0.05}^{+0.07}$ days. When we do model fittings, we use two nonradial oscillation modes ($f_{11}$ and $f_{32}$) and the fundamental radial mode $f_{1}$. The fitting results show that $\chi^{2}$ of the best-fitting model is much smaller than those of other theoretical models. The physical parameters of the best-fitting model are $M$ = 2.04 $M_{\odot}$, $Z=0.028$, $T_{\rm eff}$ = 6433 K, $\log L/L_{\odot}$ = 1.416, $R$ = 4.12 $R_{\odot}$, $\log g$ = 3.518, and $\chi^{2}$ = 0.00035. Furthermore, we find $f_{11}$ and $f_{32}$ are mixed mode, which mainly characterize the features of the helium core. The fundamental radial mode $f_{1}$ mainly restrict the features of the stellar envelope. Finally, the acoustic radius $\tau_{0}$ and the period separation $\Pi_{0}$ are determined to be 5.80 hr and 463.7 s respectively, and the size of the helium core of EE Cam is estimated to be $M_{\rm He}$ = 0.181 $M_{\odot}$ and $R_{\rm He}$ = 0.0796 $R_{\odot}$.

[19]  arXiv:1702.07430 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: An R-process enhanced star in the dwarf galaxy Tucana III
Comments: 12 pages, 5 figures. Accepted for publication in ApJ
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Chemically peculiar stars in dwarf galaxies provide a window for exploring the birth environment of stars with varying chemical enrichment. We present a chemical abundance analysis of the brightest star in the newly discovered ultra-faint dwarf galaxy candidate Tucana III. Because it is particularly bright for a star in an ultra-faint Milky Way satellite, we are able to measure the abundance of 28 elements, including 13 neutron-capture species. This star, DES J235532.66$-$593114.9 (DES J235532), shows a mild enhancement in neutron-capture elements associated with the $r$-process and can be classified as an $r$-I star. DES J235532 is the first $r$-I star to be discovered in an ultra-faint satellite, and Tuc III is the second extremely low-luminosity system found to contain $r$-process enriched material, after Reticulum II. Comparison of the abundance pattern of DES J235532 with $r$-I and $r$-II stars found in other dwarf galaxies and in the Milky Way halo suggests a common astrophysical origin for the neutron-capture elements seen in all $r$-process enhanced stars. We explore both internal and external scenarios for the $r$-process enrichment of Tuc III and show that with abundance patterns for additional stars it should be possible to distinguish between them.

[20]  arXiv:1702.07434 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Preferred alignments of angular momentum vectors of galaxies in six dynamically unstable Abell clusters
Comments: 8 pages, 24 figures, accepted by RAA on 22 Feb 2017
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

A spatial orientation of angular momentum vectors of galaxies in six dynamically unstable Abell clusters (S1171, S0001, A1035, A1373, A1474 and A4053) is studied. For this, two-dimensional observed parameters (e.g., positions, diameters, position angles) are converted into three-dimensional rotation axes of the galaxy using `position angle - inclination' method. The expected isotropic distribution curves for angular momentum vectors are obtained by performing random simulations. The observed and expected distributions are compared using several statistical tests. No preferred alignments of angular momentum vectors of galaxies are noticed in all six dynamically unstable clusters supporting hierarchy model of galaxy formation. These clusters have a larger value of velocity dispersion. However, local effects are noticed in the clusters that have substructures in the 1D-3D number density maps.

[21]  arXiv:1702.07453 [pdf, other]
Title: Effects of Pre-ionisation in Radiative Shocks I: Self-Consistent Models
Comments: 30 pages, 19 figures, extended tables included. Accepted ApJ Feb 2017
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

In this paper we treat the pre-ionisation problem in shocks over the velocity range $10 < v_{\rm s} < 1500$\,km/s in a self-consistent manner. We identify four distinct classes of solution controlled by the value of the shock precursor parameter, $\Psi = {\cal Q}/v_s$, where ${\cal Q}$ is the ionization parameter of the UV photons escaping upstream. This parameter determines both the temperature and the degree of ionisation of the gas entering the shock. In increasing velocity the shock solution regimes are cold neutral precursors ($v_s \lesssim 40$\,km/s), warm neutral precursors ($40 \lesssim v_s \lesssim 75$\,km/s), warm partly-ionized precursors ($75 \lesssim v_s \lesssim 120$\,km/s), and fast shocks in which the pre-shock gas is in photoionisation equilibrium, and is fully ionized. The main effect of a magnetic field is to push these velocity ranges to higher values, and to limit the post-shock compression. In order to facilitate comparison with observations of shocks, we provide a number of convenient scaling relationships for parameters such as post-shock temperature, compression factors, cooling lengths, and H$\beta$ and X-ray luminosity.

[22]  arXiv:1702.07467 [pdf, other]
Title: Optimization Study for the Experimental Configuration of CMB-S4
Comments: 42 pages, 23 figures
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

The CMB Stage 4 (CMB-S4) experiment is a next-generation, ground-based experiment that will measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization to unprecedented accuracy, probing the signature of inflation, the nature of cosmic neutrinos, relativistic thermal relics in the early universe, and the evolution of the universe. To advance the progress towards designing the instrument for CMB-S4, we have established a framework to optimize the instrumental configuration to maximize its scientific output. In this paper, we report our first results from this framework, using simplified instrumental and cost models. We have primarily studied two classes of instrumental configurations: arrays of large aperture telescopes with diameters ranging from 2-10 m, and hybrid arrays that combine small-aperture telescopes (0.5 m diameter) with large-aperture telescopes. We explore performance as a function of the telescope aperture size, the distribution of the detectors into different microwave frequencies, the survey strategy and survey area, the low-frequency noise performance, and the balance between small and large aperture telescopes for the hybrid configurations. We also examine the impact from the uncertainties of the instrumental model. There are several areas that deserve further improvement. In our forecasting framework, we adopt a simple two-component foregrounds model with spacially varying power-law spectral indices. We estimate delensing performance statistically and ignore possible non-idealities. Instrumental systematics, which is not accounted for in our study, may influence the design. Further study of the instrumental and cost models will be one of the main areas of study by the whole CMB-S4 community. We hope that our framework will be useful for estimating the influence of these improvement in future, and we will incorporate them in order to improve the optimization further.

[23]  arXiv:1702.07512 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: ALMA Deep Field in SSA22: Blindly Detected CO Emitters and [CII] Emitter Candidates
Comments: 14 pages, 10 figures. Accepted to PASJ
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We report the identification of four millimeter line emitting galaxies with the Atacama Large Milli/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in SSA22 Field (ADF22). We analyze the ALMA 1.1 mm survey data, with an effective survey area of 5 arcmin$^2$, a frequency range of 253.1--256.8 and 269.1--272.8 GHz, angular resolution of 0".7 and RMS noise of 0.8 mJy beam$^{-1}$ at 36 km s$^{-1}$ velocity resolution. We detect four line emitter candidates with significance levels above $6 \sigma$. We identify one of the four sources as a CO(9-8) emitter at $z = 3.1$ in a member of the proto-cluster known in this field. Another line emitter with an optical counterpart is likely a CO(4-3) emitter at $z = 0.7$. The other two sources without any millimeter continuum or optical/near-infrared counterpart are likely to be [CII] emitter candidates at $z = 6.0$ and $6.5$. The equivalent widths of the [CII] candidates are consistent with those of confirmed high-redshift [CII] emitters and candidates, and are a factor of 10 times larger than that of the CO(9-8) emitter detected in this search. The [CII] luminosity of the candidates are $4-7 \times 10^8~\rm L_\odot$. The star formation rates (SFRs) of these sources are estimated to be $10-20~\rm M_{\odot}~yr^{-1}$ if we adopt an empirical [CII] luminosity - SFR relation. One of them has a relatively low-S/N ratio, but shows features characteristic of emission lines. Assuming that at least one of the two candidates is a [CII] emitter, we derive a lower limit of [CII]-based star formation rate density (SFRD) at $z~\sim~6$. The resulting value of $> 10^{-2}$ $\rm M_\odot yr^{-1} Mpc^{-3}$ is consistent with the dust-uncorrected UV-based SFRD. Future millimeter/submillimeter surveys can be used to detect a number of high redshift line emitters, with which to study the star formation history in the early Universe.

[24]  arXiv:1702.07519 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Formation of Molecular Clouds toward the Stellar Cluster Westerlund 2: Interaction of a Jet with Clumpy Interstellar Medium
Comments: 26 pages, 13 figures; published in ApJ
Journal-ref: The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 836, Number 2, (2017)
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The formation mechanism of CO clouds observed with NANTEN2 and Mopra telescope toward the stellar cluster Westerlund 2 is studied by three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations taking into account the interstellar cooling. These molecular clouds show a peculiar shape composing of an arc-shaped cloud in one side of a TeV-ray source HESS J1023-575 and a linear distribution of clouds (jet clouds) in another side. We propose that these clouds are formed by the interaction of a jet with interstellar neutral hydrogen (HI) clumps. By studying the dependence of the shape of dense cold clouds formed by shock compression and cooling on the filling factor of HI clumps, we found that the density distribution of HI clumps determines the shape of molecular clouds formed by the jet-cloud interaction; arc-clouds are formed when the filling factor is large. On the other hand, when the filling factor is small, molecular clouds align with the jet. The jet propagates faster in models with small filling factors.

[25]  arXiv:1702.07522 [pdf, other]
Title: Stellar energetic particle ionization in protoplanetary disks around T Tauri stars
Comments: 15 pages, 11 figures, 5 tables. Accepted for publication in A&A
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

Anomalies in the abundance measurements of short lived radionuclides in meteorites indicate that the protosolar nebulae was irradiated by a high amount of energetic particles (E$\gtrsim$10 MeV). The particle flux of the contemporary Sun cannot explain these anomalies. However, similar to T Tauri stars the young Sun was more active and probably produced enough high energy particles to explain those anomalies. We want to study the interaction of stellar energetic particles with the gas component of the disk and identify possible observational tracers of this interaction. We use a 2D radiation thermo-chemical protoplanetary disk code to model a disk representative for T Tauri stars. We use a particle energy distribution derived from solar flare observations and an enhanced stellar particle flux proposed for T Tauri stars. For this particle spectrum we calculate the stellar particle ionization rate throughout the disk with an accurate particle transport model. We study the impact of stellar particles for models with varying X-ray and cosmic-ray ionization rates. We find that stellar particle ionization has a significant impact on the abundances of the common disk ionization tracers HCO$^+$ and N$_2$H$^+$, especially in models with low cosmic-ray ionization rates. In contrast to cosmic rays and X-rays, stellar particles cannot reach the midplane of the disk. Therefore molecular ions residing in the disk surface layers are more affected by stellar particle ionization than molecular ions tracing the cold layers/midplane of the disk. Spatially resolved observations of molecular ions tracing different vertical layers of the disk allow to disentangle the contribution of stellar particle ionization from other competing ionization sources. Modeling such observations with a model like the one presented here allows to constrain the stellar particle flux in disks around T Tauri stars.

[26]  arXiv:1702.07523 [pdf, other]
Title: On the non-thermal electron-to-proton ratio at cosmic acceleration sites
Comments: 30 pages, 12 figures, accepted for publication in Astroparticle Physics (02/24/2017)
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The luminosity ratio of electrons to protons as it is produced in stochastic acceleration processes in cosmic ray sources is an important quantity relevant for several aspects of the modeling of the sources themselves. It is usually assumed to be around 1:100 in the case of Galactic sources, while a value of 1:10 is typically assumed when describing extragalactic sources. It is supported by observations that the average ratios should be close to these values. At this point, however, there is no possibility to investigate how each individual source behaves. When looking at the physics aspects, a 1:100 ratio is well supported in theory when making the following assumptions: (1) the total number of electrons and protons that is accelerated are the same; (2) the spectral index of both populations after acceleration is $a_e=a_p\approx 2.2$. In this paper, we reinvestigate these assumptions. In particular, assumption (2) is not supported by observational data of the sources and PIC simulation yield different spectral indices as well. We present the detailed calculation of the electron-to-proton ratio, dropping the assumption of equal spectral indices. We distinguish between the ratio of luminosities and the ratio of the differential spectral behavior, which becomes necessary for cases where the spectral indices of the two particle populations are not the same. We discuss the possible range of values when allowing for different spectral indices concerning the spectral behavior of electrons and protons. Additionally, it is shown that the minimum energy of the accelerated population can have a large influence on the results.

[27]  arXiv:1702.07524 [pdf, other]
Title: The X-ray Pulsar 2A 1822-371 as a Super Eddington source
Authors: A. Bak Nielsen (1), A. Patruno (1,2), C. D'Angelo (1) ((1) Leiden Observatory, (2) ASTRON)
Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The low mass X-ray binary 2A 1822-371 is an eclipsing system with an accretion disc corona and with an orbital period of 5.57 hr. The primary is an 0.59 s X-ray pulsar with a proposed strong magnetic field of 10^10-10^12 G. In this paper we study the spin evolution of the pulsar and constrain the geometry of the system. We find that, contrary to previous claims, a thick corona is not required, and that the system characteristics could be best explained by a thin accretion outflow due to a super-Eddington mass transfer rate and a geometrically thick inner accretion flow. The orbital, spectral and timing observations can be reconciled in this scenario under the assumption that the mass transfer proceeds on a thermal timescale which would make 2A 1822-371, a mildly super-Eddington source viewed at high inclination angles. The timing analysis on 13 years of RXTE data show a remarkably stable spin-up that implies that 2A 1822-371, might quickly turn into a millisecond pulsar in the next few thousand years.

[28]  arXiv:1702.07527 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: An ALMA survey of submillimetre galaxies in the COSMOS field: The extent of the radio-emitting region revealed by 3 GHz imaging with the Very Large Array
Comments: 32 pages (incl. 5 appendices), 17 figures, 7 tables; accepted for publication in A&A; abstract abridged for arXiv
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We determine the radio size distribution of a large sample of 152 SMGs in COSMOS that were detected with ALMA at 1.3 mm. For this purpose, we used the observations taken by the VLA-COSMOS 3 GHz Large Project. One hundred and fifteen of the 152 target SMGs were found to have a 3 GHz counterpart. The median value of the major axis FWHM at 3 GHz is derived to be $4.6\pm0.4$ kpc. The radio sizes show no evolutionary trend with redshift, or difference between different galaxy morphologies. We also derived the spectral indices between 1.4 and 3 GHz, and 3 GHz brightness temperatures for the sources, and the median values were found to be $\alpha=-0.67$ and $T_{\rm B}=12.6\pm2$ K. Three of the target SMGs, which are also detected with the VLBA, show clearly higher brightness temperatures than the typical values. Although the observed radio emission appears to be predominantly powered by star formation and supernova activity, our results provide a strong indication of the presence of an AGN in the VLBA and X-ray-detected SMG AzTEC/C61. The median radio-emitting size we have derived is 1.5-3 times larger than the typical FIR dust-emitting sizes of SMGs, but similar to that of the SMGs' molecular gas component traced through mid-$J$ line emission of CO. The physical conditions of SMGs probably render the diffusion of cosmic-ray electrons inefficient, and hence an unlikely process to lead to the observed extended radio sizes. Instead, our results point towards a scenario where SMGs are driven by galaxy interactions and mergers. Besides triggering vigorous starbursts, galaxy collisions can also pull out the magnetised fluids from the interacting disks, and give rise to a taffy-like synchrotron-emitting bridge. This provides an explanation for the spatially extended radio emission of SMGs, and can also cause a deviation from the well-known IR-radio correlation.

[29]  arXiv:1702.07557 [pdf, other]
Title: A Computer Vision Approach To Identify Einstein Rings And Arcs
Authors: Chien-Hsiu Lee (Subaru Telescope, NAOJ)
Comments: 7 pages, 2 figures, 1 table, PASA accepted
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

Einstein rings are rare gem of the strong lensing phenomena. Unlike doubly or quadruply lensed systems, the ring images can be used to probe the underlying lens gravitational potential at every position angle, putting much tighter constraints on the lens mass profile. In addition, the magnified background source also enable us to probe high-z galaxies with enhanced spatial resolution and higher S/N, which is otherwise not possible for un-lensed galaxy studies. Despite their usefulness, only a handful of Einstein rings have been reported so far, mainly by serendipitous discoveries or visual inspections of hundred thousands of massive galaxies or galaxy clusters. With the on-going and forth-coming large area surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, visual inspection to discover Einstein rings is very difficult, and an automated approach to identify ring pattern in the big data to come is in high demand. Here we present an Einstein ring recognition approach based on computer vision techniques. The workhorse is the circle Hough transform, which can recognize circular patterns or arcs at any position with any radius in the images. We devise a two-tier approach: first pre-select LRGs associated with multiple blue objects as possible lens galaxies, then feed these possible lenses to Hough transform. As a proof-of-concept, we investigate our approach using the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys. Our results show high completeness, albeit low purity. We also apply our approach to three newly discovered Einstein rings/arcs, in the DES, HSC-SSP, and UltraVISTA survey, illustrating the versatility of our approach to on-going and up-coming large sky surveys in general. The beauty of our approach is that it is solely based on JPEG images, which can be easily obtained in batch mode from SDSS finding chart tools, without any pre-processing of the image. (Abridged)

[30]  arXiv:1702.07566 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Neutrino Production in Electromagnetic Cascades: An extra component of cosmogenic neutrino at ultrahigh energies
Comments: 14 pages, 9 figures, accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. D
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

Muon pairs can be produced in the annihilation of ultra-high energy (UHE, $E \gtrsim 10^{18} \,\mathrm{eV}$) photons with low energy cosmic background radiation in the intergalactic space, giving birth to neutrinos. Although the branching ratio of muon pair production is low, products of other channels, which are mainly electron/positron pairs, will probably transfer most of their energies into the new generated UHE photon in the subsequent interaction with the cosmic background radiation via Compton scattering in deep Klein-Nishina regime. The regeneration of these new UHE photons then provides a second chance to produce the muon pairs, enhancing the neutrino flux. We investigate the neutrino production in the propagation of UHE photons in the intergalactic space at different redshifts, considering various competing processes such as pair production, double pair production for UHE photons, and triplet production and synchrotron radiation for UHE electrons. Regarding the least energetic outgoing particles as energy loss, we obtain the effective penetration length of the leading particle, as well as energy loss rate including the neutrino emission rate in the cascade process. Finally, we find that an extra component of UHE neutrinos will arise from the propagation of UHE cosmic rays due to the generated UHE photons and electron/positrons. However, the flux of this component is quite small, with a flux of at most $10\%$ of that of the conventional cosmogenic neutrino at a few EeV, in the absence of a strong intergalactic magnetic field and a strong cosmic radio background. The precise contribution of extra component depends on several factors, e.g., cosmic radio background, intergalactic magnetic field, the spectrum of proton, which will be discussed in this work.

[31]  arXiv:1702.07569 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Monitoring of rotational period variations in magnetic chemically peculiar stars
Comments: 36 pages, 14 figures
Journal-ref: Contributions of the Astronomical Observatory Skalnate Pleso, vol. 46, no. 2, p. 95-130 (2016)
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

A majority part of magnetic chemically peculiar (mCP) stars of the upper main sequence exhibits strictly periodic light, magnetic, radio, and spectral variations that can be fully explained by the model of a rigidly rotating main-sequence star with persistent surface structures and stable global magnetic field frozen into the body of the star. Nevertheless, there is an inhomogeneous group consisting of a few mCP stars whose rotation periods vary on timescales of decades, while the shapes of their phase curves remain nearly unchanged. Alternations in the rotational period variations, proven in the case of some of them, offer new insight on this theoretically unpredicted phenomenon. We present a novel and generally applicable method of period analysis based on the simultaneous exploitation of all available observational data containing phase information. This phenomenological method can monitor gradual changes in the observed instantaneous period very efficiently and reliably. We present up to date results of the period monitoring of V901~Ori, CU~Vir, $\sigma$\,Ori\,E, and BS~Cir, known to be mCP stars changing their observed periods and discuss the physics of this unusual behaviour. To compare the period behavior of those stars, we treated their data with an orthogonal polynomial model, which was specifically developed for this purpose. We confirmed period variations in all stars and showed that they reflect real changes in the angular velocity of outer layers of the stars, fastened by their global magnetic fields. However, the nature of the observed rotational instabilities has remained elusive up to now. The discussed group of mCP stars is inhomogeneous to such extent that each of the stars may experience a different cause for its period variations.

[32]  arXiv:1702.07571 [pdf, other]
Title: Galactic Cold Cores. VIII. Filament formation and evolution: Filament properties in context with evolutionary models
Comments: Accepted in A&A
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Filaments are key for star formation models. As part of the study carried out by the Herschel GCC Programme, here we study the filament properties presented in GCC.VII in context with theoretical models of filament formation and evolution. A conservative sample of filaments at a distance D<500pc was extracted with the Getfilaments algorithm. Their physical structure was quantified according to two main components: the central (Gaussian) region (core component), and the power-law like region dominating the filament column density profile at larger radii (wing component). The properties and behaviour of these components relative to the total linear mass density of the filament and its environmental column density were compared with theoretical models describing the evolution of filaments under gravity-dominated conditions. The feasibility of a transition to supercritical state by accretion is dependent on the combined effect of filament intrinsic properties and environmental conditions. Reasonably self-gravitating (high Mline-core) filaments in dense environments (av\sim3mag) can become supercritical in timescales of t\sim1Myr by accreting mass at constant or decreasing width. The trend of increasing Mline-tot (Mline-core and Mline-wing), and ridge Av with background also indicates that the precursors of star-forming filaments evolve coevally with their environment. The simultaneous increase of environment and filament Av explains the association between dense environments and high Mline-core values, and argues against filaments remaining in constant single-pressure equilibrium states. The simultaneous growth of filament and background in locations with efficient mass assembly, predicted in numerical models of collapsing clouds, presents a suitable scenario for the fulfillment of the combined filament mass-environment criterium that is in quantitative agreement with Herschel observations.

[33]  arXiv:1702.07609 [pdf, other]
Title: Just how hot are the $ω$ Centauri extreme horizontal branch pulsators?
Comments: 9 pages, accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Past studies based on optical spectroscopy suggest that the five $\omega$ Cen pulsators form a rather homogeneous group of hydrogen-rich subdwarf O stars with effective temperatures of around 50 000 K. This places the stars below the red edge of the theoretical instability strip in the log $g$ $-$ Teff diagram, where no pulsation modes are predicted to be excited. Our goal is to determine whether this temperature discrepancy is real, or whether the stars' effective temperatures were simply underestimated. We present a spectral analysis of two rapidly pulsating extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars found in $\omega$ Cen. We obtained Hubble Space Telescope/COS UV spectra of two $\omega$ Cen pulsators, V1 and V5, and used the ionisation equilibrium of UV metallic lines to better constrain their effective temperatures. As a by-product we also obtained FUV lightcurves of the two pulsators. Using the relative strength of the N IV and N V lines as a temperature indicator yields Teff values close to 60 000 K, significantly hotter than the temperatures previously derived. From the FUV light curves we were able to confirm the main pulsation periods known from optical data. With the UV spectra indicating higher effective temperatures than previously assumed, the sdO stars would now be found within the predicted instability strip. Such higher temperatures also provide consistent spectroscopic masses for both the cool and hot EHB stars of our previously studied sample.

[34]  arXiv:1702.07621 [pdf, other]
Title: Globular Cluster Seeding by Primordial Black Hole Population
Authors: A. Dolgov (ITEP, Novosibirsk State University), K. Postnov (Sternberg Astronomical Institute)
Comments: 6 pages, 2 figures, to be submitted
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

Primordial black holes (PBHs) that form in the early Universe in the modified Affleck-Dine (AD) mechanism of baryogenesis should have intrinsic log-normal mass distribution of PBHs. We show that the parameters of this distribution adjusted to provide the required spatial density of massive seeds ($\ge 10^4 M_\odot$) for early galaxy formation and not violating the dark matter density constraints predict the existence of the population of intermediate-mass PBHs with a number density of $\sim 1000$~Mpc$^{-3}$. We argue that the population of intermediate-mass AD PBHs can also seed the formation of globular clusters in galaxies.

[35]  arXiv:1702.07631 [pdf, other]
Title: A Jansky VLA Survey of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variable Stars: I. The Data
Comments: 22 pages, 4 tables, 1 figure
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The Jansky Very Large Array was used to observe 121 magnetic cataclysmic variables (MCVs). We report radio detections of 19 stars. Fourteen are new radio sources, increasing the number of MCVs that are radio sources by more than twofold, from 8 to 22. Most detections are at 8.7 GHz (X-band) with a lesser number at 5.4 and 21.1 GHz (C- and K-bands). Most flux density limits are in the range of 47-470 uJy. With the exception of AE Aqr, the maximum flux detected is 818 uJy. Fourteen of the detections show approximately 100% circularly polarized emission, which is characteristic of electron-cyclotron maser emission. The data suggest that MCVs might be divided into two classes of radio emitters: those dominated by weakly polarized gyro-synchrotron emission and those by highly polarized electron-cyclotron maser emission.

[36]  arXiv:1702.07635 [pdf, other]
Title: On the compactness of the isolated neutron star RX J0720.4-3125
Comments: Comments: 19 pages, 15 figures and 5 tables, Astronomy and Astrophysics accepted. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1108.3897
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

The data from all observations of RX J0720.4-3125 conducted by XMM-Newton EPIC-pn with the same instrumental setup in 2000-2012 were reprocessed to form a homogenous data set of solar barycenter corrected photon arrival times registered from RX J0720.4-3125. A Bayesian method for the search, detection, and estimation of the parameters of an unknown-shaped periodic signal was employed as developed by Gregory & Loredo (1992).
A number of complex models (single and double peaked) of light curves from pulsating neutron stars were statistically analyzed. The distribution of phases for the registered photons was calculated by folding the arrival times with the derived spin-period and the resulting distribution of phases approximated with a mixed von Mises distribution, and its parameters were estimated by using the Expected Maximization method. Spin phase-resolved spectra were extracted, and a number of highly magnetized atmosphere models of an INS were used to fit simultaneously, the results were verified via an MCMC approach. The phase-folded light curves in different energy bands with high S/N ratio show a high complexity and variations depending on time and energy.
They can be parameterized with a mixed von Mises distribution, i.e. with double-peaked light curve profile showing a dependence of the estimated parameters (mean directions, concentrations, and proportion) upon the energy band, indicating that radiation emerges from at least two emitting areas.
The genuine spin-period of the isolated neutron star RX J0720-3125 derived as more likely is twice of that reported in the literature (16.78s instead of 8.39s).
The gravitational redshift of RX J0720.4-3125 was determined to $z=0.205_{-0.003}^{+0.006}$ and the compactness was estimated to $(M/M_{Sun})/R(km)=0.105 \pm 0.002 $.

[37]  arXiv:1702.07641 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): Formation and Growth of Elliptical Galaxies in the Group Environment
Comments: 12 pages, 9 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

There are many proposed mechanisms driving the morphological transformation of disk galaxies to elliptical galaxies. In this paper, we determine if the observed transformation in low mass groups can be explained by the merger histories of galaxies. We measured the group mass-morphology relation for groups from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly group catalogue with masses from 10$^{11}$ - 10$^{15}$ M$_{\odot}$. Contrary to previous studies, the fraction of elliptical galaxies in our more complete group sample increases significantly with group mass across the full range of group mass. The elliptical fraction increases at a rate of 0.163$\pm$0.012 per dex of group mass for groups more massive than 10$^{12.5}$ M$_{\odot}$. If we allow for uncertainties in the observed group masses, our results are consistent with a continuous increase in elliptical fraction from group masses as low as 10$^{11}$M$_{\odot}$. We tested if this observed relation is consistent with merger activity using a GADGET-2 dark matter simulation of the galaxy groups. We specified that a simulated galaxy would be transformed to an elliptical morphology either if it experienced a major merger or if its cumulative mass gained from minor mergers exceeded 30 per cent of its final mass. We then calculated a group mass-morphology relation for the simulations. The position and slope of the simulated relation were consistent with the observational relation, with a gradient of 0.184$\pm$0.010 per dex of group mass. These results demonstrate a strong correlation between the frequency of merger events and disk-to-elliptical galaxy transformation in galaxy group environments.

[38]  arXiv:1702.07661 [pdf, other]
Title: Resonant particle production during inflation: a full analytical study
Comments: 34 pages, 6 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We revisit the study of the phenomenology associated to a burst of particle production of a field whose mass is controlled by the inflaton field and vanishes at one given instance during inflation. This generates a bump in the correlators of the primordial scalar curvature. We provide a unified formalism to compute various effects that have been obtained in the literature and confirm that the dominant effects are due to the rescattering of the produced particles on the inflaton condensate. We improve over existing results (based on numerical fits) by providing exact analytic expressions for the shape and height of the bump, both in the power spectrum and the equilateral bispectrum. We then study the regime of validity of the perturbative computations of this signature. Finally, we extend these computations to the case of a burst of particle production in a sector coupled only gravitationally to the inflaton.

[39]  arXiv:1702.07666 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 C$_3$F$_8$ Bubble Chamber
Comments: 6 pages, 6 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); High Energy Physics - Experiment (hep-ex); Instrumentation and Detectors (physics.ins-det)

New results are reported from the operation of the PICO-60 dark matter detector, a bubble chamber filled with 52 kg of C$_3$F$_8$ located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory. As in previous PICO bubble chambers, PICO-60 C$_3$F$_8$ exhibits excellent electron recoil and alpha decay rejection, and the observed multiple-scattering neutron rate indicates a single-scatter neutron background of less than 1 event per month. A blind analysis of an efficiency-corrected 1167-kg-day exposure at a 3.3-keV thermodynamic threshold reveals no single-scattering nuclear recoil candidates, consistent with the predicted background. These results set the most stringent direct-detection constraint to date on the WIMP-proton spin-dependent cross section at 3.4 $\times$ 10$^{-41}$ cm$^2$ for a 30-GeV$\thinspace$c$^{-2}$ WIMP, more than one order of magnitude improvement from previous PICO results.

[40]  arXiv:1702.07675 [pdf, other]
Title: Finding Strong Gravitational Lenses in the Kilo Degree Survey with Convolutional Neural Networks
Comments: 23 pages, 17 figures. Abstract abridged. Submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

The volume of data that will be produced by new-generation surveys requires automatic classification methods to select and analyze sources. Indeed, this is the case for the search for strong gravitational lenses, where the population of the detectable lensed sources is only a very small fraction of the full source population. In this paper, we present a morphological classification method for recognizing strong gravitational lenses. The method, based on a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), is applied to $255$ square degrees of the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS), one of the current-generation optical wide surveys conducted with the VLT survey telescope (VST). The current CNN is optimized to recognize lenses with Einstein radii $> 1.4$ arcsec, about twice the $r$-band seeing in KiDS. We construct a sample of $21789$ color-magnitude selected Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG) of which three are known lenses. From this sample the CNN retrieves 761 strong-lens candidates and correctly classifies two out of three of the known lenses. The misclassified lens has an Einstein radius well below the range on which the algorithm is trained. We down-select the most reliable 56 candidates by a joint visual inspection. This final sample is presented and discussed. A consistency check on the estimated Einstein radii of the final sample of candidates suggests that it is likely composed of $\sim$22 reliable lenses. A result consistent with what is expected from lens-statistics simulations, when applying our color-magnitude and Einstein-radius cuts. A conservative estimate based on our results shows that with our proposed method it should be possible to find $\sim100$ massive LRG-galaxy lenses at $z< 0.4$ in KiDS when completed. In the most optimistic scenario this number can grow considerably (to maximally $\sim$2400 lenses). [Abridged]

[41]  arXiv:1702.07677 [pdf, other]
Title: Very-high-energy gamma-ray observations of the Type Ia Supernova SN 2014J with the MAGIC telescopes
Authors: MAGIC Collaboration: M. L. Ahnen (1), S. Ansoldi (2,25), L. A. Antonelli (3), P. Antoranz (4), C. Arcaro (5), A. Babic (6), B. Banerjee (7), P. Bangale (8), U. Barres de Almeida (8,26), J. A. Barrio (9), J. Becerra González (10,11,27), W. Bednarek (12), E. Bernardini (13,28), A. Berti (2,29), B. Biasuzzi (2), A. Biland (1), O. Blanch (14), S. Bonnefoy (9), G. Bonnoli (4), F. Borracci (8), T. Bretz (15,30), R. Carosi (4), A. Carosi (3), A. Chatterjee (7), P. Colin (8), E. Colombo (10,11), J. L. Contreras (9), J. Cortina (14), S. Covino (3), P. Cumani (14), P. Da Vela (4), F. Dazzi (8), A. De Angelis (5), B. De Lotto (2), E. de Oña Wilhelmi (16), F. Di Pierro (3), M. Doert (17), A. Domínguez (9), D. Dominis Prester (6), D. Dorner (15), M. Doro (5), S. Einecke (17), D. Eisenacher Glawion (15), et al. (108 additional authors not shown)
Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures. Accepted for publication in A&A
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

In this work we present data from observations with the MAGIC telescopes of SN 2014J detected in January 21 2014, the closest Type Ia supernova since Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes started to operate. We probe the possibility of very-high-energy (VHE; $E\geq100$ GeV) gamma rays produced in the early stages of Type Ia supernova explosions. We performed follow-up observations after this supernova explosion for 5 days, between January 27 and February 2 in 2014. We search for gamma-ray signal in the energy range between 100 GeV and several TeV from the location of SN 2014J using data from a total of $\sim5.5$ hours of observations. Prospects for observing gamma-rays of hadronic origin from SN 2014J in the near future are also being addressed. No significant excess was detected from the direction of SN 2014J. Upper limits at 95$\%$ confidence level on the integral flux, assuming a power-law spectrum, d$F/$d$E\propto E^{-\Gamma}$, with a spectral index of $\Gamma=2.6$, for energies higher than 300 GeV and 700 GeV, are established at $1.3\times10^{-12}$ and $4.1\times10^{-13}$ photons~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, respectively. For the first time, upper limits on the VHE emission of a Type Ia supernova are established. The energy fraction isotropically emitted into TeV gamma rays during the first $\sim10$ days after the supernova explosion for energies greater than 300 GeV is limited to $10^{-6}$ of the total available energy budget ($\sim 10^{51}$ erg). Within the assumed theoretical scenario, the MAGIC upper limits on the VHE emission suggest that SN 2014J will not be detectable in the future by any current or planned generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes.

[42]  arXiv:1702.07682 [pdf, other]
Title: Polluting White Dwarfs with Perturbed Exo-Comets
Comments: 9 pages, 5 figures, submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

We present a model to account for the observed debris disks around young white dwarfs and the presence of metal-lines in their spectra. Stellar evolution models predict that the mass-loss on the AGB will be pulsed and furthermore, observations indicate that the bulk of the mass-loss occurs on the AGB. In this case, if the progenitors of the white dwarfs had remnants of planetary formation like the Sun's Oort cloud or the Kuiper Belt and a planet lying within that cloud or nearby, we find that between 0.06% to 2.3% of the planetesimals will fall either into planet-crossing orbits or into chaotic regions after the mass-loss, depending on the location and mass of the planet (from Mars to Neptune). This yields a sufficient mass of comets that can be scattered toward the star, form a debris disk and pollute the atmosphere.

[43]  arXiv:1702.07684 [pdf, other]
Title: Critical study of the distribution of rotational velocities of Be stars; II: Differential rotation and some hidden effects interfering with the interpretation of the Vsin i parameter
Comments: To appear in A&A
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We assume that stars may undergo surface differential rotation to study its impact on the interpretation of $V\!\sin i$ and on the observed distribution $\Phi(u)$ of ratios of true rotational velocities $u=V/V_\rm c$ ($V_\rm c$ is the equatorial critical velocity). We discuss some phenomena affecting the formation of spectral lines and their broadening, which can obliterate the information carried by $V\!\sin i$ concerning the actual stellar rotation. We studied the line broadening produced by several differential rotational laws, but adopted Maunder's expression $\Omega(\theta)=\Omega_o(1+\alpha\cos^2\theta)$ as an attempt to account for all of these laws with the lowest possible number of free parameters. We studied the effect of the differential rotation parameter $\alpha$ on the measured $V\!\sin i$ parameter and on the distribution $\Phi(u)$ of ratios $u=V/V_\rm c$. We conclude that the inferred $V\!\sin i$ is smaller than implied by the actual equatorial linear rotation velocity $V_\rm eq$ if the stars rotate with $\alpha<0$, but is larger if the stars have $\alpha>0$. For a given $|\alpha|$ the deviations of $V\!\sin i$ are larger when $\alpha<0$. If the studied Be stars have on average $\alpha<0$, the number of rotators with $V_\rm eq\simeq0.9V_\rm c$ is larger than expected from the observed distribution $\Phi(u)$; if these stars have on average $\alpha>0$, this number is lower than expected. We discuss seven phenomena that contribute either to narrow or broaden spectral lines, which blur the information on the rotation carried by $V\!\sin i$ and, in particular, to decide whether the Be phenomenon mostly rely on the critical rotation. We show that two-dimensional radiation transfer calculations are needed in rapid rotators to diagnose the stellar rotation more reliably.

[44]  arXiv:1702.07687 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Reconstructing the velocity dispersion profiles from the line-of-sight kinematic data in disc galaxies
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present a modification of the method for reconstructing the stellar velocity ellipsoid (SVE) in disc galaxies. Our version does not need any parametrization of the velocity dispersion profiles and uses only one assumption that the ratio $\sigma_z/\sigma_R$ remains constant along the profile or along several pieces of the profile. The method was tested on two galaxies from the sample of other authors and for the first time was applied to three lenticular galaxies NGC~1167, NGC~3245 and NGC~4150 as well as to one Sab galaxy NGC~338. We found that for galaxies with a high inclination ($i >55-60^\circ$) it is difficult or rather impossible to extract the information about SVE while for galaxies at an intermediate inclination the procedure of extracting is successful. For NGC~1167 we managed to reconstruct SVE, provided that the value of $\sigma_z/\sigma_R$ is piecewise constant. We found $\sigma_z/\sigma_R=0.7$ for the inner parts of the disc and $\sigma_z/\sigma_R=0.3$ for the outskirts. We also obtained a rigid constrain on the value of the radial velocity dispersion $\sigma_R$ for highly inclined galaxies and tested the result using the asymmetric drift equation, provided that the gas rotation curve is available.