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J.P. Magué & B. Ménard

[1]
Title: Using Gas Kinematics To Constrain 3D Models of Disks: IC 2531
Comments: 4 pages, 3 figures. To appear in the conference proceedings of The Structure and Dynamics of Disk Galaxies, M.S. Seigar and P. Treuthardt, eds
Subjects: Galaxy Astrophysics (astro-ph.GA)

We use deep, longslit spectra of the nearby edge on galaxy IC 2531 to obtain gas kinematics out to 5 radial scale-lengths (40 kpc) and 4 vertical scale-heights (1.7 kpc). The large vertical range spanned by our data offers unique leverage to constrain three-dimensional models. The shape of the observed emission-line profiles offer insights to line-of-sight density distributions in the disk, and we discuss the possibility that we are seeing disk-flaring in the ionized gas. Finally, we begin to quantify measurements of line shape to allow model galaxies to be compared to data across all radii and heights simultaneously.

[2]
Title: Spatially resolved LMC star formation history: I. Outside in evolution of the outer LMC disk
Authors: I. Meschin (1,2), C. Gallart (1,2), A. Aparicio (1,2), S.L. Hidalgo (1,2), M. Monelli (1,2), P.B. Stetson (3), R. Carrera (1,2) ((1) Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Spain (2) Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, Spain (3) NRC Herzberg Institute for Astrophysics, Canada)
Comments: 15 pages, 13 figures, 4 tables. MNRAS, in press
Subjects: Galaxy Astrophysics (astro-ph.GA)

We study the evolution of three fields in the outer LMC disk Rgc=3.5-6.2 Kpc. Their star formation history indicates a stellar populations gradient such that younger stellar populations are more centrally concentrated. We identify two main star forming epochs, separated by a period of lower activity between ~7 and ~4 Gyr ago. Their relative importance varies from a similar amount of stars formed in the two epochs in the innermost field, to only 40% of the stars formed in the more recent epoch in the outermost field. The young star forming epoch continues to the present time in the innermost field, but lasted only till ~0.8 and 1.3 Gyr ago at Rgc=5.5 degrees and 7.1 degrees, respectively. This gradient is correlated with the measured HI column density and implies an outside-in quenching of the star formation, possibly related to a variation of the size of the HI disk. This could either result from gas depletion due to star formation or ram-pressure stripping, or from to the compression of the gas disk as ram-pressure from the Milky Way halo acted on the LMC interstellar medium. The latter two situations may have occurred when the LMC first approached the Milky Way.

[3]
Title: On the mass of the Local Group
Subjects: Cosmology and Extragalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); Galaxy Astrophysics (astro-ph.GA)

We use recent proper motion measurements of the tangential velocity of M31, along with its radial velocity and distance, to derive the likelihood of the sum of halo masses of the Milky Way and M31. This is done using a sample halo pairs in the Bolshoi cosmological simulation of $\Lambda$CDM cosmology selected to match properties and environment of the Local Group. The resulting likelihood gives estimate of the sum of masses of $M_{\rm MW,200}+M_{\rm M31,200}=$ $2.40_{-1.05}^{+1.95}\times10^{12}\,M_{\odot}$ ($90\%$ confidence interval). This estimate is consistent with individual mass estimates for the Milky Way and M31 and is consistent, albeit somewhat on the low side, with the mass estimated using the timing argument. We show that although the timing argument is unbiased on average for all pairs, for pairs constrained to have radial and tangential velocities similar to that of the Local Group the argument overestimates the sum of masses by a factor of $1.6$. Using similar technique we estimate the total dark matter mass enclosed within $1$ Mpc from the Local Group barycenter to be $M_{\rm LG}(r<1\, {\rm Mpc})=4.2_{-2.0}^{+3.4}\times10^{12}\,M_{\odot}$ ($90\%$ confidence interval).

[4]
Title: A Tale of Two Redshifts
Subjects: Cosmology and Extragalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

There are two redshifts in cosmology: $z_o$, the observed redshift defined by spectral lines, and the model redshift, $z$. In general they are not the same, evoking the question of what constraints can be placed on a general relationship between the two, $z = f(z_o)$? Such a general remapping is degenerate with cosmic dynamics for either $d_L(z)$ or $H(z)$ observations alone: the simple remapping $z = \alpha_1 z_o+\alpha_2z_o^2$ allows an Einstein de Sitter universe to fit the observed supernova Hubble diagram as successfully as $\Lambda$CDM. However redshift remapping leaves distinct observational signatures which allow us to both strongly constrain remapping and reaffirm acceleration when current $d_A, d_L$ and $H(z)$ data are combined. Remapping can significantly change the inferred values of data points, blurring the line between theory and data and creating tension between different estimates of parameters such as $H_0$. While constraining specific models with redshift remapping requires careful analysis, our results suggest it provides a powerful new test of backreaction and non-standard physics.

[5]
Title: Overlapping Inflow Events as Catalysts for Supermassive Black Hole Growth
Comments: 17 pages, 20 figures. MNRAS accepted
Subjects: Galaxy Astrophysics (astro-ph.GA); Fluid Dynamics (physics.flu-dyn)

One of the greatest issues in modelling black hole fuelling is our lack of understanding of the processes by which gas loses angular momentum and falls from galactic scales down to the nuclear region where an accretion disc forms, subsequently guiding the inflow of gas down to the black hole horizon. It is feared that gas at larger scales might still retain enough angular momentum and settle into a larger scale disc with very low or no inflow to form or replenish the inner accretion disc (on ~0.01 pc scales). In this paper we report on hydrodynamical simulations of rotating infalling gas shells impacting at different angles onto a pre-existing, primitive large scale (~10 pc) disc around a super-massive black hole. The aim is to explore how the interaction between the shell and the disc redistributes the angular momentum on scales close to the black hole's sphere of influence. Angular momentum redistribution via hydrodynamical shocks leads to inflows of gas across the inner boundary, enhancing the inflow rate by more than 2-3 orders of magnitude. In all cases, the gas inflow rate across the inner parsec is higher than in the absence of the interaction, and the orientation of the angular momentum of the flow in the region changes with time due to gas mixing. Warped discs or nested misaligned rings form depending on the angular momentum content of the infalling shell relative to the disc. In the cases in which the shell falls in near counter-rotation, part of the resulting flows settle into an inner dense disc which becomes more susceptible to mass transfer.

[6]
Title: The statistical distribution of magnetic field strength in G-band bright points
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

G-band bright points are small-sized features characterized by high photometric contrast. Theoretical investigations indicate that these features have associated magnetic field strengths between 1-2 kG. Results from observations instead lead to contradictory results, indicating magnetic fields of only kG strength in some and including hG strengths in others. In order to understand the differences between measurements reported in the literature, and to reconcile them with results from theory, we analyze the distribution of magnetic field strength of G-band bright features identified on synthetic images of the solar photosphere, and its sensitivity to observational and methodological effects. We investigate the dependence of magnetic field strength distributions of G-band bright points identified in 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations on feature selection method, data sampling, alignment and spatial resolution. The distribution of magnetic field strength of G-band bright features shows two peaks, one at about 1.5 kG and one below 1 hG. The former corresponds to magnetic features,the second mostly to bright granules. Peaks at several hG are obtained only on spatially degraded or misalligned data. Simulations show that magnetic G-band bright points have typically associated field strengths of few kG. Field strengths in the hG range can result from observational effects, thus explaining the discrepancies presented in the literature. Our results also indicate that outcomes from spectro-polarimetric inversions with imposed unit filling-factor should be employed with great caution.

[7]
Title: Magnetic fields in cosmological simulations of disk galaxies
Subjects: Cosmology and Extragalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

Observationally, magnetic fields reach equipartition with thermal energy and cosmic rays in the interstellar medium of disk galaxies such as the Milky Way. However, thus far cosmological simulations of the formation and evolution of galaxies have usually neglected magnetic fields. We employ the moving-mesh code \textsc{Arepo} to follow for the first time the formation and evolution of a Milky Way-like disk galaxy in its full cosmological context while taking into account magnetic fields. We find that a prescribed tiny magnetic seed field grows exponentially by a small-scale dynamo until it saturates around $z=4$ with a magnetic energy of about $10\%$ of the kinetic energy in the center of the galaxy's main progenitor halo. By $z=2$, a well-defined gaseous disk forms in which the magnetic field is further amplified by differential rotation, until it saturates at an average field strength of $\sim 6 \mu \mathrm{G}$ in the disk plane. In this phase, the magnetic field is transformed from a chaotic small-scale field to an ordered large-scale field coherent on scales comparable to the disk radius. The final magnetic field strength, its radial profile and the stellar structure of the disk compare well with observational data. A minor merger temporarily increases the magnetic field strength by about a factor of two, before it quickly decays back to its saturation value. Our results are highly insensitive to the initial seed field strength and suggest that the large-scale magnetic field in spiral galaxies can be explained as a result of the cosmic structure formation process.

[8]
Title: First hard X-ray detection of the non-thermal emission around the Arches cluster: morphology and spectral studies with NuSTAR
Comments: 15 pages, 9 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ
Subjects: Galaxy Astrophysics (astro-ph.GA); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The Arches cluster is a young, densely packed massive star cluster in our Galaxy that shows a high level of star formation activity. The nature of the extended non-thermal X-ray emission around the cluster remains unclear. The observed bright Fe K_alpha line emission at 6.4 keV from material that is neutral or in a low ionization state can be produced either by X-ray photoionization or by cosmic-ray particle bombardment or both. In this paper we report on the first detection of the extended emission around the Arches cluster above 10 keV with the NuSTAR mission, and present results on its morphology and spectrum. The spatial distribution of the hard X-ray emission is found to be consistent with the broad region around the cluster where the 6.4 keV line is observed. The interpretation of the hard X-ray emission within the context of the X-ray reflection model puts a strong constraint on the luminosity of the possible illuminating hard X-ray source. The properties of the observed emission are also in broad agreement with the low-energy cosmic-ray proton excitation scenario.

[9]
Comments: 7 pages, 6 figures, 1 table; submitted to ApJ
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We present observations of the eccentric gamma-ray binary B1259-63/LS2883 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The images reveal a variable, extended about 4'', or about 1000 times the binary orbit size) structure, which appears to be moving away from the binary with the velocity of 0.05 of the speed of light. The observed emission is interpreted as synchrotron radiation from relativistic particles supplied by the pulsar. However, the fast motion through the circumbinary medium would require the emitting cloud to be loaded with a large amount of baryonic matter. Alternatively, the extended emission can be interpreted as a variable extrabinary shock in the pulsar wind outflow launched near binary apastron. The resolved variable X-ray nebula provides an opportunity to probe pulsar winds and their interaction with stellar winds in a previously inaccessible way.

[10]
Title: High energy emission of GRB 130821A: constraining the density profile of the circum-burst medium as well as the initial Lorentz factor of the outflow
Authors: Yun-Feng Liang, Bei Zhou, Hao-Ning He (Purple Mountain Observatory), Pak-Hin Thomas Tam (National Tsing Hua Univ.), Yi-Zhong Fan, Da-Ming Wei (Purple Mountain Observatory)
Comments: 7 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables, ApJ, in press
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

GRB 130821A was detected by Fermi-GBM/LAT, Konus-Wind, SPI-ACS/INTEGRAL, RHESSI and Mars Odyssey-HEND. Although the data of GRB 130821A are very limited, we show in this work that the high energy gamma-ray emission (i.e., above 100 MeV) alone imposes tight constraint on the density profile of the circum-burst medium as well as the initial Lorentz factor of the outflow. The temporal behavior of the high energy gamma-ray emission is consistent with the forward shock synchrotron radiation model and the circum-burst medium likely has a constant-density profile. The Lorentz factor is about a few hundred, similar to other bright GRBs.

[11]
Title: Dispersion in Neptune's Zonal Wind Velocities from NIR Keck AO Observations in July 2009
Comments: 31 pages, 13 Figures, 3 Tables, Accepted for publication in Astrophysics and Space Science
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

We report observations of Neptune made in H-(1.4-1.8 {\mu}m) and K'-(2.0-2.4 {\mu}m) bands on 14 and 16 July 2009 from the 10-m W.M. Keck II Telescope using the near-infrared camera NIRC2 coupled to the Adaptive Optics (AO) system. We track the positions of 54 bright atmospheric features over a few hours to derive their zonal and latitudinal velocities, and perform radiative transfer modeling to measure the cloud-top pressures of 50 features seen simultaneously in both bands.
We observe one South Polar Feature (SPF) on 14 July and three SPFs on 16 July at ~65 deg S. The SPFs observed on both nights are different features, consistent with the high variability of Neptune's storms.
There is significant dispersion in Neptune's zonal wind velocities about the smooth Voyager wind profile fit of Sromovsky et al., Icarus 105, 140 (1993), much greater than the upper limit we expect from vertical wind shear, with the largest dispersion seen at equatorial and southern mid-latitudes. Comparison of feature pressures vs. residuals in zonal velocity from the smooth Voyager wind profile also directly reveals the dominance of mechanisms over vertical wind shear in causing dispersion in the zonal winds.
Vertical wind shear is not the primary cause of the difference in dispersion and deviation in zonal velocities between features tracked in H-band on 14 July and those tracked in K'-band on 16 July. Dispersion in the zonal velocities of features tracked over these short time periods is dominated by one or more mechanisms, other than vertical wind shear, that can cause changes in the dispersion and deviation in the zonal velocities on timescales of hours to days.

[12]
Title: Magnetic field decay of magnetars in supernova remnants
Comments: 17 Pages, 8 Figures, Published in Astrophys. Space. Sci. 2012. 342, 55-71
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

In this paper, we modify our previous research carefully, and derive a new expression of electron energy density in superhigh magnetic fields. Based on our improved model, we re-compute the electron capture rates and the magnetic fields' evolutionary timescales $t$ of magnetars. According to the calculated results, the superhigh magnetic fields may evolve on timescales $\sim (10^{6}-10^{7})$ yrs for common magnetars, and the maximum timescale of the field decay, $t\approx 2.9507 \times 10^{6}$ yrs, corresponding to an initial internal magnetic field $B_{\rm 0}= 3.0 \times 10^ {15}$ G and an initial inner temperature $T_{\rm 0}= 2.6 \times 10^ {8}$ K. Motivated by the results of the neutron star-supernova remnant(SNR) association of Zhang $\&$ Xie(2011), we calculate the maximum $B_{\rm 0}$ of magnetar progenitors, $B_{\rm max}\sim (2.0\times 10^{14}-2.93 \times 10^{15})$ G when $T_{\rm 0}= 2.6 \times 10^ {8}$ K. When $T_{\rm 0}\sim 2.75 \times 10^ {8}-~1.75 \times 10^ {8}$ K, the maximum $B_{\rm 0}$ will also be in the range of $\sim 10^{14}-10^{15}$ G, not exceeding the upper limit of magnetic field of a magnetar under our magnetar model. We also investigate the relationship between the spin-down ages of magnetars and the ages of their SNRs, and explain why all AXPs associated with SNRs look older than their real ages, whereas all SGRs associated with SNRs appear younger than they are.

[13]
Title: Finding galaxies with unusual HI content
Comments: (4 pages, 2 figures). To appear in the ASP Conf. Ser. "Structure and Dynamics of Disk Galaxies" - Petit Jean Mountain, Arkansas, USA (12-16 August 2013), M.Seigar and P.Treuthardt, eds
Subjects: Cosmology and Extragalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

Observations show that galaxies in galaxy clusters are strongly influenced by their environment. There is growing evidence that some galaxies in groups show similar properties to galaxies in clusters, such as redder colours and gas deficiency, highlighting that environmental processes are also effective on galaxy group scales. The question is though, which mechanisms are important in low density environments? To answer this, we identify gas deficient galaxies to investigate recent or ongoing environmental processes, such as gas stripping. We are using scaling relations between the neutral hydrogen (HI) content and optical properties of galaxies to identify galaxies with significantly less HI than an average galaxy of the same type. We derive new, multi wavelength HI-optical scaling relations using the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) with optical and near infrared datasets. We also show our preliminary results from observations of a sample of 6 HI-deficient galaxies, which we identified in low density environments.

[14]
Title: To the Origin of Anomalous Torque Acting on a Rotating Magnetized Ball in Vacuum
Journal-ref: Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute, 2013, Vol. 40, No. 9, pp. 265-267
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The magnitude of the anomalous torque acting on a rotating magnetized ball in vacuum is specified. Its value is shown to depend on the magnetic field structure inside the body.

[15]
Title: Inhomogeneous cosmology, inflation and beyond
Authors: Günter Scharf
Subjects: Cosmology and Extragalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

Solving the coupled Einstein and geodesic equations in the cosmic rest frame we obtain a new description of the early universe which is alternative to the standard model. It shows exponential expansion without assuming any inflaton field. Adding radiation the model becomes acceptable for all times.

[16]
Title: Fast and accurate CMB computations in non-flat FLRW universes
Comments: 30 pages and 27 figures, prepared for submission to JCAP. Code available at this http URL
Subjects: Cosmology and Extragalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We present a new method for calculating CMB anisotropies in a non-flat Friedmann universe, relying on a very stable algorithm for the calculation of hyperspherical Bessel functions, that can be pushed to arbitrary precision levels. We also introduce a new approximation scheme which gradually takes over in the flat space limit, and significant speeds-up calculations. Our method is implemented in the Boltzmann code CLASS. It can be used to benchmark the accuracy of the CAMB code in curved space, which is found to match expectations. For default precision settings, corresponding to 0.1% for scalar temperature spectra and 0.2% for scalar polarisation spectra, our code is two to three times faster, depending on curvature. We also simplify the temperature and polarisation source terms significantly, so the different contributions to the $C_\ell$'s are easy to identify inside the code.

[17]
Title: Landau level-superfluid modified factor and effective X/$γ$-ray coefficient of a magnetar
Comments: 13 Pages, 2 Figures, Published in Astrophys. Space. Sci. 2011. 336, P.427-439
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

As soon as the energy of electrons near the Fermi surface are higher than $Q$, the threshold energy of inverse $\beta-$ decay, the electron capture process will dominate. The resulting high-energy neutrons will destroy anisotropic ${}^3P_2$ neutron superfluid Cooper pairs. By colliding with the neutrons produced in the process $n+ (n\uparrow n\downarrow)\longrightarrow n+ n+ n$, the kinetic energy of the outgoing neutrons will be transformed into thermal energy. The transformed thermal energy would transported from the star interior to the star surface by conduction, then would be transformed into radiation energy as soft X-rays and gamma-rays. After a highly efficient modulation within the pulsar magnetosphere, the surface thermal emission (mainly soft X/$\gamma$-ray emission) has been shaped into a spectrum with the observed characteristics of magnetars. By introducing two important parameters: Landau level-superfluid modified factor and effective X/$\gamma$-ray coefficient, we numerically simulate the process of magnetar cooling and magnetic field decay, and then compute magnetars' soft X/$\gamma$-ray luminosities $L_{X}$. Further, we obtain aschematic diagrams of $L_{X}$ as a function of magnetic field strength $B$. The observations are compared with the calculations.

[18]
Title: Evolution of superhigh magnetic fields of magnetars
Comments: 8 Pages, 3 Figures, Published in Astrophys. Space. Sci. 2011. 333, p.427-435
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

In this paper, we consider the effect of Landau levels on the decay of superhigh magnetic fields of magnetars. Applying ${}^3P_2$ anisotropic neutron superfluid theory yield a second-order differential equation for a superhigh magnetic field $B$ and its evolutionary timescale $t$. The superhigh magnetic fields may evolve on timescales $\sim (10^{6}-10^{7})$ yrs for common magnetars. According to our model, the activity of a magnetar may originate from instability caused by the high electron Fermi energy.

[19]
Title: On the long nulls of PSRs J1738-2330 and J1752+2359
Comments: 13 Pages, 15 Figures, Accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

This paper compares and contrasts the emission of two high nulling fraction pulsars, PSRs J1738-2330 and J1752+2359. In both pulsars the emission bursts appear in a quasi-periodic fashion with typical separations of several hundred pulses, and in J1738-2330 there is evidence of two underlying periodicities with memory persisting for at least 11 bursts. By contrast, in J1752+2359 the pattern coherence is rapidly lost and the burst/null lengths appear to be selected randomly from their respective quasi-normal distributions. The typical emission bursts of J1738-2330 exhibit a steady exponential decay of on-pulse energy accompanied by a flickering emission characterized by short frequent nulls towards their end. In the bursts of J1752+2359 the flickering is absent, the decay more pronounced and the energy released during each bright phase is approximately constant. Unlike J1738-2330, the average profiles for the first and the last pulses of J1752+2359 bursts differ slightly from the pulsar's overall profile, hinting at differences between the two pulsars in their transitions from null to burst state (and vice-versa). During its long null phases, J1752+2359 is found to emit random weak inter-burst pulses (IBPs) whose profile peak is somewhat offset with respect to the overall average profile. Such pulses have no equivalent in J1738-2330 or in any known pulsar hitherto. They may pervade the entire emission of this pulsar and have a separate physical origin to normal pulses. On the basis of our comparison we conclude that a pulsar's nulling fraction, even when high, remains a poor guide to its detailed subpulse behaviour, as previously found for pulsars with small nulling fractions.

[20]
Title: Numerical simulation of the electron capture process in a magnetar interior
Comments: 10 Pages, 3 Figures, Published in Astrophys. Space. Sci. 2011. 332, P.129-138
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

In a superhigh magnetic field, direct Urca reactions can proceed for an arbitrary proton concentration. Since only the electrons with high energy $E$ ($E > Q$, $Q$ is the threshold energy of inverse $\beta-$decay) at large Landau levels can be captured, we introduce the Landau level effect coefficient $q$ and the effective electron capture rate $\Gamma_{\rm eff}$. By using $\Gamma_{\rm eff}$, the values of $L_{\rm X}$ and $L_{\rm \nu}$ are calculated, where and $L_{\rm \nu}$, $L_{\rm X}$ are the average neutrino luminosity of Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and the average X-ray luminosity of AXPs, respectively. The complete process of electron capture inside a magnetar is simulated numerically.

[21]
Title: On the Evolution of BM Orionis
Comments: 7 pages, 3 figures, published in Jurnal Matematika Sains (jms.fmipa.itb.ac.id)
Journal-ref: Jurnal Matematika & Sains, year 2013, vol. 18, no. 1, page 31-37
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

BM Orionis, eclipsing binary system that located in the center of Orion Nebula Cluster posses several enigmatic problems. Its intrinsic nature and nebular environment make it harder to measure the physical parameters of the system, but it is believed as Algol type binary where secondary component is pre-main sequence star with larger radius. To assure this, several stellar models ($M_1=5.9$ {M_{\odot}} and $M_2=2.0$ {M_{\odot}}) are created and simulated using MESA. Models with rigid rotation of $\omega=10^{-5}$ rad/s exhibit considerable similar properties during pre-main sequence stage, but 2.0 {\msun} at assumed age of $\sim10^6$ is $6.46$ times dimmer than observed secondary star. There must be an external mechanism to fill this luminosity gap. Then, simulated post-main sequence binary evolution of BM Ori that involves mass transfer shows that primary star will reach helium sequence with the mass of $\sim0.8$ {\msun} before second stage mass transfer.

[22]
Title: Physical parameters of young M-type stars and brown dwarfs with VOSA
Comments: 8 pages, 4 figures, accepted for refereed proceedings of the International Workshop on Stellar Spectral Libraries 2013
Journal-ref: Astronomical Society of India Conference Series (ASICS), P. Prugniel and H. P. Singh (Editors), 2014
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Although M dwarfs are the most common stars in our stellar neighborhood they are still among the least understood. This class of objects is dominated by dramatic changes: in their interiors (fully convective, with implications in angular momentum evolution), in their atmospheres (crossing temperatures where dust settling occurs), and in their nature (including both, stellar and substellar objects).
Populating efficiently our solar neighborhood, they are very well represented in the databases coming from new and more sensitive surveys that provide photometry at many wavelength ranges and cover large areas of the sky (few examples among many others are GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS, WISE and VISTA).
In this context of opulence of objects and data, the Virtual Observatory comes in naturally as an excellent framework to efficiently advance in the knowledge of M-type sources. We put special emphasis in the benefits of using the new capabilities of VOSA (Virtual Observatory SED Analyzer, Bayo et al. 2008; in operation since 2008 and in constant development) to study large samples of candidate and confirmed M members of Chamaeleon I.

[23]
Title: The theoretical instability strip of M dwarf stars
Authors: C. Rodríguez-López (1), J. MacDonald (2), P. J. Amado (1), A. Moya, D. Mullan (2) ((1) Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Spain, (2) University of Delaware, USA)
Comments: 11 pages, 7 figures, 3 tables + 3 appendix tables; accepted for publication in MNRAS (December 3, 2013)
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The overstability of the fundamental radial mode in M dwarf models was theoretically predicted by Rodr\'iguez-L\'opez et al. (2012). The periods were found to be in the ranges ~25-40 min and ~4-8 h, depending on stellar age and excitation mechanism. We have extended our initial M dwarf model grid in mass, metallicity, and mixing length parameter. We have also considered models with boundary conditions from PHOENIX NextGen atmospheres to test their influence on the pulsation spectra. We find instability of non-radial modes with radial orders up to k=3, degree l=0-3, including p and g modes, with the period range extending from 20 min up to 11 h. Furthermore, we find theoretical evidence of the potential of M dwarfs as solar-like oscillators.

[24]
Title: Gas structure inside dust cavities of transition disks: Oph IRS 48 observed by ALMA
Authors: Simon Bruderer (1), Nienke van der Marel (2), Ewine F. van Dishoeck (2 and 1), Tim A. van Kempen (2) ((1) MPE Garching, (2) Leiden Observatory)
Comments: Accepted by A&A, 17 pages, 15 figures
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

(Abridged) Transition disks are recognized by the absence of emission of small dust grains inside a radius of up to several 10s of AUs. Due to the lack of angular resolution and sensitivity, the gas content of such dust holes has not yet been determined, but is of importance to constrain the mechanism leading to the dust holes. Transition disks are thought to currently undergo the process of dispersal, setting an end to the giant planet formation process.
We present new high-resolution observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/ submillimeter Array (ALMA) of gas lines towards the transition disk Oph IRS 48 previously shown to host a large dust trap. ALMA has detected the $J=6-5$ line of $^{12}$CO and C$^{17}$O around 690 GHz (434 $\mu$m) at a resolution of $\sim$0.25$''$ corresponding to $\sim$30 AU (FWHM). The observed gas lines are used to set constraints on the gas surface density profile.
New models of the physical-chemical structure of gas and dust in Oph IRS 48 are developed to reproduce the CO line emission together with the spectral energy distribution (SED) and the VLT-VISIR 18.7 $\mu$m dust continuum images. Integrated intensity cuts and the total spectrum from models having different trial gas surface density profiles are compared to observations. Using the derived surface density profiles, predictions for other CO isotopologues are made, which can be tested by future ALMA observations of the object.
The derived gas surface density profile points to the clearing of the cavity by one or more massive planet/companion rather than just photoevaporation or grain-growth.

[25]
Title: Modelling spectral and timing properties of accreting black holes: the hybrid hot flow paradigm
Comments: 26 pages, 13 figures. To be published in the Space Science Reviews and as hard cover in the Space Sciences Series of ISSI - The Physics of Accretion on to Black Holes (Springer Publisher)
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The general picture that emerged by the end of 1990s from a large set of optical and X-ray, spectral and timing data was that the X-rays are produced in the innermost hot part of the accretion flow, while the optical/infrared (OIR) emission is mainly produced by the irradiated outer thin accretion disc. Recent multiwavelength observations of Galactic black hole transients show that the situation is not so simple. Fast variability in the OIR band, OIR excesses above the thermal emission and a complicated interplay between the X-ray and the OIR light curves imply that the OIR emitting region is much more compact. One of the popular hypotheses is that the jet contributes to the OIR emission and even is responsible for the bulk of the X-rays. However, this scenario is largely ad hoc and is in contradiction with many previously established facts. Alternatively, the hot accretion flow, known to be consistent with the X-ray spectral and timing data, is also a viable candidate to produce the OIR radiation. The hot-flow scenario naturally explains the power-law like OIR spectra, fast OIR variability and its complex relation to the X-rays if the hot flow contains non-thermal electrons (even in energetically negligible quantities), which are required by the presence of the MeV tail in Cyg X-1. The presence of non-thermal electrons also lowers the equilibrium electron temperature in the hot flow model to <100 keV, making it more consistent with observations. Here we argue that any viable model should simultaneously explain a large set of spectral and timing data and show that the hybrid (thermal/non-thermal) hot flow model satisfies most of the constraints.

[26]
Title: Constraints on a decomposed dark fluid with constant adiabatic sound speed by jointing the geometry test and growth rate after Planck
Comments: 10 pages, 5 figures. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1311.3419
Subjects: Cosmology and Extragalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

In this paper, a unified dark fluid with constant adiabatic sound speed is decomposed into cold dark matter interacting with vacuum energy. Based on Markov chain Monte Carlo method, we constrain this model by jointing the geometry and dynamical measurement. The geometry test includes cosmic microwave background radiation from \textit{Planck}, baryon acoustic oscillation, and type Ia supernovae; the dynamic measurement is $f\sigma_8(z)$ data points which is obtained from the growth rate via redshift-space distortion, and $\sigma_8(z)$ is the root-mean-square amplitude of the density contrast $\delta$ at the comoving $8h^{-1}$ Mpc scale. The jointed constraint shows that $\alpha$ = $0.000662_{- 0.000662- 0.000662- 0.000662}^{+ 0.000173+ 0.000886+ 0.00132}$ and $\sigma_8$ = $0.824_{- 0.0166- 0.0279- 0.0314}^{+ 0.0128+ 0.0298+ 0.0422}$. The CMB and matter power spectra are both similar for the case of $\alpha=$ mean value and that of $\alpha=0$. However, the evolutionary curves of $f\sigma_8(z)$ is different. It means that, to some extent, the data points of growth rate could break the degeneracy of the dark energy models.

[27]
Title: Magnetic Doppler Imaging of He-strong star HD 184927
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We have employed an extensive new timeseries of Stokes I and V spectra obtained with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope to investigate the physical parameters, chemical abundance distributions and magnetic field topology of the slowly-rotating He-strong star HD 184927. We infer a rotation period of 9.53071+-0.00120 from H-alpha, H-beta, LSD magnetic measurements and EWs of helium lines. We used an extensive NLTE TLUSTY grid along with the SYNSPEC code to model the observed spectra and find a new value of luminosity. In this poster we present the derived physical parameters of the star and the results of Magnetic Doppler Imaging analysis of the Stokes I and V profiles. Wide wings of helium lines can be described only under the assumption of the presence of a large, very helium-rich spot.

[28]
Title: Magnetic structure of an activated filament in a flaring active region
Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A on Dec 4th 2013
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

While the magnetic field in quiescent prominences has been widely investigated, less is known about the field in activated prominences. We introduce observational results on the magnetic field structure of an activated filament in a flaring active region. We study, in particular, its magnetic structure and line-of-sight flows during its early activated phase, shortly before it displays signs of rotation. We invert the Stokes profiles of the chromospheric He I 10830 A triplet and the photospheric Si I 10827 A line observed in this filament by the VTT on Tenerife. Using these inversion results we present and interpret the first maps of velocity and magnetic field obtained in an activated filament, both in the photosphere and the chromosphere. Up to 5 different magnetic components are found in the chromospheric layers of the filament, while outside the filament a single component is sufficient to reproduce the observations. Magnetic components displaying an upflow are preferentially located towards the centre of the filament, while the downflows are concentrated along its periphery. Also, the upflowing gas is associated with an opposite-polarity magnetic configuration with respect to the photosphere, while the downflowing gas is associated with a same-polarity configuration. The activated filament has a rather complex structure. Nonetheless, it is compatible with a flux rope, although with a distorted one, in the normal configuration. The observations are best explained by a rising flux rope in which a part of the filament material is still stably stored (upflowing material, rising with the field), while a part is no longer stably stored and flows down along the field lines.

[29]
Title: Plasma radio emission from inhomogeneous collisional plasma of a flaring loop
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Plasma Physics (physics.plasm-ph)

The evolution of a solar flare accelerated non-thermal electron population and associated plasma emission is considered in collisional inhomogeneous plasma. Non-thermal electrons collisionally evolve to become unstable and generate Langmuir waves, which may lead to intense radio emission. We self-consistently simulated the collisional relaxation of electrons, wave-particle interactions, and non-linear Langmuir wave evolution in plasma with density fluctuations. Additionally, we simulated the scattering, decay, and coalescence of the Langmuir waves which produce radio emission at the fundamental or the harmonic of the plasma frequency, using an angle-averaged emission model. Long-wavelength density fluctuations, such as are observed in the corona, are seen to strongly suppress the levels of radio emission, meaning that a high level of Langmuir waves can be present without visible radio emission. Additionally, in homogeneous plasma, the emission shows time and frequency variations that could be smoothed out by density inhomogeneities.

[30]
Title: Prolate stars due to meridional flows
Comments: 4 pages, 1 figure; published online in MNRAS letter (in press)
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We have shown analytically that shapes of incompressible stars could be prolate if appropriate meridional flows exist. Although this result is strictly valid only if either the meridional flow or the rotation is absent and the vorticity is associated uniformly with meridional flow, this implies that perpendicular forces against centrifugal and/or magnetic forces might play important roles within stars. A consequence of the presence of meridional flows might be to decrease stellar oblateness due to centrifugal and/or magnetic fields.

[31]
Title: Detection of the tSZ effect with the NIKA camera
Subjects: Cosmology and Extragalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We present the first detection of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect from a cluster of galaxies performed with a KIDs (Kinetic Inductance Detectors) based instrument. The tSZ effect is a distortion of the black body CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) spectrum produced by the inverse Compton interaction of CMB photons with the hot electrons of the ionized intra-cluster medium. The massive, intermediate redshift cluster RX J1347.5-1145 has been observed using NIKA (New IRAM KIDs arrays), a dual-band (140 and 240 GHz) mm-wave imaging camera, which exploits two arrays of hundreds of KIDs: the resonant frequencies of the superconducting resonators are shifted by mm-wave photons absorption. This tSZ cluster observation demonstrates the potential of the next generation NIKA2 instrument, being developed for the 30m telescope of IRAM, at Pico Veleta (Spain). NIKA2 will have 1000 detectors at 140GHz and 2x2000 detectors at 240GHz, providing in that band also a measurement of the linear polarization. NIKA2 will be commissioned in 2015.

[32]
Title: On the origin of variable structures in the winds of hot luminous stars
Comments: 8 pages, 2 figures and 2 tables. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 2013
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Examination of the temporal variability properties of several strong optical recombination lines in a large sample of Galactic Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars reveals possible trends, especially in the more homogeneous WC than the diverse WN subtypes, of increasing wind variability with cooler subtypes. This could imply that a serious contender for the driver of the variations is stochastic, magnetic subsurface convection associated with the 170 kK partial-ionization zone of iron, which should occupy a deeper and larger zone of greater mass in cooler WR subtypes. This empirical evidence suggests that the heretofore proposed ubiquitous driver of wind variability, radiative instabilities, may not be the only mechanism playing a role in the stochastic multiple small-scaled structures seen in the winds of hot luminous stars. In addition to small-scale stochastic behaviour, subsurface convection guided by a global magnetic field with localized emerging loops may also be at the origin of the large-scale corotating interaction regions as seen frequently in O stars and occasionally in the winds of their descendant WR stars.

[33]
Authors: M. J. Reid, M. Honma
Comments: To appear in Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014)
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

Astrometry provides the foundation for astrophysics. Accurate positions are required for the association of sources detected at different times or wavelengths, and distances are essential to estimate the size, luminosity, mass, and ages of most objects. Very Long Baseline Interferometry at radio wavelengths, with diffraction-limited imaging at sub-milliarcsec resolution, has long held the promise of micro-arcsecond astrometry. However, only in the past decade has this been routinely achieved. Currently, parallaxes for sources across the Milky Way are being measured with ~10 uas accuracy and proper motions of galaxies are being determined with accuracies of ~1 uas/y. The astrophysical applications of these measurements cover many fields, including star formation, evolved stars, stellar and super-massive black holes, Galactic structure, the history and fate of the Local Group, the Hubble constant, and tests of general relativity. This review summarizes the methods used and the astrophysical applications of micro-arcsecond radio astrometry.

[34]
Title: Camera Gap Removal in SOLIS/VSM Images
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) instrument on the Synoptic Optical Longterm Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) telescope is capable of obtaining spectropolarimetry for the full Sun (or a select latitudinal range) with one arcsecond spatial resolution and 0.05 Angstrom spectral resolution. This is achieved by scanning the Sun in declination and building up spectral cubes for multiple polarization states, utilizing a beamsplitter and two separate 2k x 2k CCD cameras. As a result, the eastern and western hemispheres of the Sun are separated in preliminary VSM images by a vertical gap with soft edges and variable position and width. Prior to the comprehensive analysis presented in this document, a trial-and-error approach to removing the gap had yielded an algorithm that was inconsistent, undocumented, and responsible for incorrectly eliminating too many image columns. Here we describe, in detail, the basis for a new, streamlined, and properly calibrated prescription for locating and removing the gap that is correct to within approximately one arcsecond (one column).

[35]
Title: On the alignment of PNe and local magnetic field at the galactic centre: MHD numerical simulations
Authors: Diego Falceta-Goncalves (Univ. St-Andrews/UK), Hektor Monteiro (UNIFEI/Brazil)
Subjects: Galaxy Astrophysics (astro-ph.GA)

For the past decade observations of the alignement of PNe symmetries with respect to the galactic disk have led to conflicting results. Recently observational evidence for alignment between PNe and local interstellar magnetic fields in the central part of the Galaxy ($b < 5^\circ$) has been found. We studied the role of the interstellar magnetic field on the dynamical evolution of a PN by means of an analytical model and from 3D MHD numerical simulations. We test under what conditions typical ejecta would have their dynamics severely modified by an interstellar magnetic field. We found that uniform fields of $> 100\mu$G are required in order to be dynamically dominant. This is found to occur only at later evolutionary stages, therefore being unable to change the general morphology of the nebula. However, the symmetry axis of bipolar and elliptical nebulae end up aligned to the external field. This result can explain why different samples of PNe result in different conclusions regarding the alignment of PNe. Objects located at high galactic latitudes, or at large radii, should present no preferential alignment with respect to the galactic plane. PNe located at the galactic centre and low latitudes would, on the other hand, be preferentiably aligned to the disk. Finally, we present synthetic polarization maps of the nebulae to show that the polarization vectors, as well as the field lines at the expanding shell, are not uniform even in the strongly magnetized case, indicating that polarization maps of nebulae are not adequate in probing the orientation, or intensity, of the dominant external field.

[36]
Title: Type Ib SN 1999dn as an example of the thoroughly mixed ejecta of Ib supernovae
Comments: 16 pages, 6 figures, 2 tables. Accepted for publication at MNRAS
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We present the results of modelling archival observations of type Ib SN 1999dn. In the spectra, two He I absorption features are seen: a slower component with larger opacity, and a more rapid He I component with smaller opacity. Complementary results are obtained from modelling the bolometric light curve of SN 1999dn, where a two-zone model (dense inner region, and less dense outer region) provides a much better fit than a one-zone model. A key result we find is that roughly equal amounts of radioactive material are found in both regions. The two-zone analytical model provides a more realistic representation of the structure of the ejecta, including mixing and asymmetries, which offers a physical explanation for how the radioactive material is propelled to, and mixed within, the outer regions. Our result supports the theoretical expectation that the radioactive content in the outflow of a type Ib supernova (SN) is thoroughly mixed. We fit our model to six additional SNe Ibc, of which the majority of the SNe Ib are best described by the two-zone model, and the majority of the SNe Ic by the one-zone model. Of the SNe Ic, only SN 2007gr was best fit by the two-zone model, indicating that the lack of helium spectral features for this event cannot be attributed to poor mixing.

[37]
Title: Gamma-ray Pulsar Revolution
Comments: 55 pages, 13 figures, 3 tables Accepted for publication
Journal-ref: Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics vol. 52 (2014)
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs) were the first sources identified in the field of high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. At first, in the 70s, there were only two identified sources, the Crab and Vela pulsars. However, although few in number, these objects were crucial in establishing the very concept of a gamma-ray source. Moreover, they opened up significant discovery space both in the theoretical and phenomenological fronts. The need to explain the copious gamma-ray emission of these pulsars led to breakthrough developments in understanding the structure and physics of neutron star magnetospheres. In parallel, the 20-year-long chase to understand the nature of Geminga unveiled the existence of a radio-quiet, gamma-ray-emitting, INS, adding a new dimension to the INS family. Today we are living through an extraordinary time of discovery. The current generation of gamma-ray detectors has vastly increased the population of known of gamma-ray-emitting neutron stars. The 100 mark was crossed in 2011 and we are now approaching 150. The gamma-ray-emitting neutron star population exhibits roughly equal numbers of radio-loud and radio-quiet young INSs, plus an astonishing, and unexpected, group of isolated and binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs). The number of MSPs is growing so rapidly that they are on their way to becoming the most numerous members of the family of gamma-ray-emitting Neutron Stars (NSs) . Even as these findings have set the stage for a revolution in our understanding of gamma-ray-emitting neutron stars, long term monitoring of the gamma-ray sky has revealed evidence of flux variability in the Crab Nebula as well as in the pulsed emission from PSR J2021+4026, challenging a four-decade-old, constant-emission paradigm. Now we know that both pulsars and their nebulae can, indeed, display variable emission.

[38]
Title: The Smallest Particles in Saturn's A and C Rings
Comments: 47 pages, 16 figures, 3 Tables
Journal-ref: Icarus, Volume 226, Issue 2, p. 1225-1240, November 2013
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

Radio occultations of Saturn's main rings by spacecraft suggest a power law particle size-distribution down to sizes of the order of 1 cm (Marouf et al., 1983), (Zebker et al., 1985). The lack of optical depth variations between ultraviolet and near-IR wavelengths indicate a lack of micron-sized particles. Between these two regimes, the particle-size distribution is largely unknown. A cutoff where the particle-size distribution turns over must exist, but the position and shape of it is not clear from existing studies.
Using a series of solar occultations performed by the VIMS instrument on-board Cassini in the near-infrared, we are able to measure light forward scattered by particles in the A and C rings. With a model of diffraction by ring particles, and the previous radio work as a constraint on the slope of the particle size distribution, we estimate the minimum particle size using a truncated power-law size distribution. The C Ring shows a minimum particle size of $4.1^{+3.8}_{-1.3}$ mm, with an assumed power law index of q=3.1 and a maximum particle size of 10 m.
The A Ring signal shows a similar level of scattered flux, but modeling is complicated by the presence of self-gravity wakes and higher optical depths. If q<3, our A Ring model requires a minimum particle size below one millimeter (< 0.34 mm for an assumed q=2.75, or $0.56^{+0.35}_{-0.16}$ mm for a steeper q=2.9) to be consistent with VIMS observations. These results might seem to contradict previous optical(Dones et al., 1993) and infrared (French and Nicholson, 2000) work, which implied that there were few particles in the A Ring smaller than 1 cm. But, because of the shallow power law, relatively little optical depth (between 0.03 and 0.16 in extinction, or 0.015 - 0.08 in absorption) is provided by these particles.

[39]
Title: Gaia FGK Benchmark Stars and their reference parameters
Comments: to appear in ASI Conference Series, 2014, Vol. 10 for the Workshop of Spectral Libraries held in Lyon, Oct. 2013
Subjects: Galaxy Astrophysics (astro-ph.GA); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

In this article we summarise on-going work on the so-called Gaia FGK Benchmark Stars. This work consists of the determination of their atmospheric parameters and of the construction of a high-resolution spectral library. The definition of such a set of reference stars has become crucial in the current era of large spectroscopic surveys. Only with homogeneous and well documented stellar parameters can one exploit these surveys consistently and understand the structure and history of the Milky Way and therefore other of galaxies in the Universe.

[40]
Title: The MICE Grand Challenge Lightcone Simulation III: Galaxy lensing mocks from all-sky lensing maps
Comments: 17 pages. MICE-GC halo and galaxy wide area (5000 sq deg) and deep (z&lt;1.4) light-cone catalogue publicly available at this http URL
Subjects: Cosmology and Extragalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

In paper I of this series (Fosalba et al. 2013), we presented a new N-body lightcone simulation from the MICE collaboration, the MICE Grand Challenge (MICE-GC), containing about 70 billion dark-matter particles in a (3 Gpc)^3 comoving volume, from which we built halo and galaxy catalogues using a Halo Occupation Distribution and Halo Abundance Matching technique, as presented in the companion Paper II (Crocce et al. 2013). Given its large volume and fine mass resolution, the MICE-GC simulation also allows an accurate modeling of the lensing observables from upcoming wide and deep galaxy surveys. In the last paper of this series (Paper III), we describe the construction of all-sky lensing maps, following the "Onion Universe" approach (Fosalba et al. 2008), and discuss their properties in the lightcone up to z=1.4 with sub-arcmin spatial resolution. By comparing the convergence power spectrum in the MICE-GC to lower mass-resolution (i.e., particle mass ~ 10^11 Msun) simulations, we find that resolution effects are at the 5 % level for multipoles l ~ 10^3 and 20 % for l ~ 10^4. Resolution effects have a much lower impact on our simulation, as shown by comparing the MICE-GC to recent numerical fits by Takahashi et al 2012. We use the all-sky lensing maps to model galaxy lensing properties, such as the convergence, shear, and lensed magnitudes and positions, and validate them thoroughly using galaxy shear auto and cross-correlations in harmonic and configuration space. Our results show that the galaxy lensing mocks here presented can be used to accurately model lensing observables down to arcminute scales.