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[1]  arXiv:1409.7691 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Hydrogen delivery onto white dwarfs from remnant exo-Oort cloud comets
Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

The origin of trace hydrogen in white dwarfs (WDs) with He-dominated atmospheres is a long-standing problem, one that cannot satisfactorily be explained by the historically-favoured hypothesis of accretion from the interstellar medium. Here we explore the possibility that the gradual accretion of exo-Oort cloud comets, which are a rich source of H, contributes to the apparent increase of trace H with WD cooling age. We determine how often remnant exo-Oort clouds, freshly excited from post-main-sequence stellar mass loss, dynamically inject comets inside the WD's Roche radius. We improve upon previous studies by considering a representative range of single WD masses (0.52-1.00 Solar masses) and incorporating different cloud architectures, giant branch stellar mass loss, stellar flybys, Galactic tides and a realistic escape ellipsoid in self-consistent numerical simulations that integrate beyond 8 Gyr ages of WD cooling. We find that about 10^{-5} of the material in an exo-Oort cloud is typically amassed onto the WD, and that the H deposits accumulate even as the cloud dissipates. This accumulation may account for the relatively large amount of trace H, 10^{22}-10^{25} g, that is determined frequently among WDs with cooling ages >= 1 Gyr. Our results also reaffirm the notion that exo-Oort cloud comets are not the primary agents of the metal budgets observed in polluted WD atmospheres.

[2]  arXiv:1409.7693 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Clustering properties of moderate luminosity X-ray selected Type 1 and Type 2 AGN at z~3
Comments: Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We investigate, for the first time at z~3, the clustering properties of 189 Type 1 and 157 Type 2 X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGN) of moderate luminosity (log<Lbol> = 45.3 erg/s), with photometric or spectroscopic redshifts in the range 2.2<z<6.8. These samples are based on Chandra and XMM-Newton data in COSMOS. We find that Type 1 and Type 2 COSMOS AGN at z=3 inhabit DMHs with typical mass of logMh = 12.84+0.10/-0.11 and 11.73+0.39/-0.45 Msun/h, respectively. This result requires a drop in the halo masses of Type 1 and 2 COSMOS AGN at z~3 compared to z<2 XMM COSMOS AGN with similar luminosities. Additionally, we infer that unobscured COSMOS AGN at z~3 reside in 10 times more massive halos compared to obscured COSMOS AGN, at 2.6sigma level. This result extends to z~3 that found in COSMOS at z<2, and rules out the picture in which obscuration is purely an orientation effect. A model which assumes that the AGN activity is triggered by major mergers is quite successful in predicting both the low halo mass of COSMOS AGN and the typical mass of luminous SDSS quasars at z~3, with the latter inhabiting more massive halos respect to moderate luminosity AGN. Alternatively we can argue, at least for Type 1 COSMOS AGN, that they are possibly representative of an early phase of fast (i.e. Eddington limited) BH growth induced by cosmic cold flows or disk instabilities. Given the moderate luminosity, these new fast growing BHs have masses of e7-8 Msun at z~3 which might evolve into e8.5-9 Msun mass BHs at z=0. Following our clustering measurements, we argue that this fast BH growth at z~3 in AGN with moderate luminosity occurs in DMHs with typical mass of 6 times e12 Msun/h.

[3]  arXiv:1409.7694 [pdf, other]
Title: Beyond single-stream with the Schrödinger method
Comments: Proceedings of IAU Symposium 308 "The Zeldovich Universe: Genesis and Growth of the Cosmic Web", 23-28 June 2014, Tallinn, Estonia
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We investigate large scale structure formation of collisionless dark matter in the phase space description based on the Vlasov-Poisson equation. We present the Schr\"odinger method, originally proposed by Widrow and Kaiser (1993) as numerical technique based on the Schr\"odinger Poisson equation, as an analytical tool which is superior to the common standard pressureless fluid model. Whereas the dust model fails and develops singularities at shell crossing the Schr\"odinger method encompasses multi-streaming and even virialization.

[4]  arXiv:1409.7695 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Cosmic Web and Star Formation Activity in Galaxies at z~1
Comments: 15 pages, 11 figures, Accepted for publication in the ApJ
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We investigate the role of the delineated cosmic web/filaments on the star formation activity by exploring a sample of 425 narrow-band selected H{\alpha} emitters, as well as 2846 color-color selected underlying star-forming galaxies for a large scale structure (LSS) at z=0.84 in the COSMOS field from the HiZELS survey. Using the scale-independent Multi-scale Morphology Filter (MMF) algorithm, we are able to quantitatively describe the density field and disentangle it into its major components: fields, filaments and clusters. We show that the observed median star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, specific star formation rate (sSFR), the mean SFR-Mass relation and its scatter for both H{\alpha} emitters and underlying star-forming galaxies do not strongly depend on different classes of environment, in agreement with previous studies. However, the fraction of H{\alpha} emitters varies with environment and is enhanced in filamentary structures at z~1. We propose mild galaxy-galaxy interactions as the possible physical agent for the elevation of the fraction of H{\alpha} star-forming galaxies in filaments. Our results show that filaments are the likely physical environments which are often classed as the "intermediate" densities, and that the cosmic web likely plays a major role in galaxy formation and evolution which has so far been poorly investigated.

[5]  arXiv:1409.7696 [pdf, other]
Title: The Overlooked Potential of Generalized Linear Models in Astronomy - I: Binomial Regression and Numerical Simulations
Comments: 18 pages, 8 figures, 2 tables, submitted to Astronomy and Computing, comments welcome
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

Revealing hidden patterns in astronomical data is often the path to fundamental scientific breakthroughs; meanwhile the complexity of scientific inquiry increases as more subtle relationships are sought. Contemporary data analysis problems often elude the capabilities of classical statistical techniques, suggesting the use of cutting edge statistical methods.
In this light, astronomers have overlooked a whole family of statistical techniques for exploratory data analysis and robust regression, the so-called Generalized Linear Models (GLMs). In this paper -- the first in a series aimed at illustrating the power of these methods in astronomical applications -- we elucidate the potential of a particular class of GLMs for handling binary/binomial data, the so-called logit and probit regression techniques, from both a maximum likelihood and a Bayesian perspective. As a case in point, we present the use of these GLMs to explore the conditions of star formation activity and metal enrichment in primordial minihaloes from cosmological hydro-simulations including detailed chemistry, gas physics, and stellar feedback. Finally, we highlight the use of receiver operating characteristic curves as a diagnostic for binary classifiers, and ultimately we use these to demonstrate the competitive predictive performance of GLMs against the popular technique of artificial neural networks.

[6]  arXiv:1409.7697 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Chandra Survey in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Deep Field. I. X-ray Data, Point-like Source Catalog, Sensitivity Maps, and Number Counts
Comments: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society in press, 23 pages, 20 figures; Catalogs, sensitivity maps, and upper limit flux maps areavailable from the VizieR Service
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We present data products from the 300 ks Chandra survey in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) deep field. This field has a unique set of 9-band infrared photometry covering 2-24 micron from the AKARI Infrared Camera, including mid-infrared (MIR) bands not covered by Spitzer. The survey is one of the deepest ever achieved at ~15 micron, and is by far the widest among those with similar depths in the MIR. This makes this field unique for the MIR-selection of AGN at z~1. We design a source detection procedure, which performs joint Maximum Likelihood PSF fits on all of our 15 mosaicked Chandra pointings covering an area of 0.34 square degree. The procedure has been highly optimized and tested by simulations. We provide a point source catalog with photometry and Bayesian-based 90 per cent confidence upper limits in the 0.5-7, 0.5-2, 2-7, 2-4, and 4-7 keV bands. The catalog contains 457 X-ray sources and the spurious fraction is estimated to be ~1.7 per cent. Sensitivity and 90 per cent confidence upper flux limits maps in all bands are provided as well. We search for optical MIR counterparts in the central 0.25 square degree, where deep Subaru Suprime-Cam multiband images exist. Among the 377 X-ray sources detected there, ~80 per cent have optical counterparts and ~60 per cent also have AKARI mid-IR counterparts. We cross-match our X-ray sources with MIR-selected AGN from Hanami et al. (2012). Around 30 per cent of all AGN that have MID-IR SEDs purely explainable by AGN activity are strong Compton-thick AGN candidates.

[7]  arXiv:1409.7699 [pdf, other]
Title: The Overlooked Potential of Generalized Linear Models in Astronomy-II: Gamma regression and photometric redshifts
Comments: 16 pages, 7 figures, 1 table, submitted to Astronomy and Computing, comments welcome
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

Machine learning techniques offer a precious tool box for use within astronomy to solve problems involving so-called big data. They provide a means to make accurate predictions about a particular system without prior knowledge of the underlying physical processes of the data. In this article, and the companion papers of this series, we present the set of Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) as a fast alternative method for tackling general astronomical problems, including the ones related to the machine learning paradigm. To demonstrate the applicability of GLMs to inherently positive and continuous physical observables, we explore their use in estimating the photometric redshifts of galaxies from their multi-wavelength photometry. Using the gamma family with a log link function we predict redshifts from the photo-z Accuracy Testing simulated catalogue and a subset of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey from Data Release 10. We obtain fits that result in catastrophic outlier rates as low as ~1% for simulated and ~2% for real data. Moreover, we can easily obtain such levels of precision within a matter of seconds on a normal desktop computer and with training sets that contain merely thousands of galaxies. Our software is made publicly available as an user-friendly package developed in Python, R and via an interactive web application. This software allows users to apply a set of GLMs to their own photometric catalogues and generates publication quality plots with minimum effort from the user. By facilitating their ease of use to the astronomical community, this paper series aims to make GLMs widely known and to encourage their implementation in future large-scale projects, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

[8]  arXiv:1409.7700 [pdf, other]
Title: MUSE discovers perpendicular arcs in Cen A inner filament
Comments: 11 Pages (4 paper, 7 appendices), 12 Figures (3 paper, 9 appendicies). Submitted to A&A
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Evidence of AGN interaction with the intergalactic medium is observed in some galaxies and many cool core clusters. Radio-jets are suspected to dig large cavities into the surrounding gas. In most cases, very large optical filaments (several kpc) are also seen all around the central galaxy. The origin of these filaments is still not understood. Star forming regions are sometimes observed inside the filaments and are interpreted as evidence of positive feedback (AGN-triggered star formation). Cen A is a very nearby galaxy with huge optical filaments aligned with AGN radio-jet direction. Here, we search for line ratio variations along the filaments, kinematic evidence of shock-broadend line widths and large scale dynamical structures. We observe a 1'x1' region around the inner filament of Cen A with MUSE on the VLT during the Science Verification period. The brightest lines are the Halpha, [NII], [OIII] and [SII]. MUSE shows that the filaments are made of clumpy structures inside a more diffuse medium aligned with the radio-jet axis. We find evidence of shocked shells surrounding the star forming clumps from the line profiles, suggesting the star formation in induced by shocks. The clumps line ratios are best explained by a composite of shocks and star formation illuminated by a radiation cone from the AGN. A previously undetected large arc-like structure: 3 streams running perpendicular to the main filament, kinematically, morphologically and excitationally distinct are also detected. The clear difference in the excitation of the arcs and clumps suggests that the arcs are likely outside of the radiation cone, matching the position of the filament only in projection. The 3 arcs are thus most consistent with neutral material swept along by a backflow of the jet plasma from the AGN outburst and ionised through slow shocks which continues to excite gas away from the main jet axis.

[9]  arXiv:1409.7701 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey: X-ray Populations in the Spiral Arms
Comments: 27 pages, 19 figures, 12 tables, catalog will be made available in published ApJ version and by personal request
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma arm region Chandra survey (NARCS), which covers a 2 deg x 0.8 deg region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of $\approx$20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with $\geq3\sigma$ confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that $\sim$50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arm, while 30% are more distant, in the proximity of the far Norma arm or beyond. We argue that a mixture of magnetic and nonmagnetic CVs dominates the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arms, while intermediate polars (IPs) and high-mass stars (isolated or in binaries) dominate the far Norma arm. We also present the cumulative number count distribution for sources in our survey that are detected in the hard energy band. A population of very hard sources in the vicinity of the far Norma arm and active galactic nuclei dominate the hard X-ray emission down to $f_X\approx10^{-14}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, but the distribution curve flattens at fainter fluxes. We find good agreement between the observed distribution and predictions based on other surveys.

[10]  arXiv:1409.7703 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: VLT/FLAMES spectroscopy of red giant branch stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy
Comments: Resubmitted to A&A (18/09/2014) after Referee's comments
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Fornax is one of the most massive dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group. The Fornax field star population is dominated by intermediate age stars but star formation was going on over almost its entire history. It has been proposed that Fornax experienced a minor merger event. Despite recent progress, only the high metallicity end of Fornax field stars ([Fe/H]>-1.2 dex) has been sampled in larger number via high resolution spectroscopy. We want to better understand the full chemical evolution of this galaxy by better sampling the whole metallicity range, including more metal poor stars. We use the VLT-FLAMES multi-fibre spectrograph in high-resolution mode to determine the abundances of several alpha, iron-peak and neutron-capture elements in a sample of 47 individual Red Giant Branch stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We combine these abundances with accurate age estimates derived from the age probability distribution from the colour-magnitude diagram of Fornax. Similar to other dwarf spheroidal galaxies, the old, metal-poor stars of Fornax are typically alpha-rich while the young metal-rich stars are alpha-poor. In the classical scenario of the time delay between SNe II and SNe Ia, we confirm that SNe Ia started to contribute to the chemical enrichment at [Fe/H] between -2.0 and -1.8 dex. We find that the onset of SNe Ia took place between 12-10 Gyrs ago. The high values of [Ba/Fe], [La/Fe] reflect the influence of SNe Ia and AGB stars in the abundance pattern of the younger stellar population of Fornax. Our findings of low [alpha/Fe] and enhanced [Eu/Mg] are compatible with an initial mass function that lacks the most massive stars and with star formation that kept going on throughout the whole history of Fornax. We find that massive stars kept enriching the interstellar medium in alpha-elements, although they were not the main contributor to the iron enrichment.

[11]  arXiv:1409.7706 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Matter Perturbations in Scaling Cosmology
Comments: 23 pages, 8 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); High Energy Physics - Theory (hep-th)

A suitable interaction between dark matter with an energy density $\rho_{M}$ and dark energy with an energy density $\rho_{X}$ is known to give rise to a non-canonical scaling $\rho_{M} \propto \rho_{X}a^{-\xi}$ where $\xi$ is a parameter which generally deviates from $\xi =3$. Here we present a covariant generalization of this class of models and investigate the corresponding perturbation dynamics. The resulting matter power spectrum for the special case of a decaying Lambda model is compared with data from the SDSS DR7 catalogue. We find a large degeneracy in $\xi$, equivalent to a poor restriction of the interaction but our results are compatible with the LCDM model which corresponds to the noninteracting limit with $\xi =3$ and an equation-of-state parameter $w=-1$.

[12]  arXiv:1409.7709 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The Exoplanet Orbit Database II: Updates to exoplanets.org
Comments: PASP in press, Issue No. 943, September 2014, ahead-of-print published version available at this http URL; 20 pages, 3 figures
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

The Exoplanet Orbit Database (EOD) compiles orbital, transit, host star, and other parameters of robustly detected exoplanets reported in the peer-reviewed literature. The EOD can be navigated through the Exoplanet Data Explorer (EDE) Plotter and Table, available on the World Wide Web at exoplanets.org. The EOD contains data for 1492 confirmed exoplanets as of July 2014. The EOD descends from a table in Butler et al. (2002) and the Catalog of Nearby Exoplanets (Butler et al. 2006), and the first complete documentation for the EOD and the EDE was presented in Wright et al. (2011). In this work, we describe our work since then. We have expanded the scope of the EOD to include secondary eclipse parameters, asymmetric uncertainties, and expanded the EDE to include the sample of over 3000 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs), and other real planets without good orbital parameters (such as many of those detected by microlensing and imaging). Users can download the latest version of the entire EOD as a single comma separated value file from the front page of exoplanets.org.

[13]  arXiv:1409.7711 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: A New Multi-Scale Structure Finding Algorithm to Identify Cosmological Structure
Comments: 17 pages, 5 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We introduce a new self-consistent structure finding algorithm that parses large scale cosmological structure into clusters, filaments and voids. This structure finding algorithm probes the cosmological structure at multiple scales and clas- sifies the appropriate regions with the most probable structure type and size. We show that it reproduces key observational results, including the baryon fraction of ICM, and average temperatures and densities for the different structures.

[14]  arXiv:1409.7718 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Comparing Planck and WMAP: Maps, Spectra, and Parameters
Authors: D. Larson (1), J. L. Weiland (1), G. Hinshaw (2), C. L. Bennett (1) ((1) Johns Hopkins University, (2) University of British Columbia)
Comments: 22 pages, 15 figures, submitted to ApJ
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

We examine the consistency of WMAP9 and Planck data. We compare sky maps, power spectra, and inferred LCDM cosmological parameters. Residual dipoles are seen in the WMAP and Planck sky map differences, but are consistent within the uncertainties and are not large enough to explain the widely-noted differences in angular power spectra at higher l. After removing residual dipoles and galactic foregrounds, the residual difference maps exhibit a quadrupole and other large-scale systematic structure. We identify this structure as possibly originating from Planck's beam sidelobe pick-up, but note that it appears to have insignificant cosmological impact. We develop an extension of the internal linear combination technique and find features that plausibly originate in the Planck data. We examine LCDM model fits to the angular power spectra and conclude that the ~2.5% difference in the spectra at multipoles greater than l~100 are significant at the 3-5 sigma level. We revisit the analysis of WMAP's beam data and conclude that previously-derived uncertainties are robust and cannot explain the power spectrum differences. Finally, we examine the consistency of the LCDM parameters inferred from each data set taking into account the fact that both experiments observe the same sky, but cover different multipole ranges, apply different sky masks, and have different noise. While individual parameter values agree within the uncertainties, the 6 parameters taken together are discrepant at the ~6 sigma level, with chi2=56 for 6 dof (PTE = 3e-10). Of the 6 parameters, chi2 is best improved by marginalizing over Omega_c h^2, giving chi2=5.2 for 5 degrees of freedom. We find that perturbing the WMAP window function by its dominant beam error profile has little effect on Omega_c h^2, while perturbing the Planck window function by its corresponding error profile has a much greater effect on Omega_c h^2.

[15]  arXiv:1409.7722 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Optimization of NANOGrav's Time Allocation for Maximum Sensitivity to Single Sources
Comments: Accepted by Astrophyiscal Journal
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTAs) are a collection of precisely timed millisecond pulsars (MSPs) that can search for gravitational waves (GWs) in the nanohertz frequency range by observing characteristic signatures in the timing residuals. The sensitivity of a PTA depends on the direction of the propagating gravitational wave source, the timing accuracy of the pulsars, and the allocation of the available observing time. The goal of this paper is to determine the optimal time allocation strategy among the MSPs in the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) for a single source of GW under a particular set of assumptions. We consider both an isotropic distribution of sources across the sky and a specific source in the Virgo cluster. This work improves on previous efforts by modeling the effect of intrinsic spin noise for each pulsar. We find that, in general, the array is optimized by maximizing time spent on the best-timed pulsars, with sensitivity improvements typically ranging from a factor of 1.5 to 4.

[16]  arXiv:1409.7725 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Comment on "Detection and characterization of 0.5-8 MeV neutrons near Mercury: Evidence for a solar origin"
Comments: Submitted for publication in Journal of Geophysical Research Space Physics
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We argue that the hour-long neutron transient detected by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) Neutron Spectrometer beginning at 15:45 UT on 2011 June 4 is due to secondary neutrons from energetic protons interacting in the spacecraft. The protons were probably accelerated by a shock that passed the spacecraft about thirty minutes earlier. We reach this conclusion after a study of data from the MESSENGER neutron spectrometer, gamma-ray spectrometer, X-ray Spectrometer, and Energetic Particle Spectrometer, and from the particle spectrometers on STEREO A. Our conclusion differs markedly from that given by Lawrence et al. [2014] who claimed that there is "strong evidence" that the neutrons were produced by the interaction of ions in the solar atmosphere. We identify significant faults with the authors' arguments that led them to that conclusion.

[17]  arXiv:1409.7728 [pdf, other]
Title: The host galaxy and late-time evolution of the Super-Luminous Supernova PTF12dam
Comments: Submitted to MNRAS, 20 pages, 12 figures, 8 tables. Your Comments are Welcome!
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Super-luminous supernovae of type Ic have a tendency to occur in faint host galaxies which are likely to have low mass and low metallicity. PTF12dam is one of the closest and best studied super-luminous explosions that has a broad and slowly fading lightcurve similar to SN 2007bi. These events have been previously proposed to be pair-instability explosions of very massive stars in metal poor, dwarf galaxies. An alternative explanation is that they are powered by spinning down magnetars and this model fits the published data well. Here we present new photometry and spectroscopy for PTF12dam from 200-500 days (rest-frame) after peak and a detailed analysis of the host galaxy (SDSS J142446.21+461348.6 at z = 0.107). Using deep templates and image subtraction we show that the full lightcurve can be fit with a magnetar model if escape of high-energy gamma rays is taken into account. The full bolometric lightcurve from -53 to +399 days (with respect to peak) cannot be fit satisfactorily with the pair-instability models. An alternative model of interaction with a dense CSM produces a good fit to the data although the physical configuration of the progenitor system is somewhat contrived. The host galaxy is a compact dwarf (M_g = -19.30 +/- 0.10), low mass system (2.8 x 10^8 M_sun) with a high star-formation rate (5.0 M_sun/year). The remarkably strong nebular lines provide detections of the [O III] \lambda 4363 and [O II] \lambda\lambda 7320,7330 auroral lines and an accurate oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.04 +\- 0.09. This adds weight to previous results that the hosts of type Ic super-luminous supernovae are all metal poor, low mass, high star-formation rate galaxies. We show here that they are at the extreme end of the metallicity distribution of dwarf galaxies and propose that low metallicity is a requirement to produce these rare and peculiar supernovae.

[18]  arXiv:1409.7748 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Discovery of a deep, low mass ratio overcontact binary GSC 03517-00663
Comments: Accepted by Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 8 pages, 6 figures
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

When observing the blazars, we identified a new eclipsing binary GSC 03517-00663. The light curves of GSC 03517-00663 are typical EW-type light curves. Based on the observation using the 1m telescope at Weihai Observatory of Shandong University, complete VRI light curves were determined. Then, we analyzed the multiple light curves using the W-D program. It is found that GSC 03517-00663 has a mass ratio of q=0.164 and a contact degree of f=69.2%. GSC 03517-00663 is a deep, low mass ratio overcontact binary. The light curves of GSC 03517-00663 show strong O'Connell effect, it was explained by employing a dark spot on the secondary component.

[19]  arXiv:1409.7759 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The hybrid CONe WD + He star scenario for the progenitors of type Ia supernovae
Comments: Accepted for publication in ApJ Letters, 4 figures, 1 table
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The hybrid CONe white dwarfs (WDs) have been suggested to be possible progenitors of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). In this article, we systematically studied the hybrid CONe WD + He star scenario for the progenitors of SNe Ia, in which a hybrid CONe WD increases its mass to the Chandrasekhar mass limit by accreting He-rich material from a non-degenerate He star. According to a series of detailed binary population synthesis simulations, we obtained the SN Ia birthrates and delay times for this scenario. The SN Ia birthrates for this scenario are ~0.033-0.539*10^(-3)yr^(-1), which roughly accounts for 1-18% of all SNe Ia. The estimated delay times are ~28Myr-178Myr, which are the youngest SNe Ia predicted by any progenitor model so far. We suggest that SNe Ia from this scenario may provide an alternative explanation of type Iax SNe. We also presented some properties of the donors at the point when the WDs reach the Chandrasekhar mass. These properties may be a good starting point for investigating the surviving companions of SNe Ia, and for constraining the progenitor scenario studied in this work.

[20]  arXiv:1409.7762 [pdf, other]
Title: Chaotic Dynamics of Comet 1P/Halley; Lyapunov Exponent and Survival Time Expectancy
Comments: 10 pages, 10 figures, submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

The orbital elements of comet Halley are known to a very high precision, suggesting that the calculation of its future dynamical evolution is straightforward. In this paper we seek to characterize the chaotic nature of the present day orbit of comet Halley and to quantify the timescale over which its motion can be predicted confidently. In addition, we attempt to determine the timescale over which its present day orbit will remain stable. Numerical simulations of the dynamics of test particles in orbits similar to that of comet Halley are carried out with the Mercury 6.2 code. On the basis of these we construct survival time maps to assess the absolute stability of Halley's orbit, frequency analysis maps, to study the variability of the orbit and we calculate the Lyapunov exponent for the orbit for variations in initial conditions at the level of the present day uncertainties in our knowledge of its orbital parameters. On the basis of our calculations of the Lyapunov exponent for comet Halley, the chaotic nature of its motion is demonstrated. The e-folding timescale for the divergence of initially very similar orbits is approximately 70 years. The sensitivity of the dynamics on initial conditions is also evident in the self-similarity character of the survival time and frequency analysis maps in the vicinity of Halley's orbit, which indicates that, on average, it is unstable on a timescale of hundreds of thousands of years. The chaotic nature of Halley's present day orbit implies that a precise determination of its motion, at the level of the present day observational uncertainty, is difficult to predict on a timescale of approximately 100 years. Furthermore, we also find that the ejection of Halley from the solar system or its collision with another body could occur on a timescale as short as 10,000 years.

[21]  arXiv:1409.7772 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Photometry and H$alpha$ studies of a Low Mass Ratio Overcontact binary ASAS J082243+1927.0
Comments: 15 pages, 6 figures, accepted in MNRAS
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Both high precision CCD photometric and H$alpha$ line studies are presented for an overcontact binary ASAS J082243+1927.0. The light curve exhibits a total eclipse at secondary minima along with an O'Connell effect. The light curve was modeled using the Wilson Devinney code and the best solution provides the mass ratio q = 0.106 and fill-out factor f = 72%. These parameters indicate that the system is a low mass ratio overcontact binary with a high degree of geometrical contact. The H alpha line equivalent width varied at different phases and it is found that the line is possibly filled-in at secondary minima. From a small sample of overcontact binaries, we found a correlation between the orbital period and H alpha line equivalent width of the primary component. Based on a sample of high filling factor and low mass ratio contact binaries, a mass ratio cut-off is observed at q = 0.085 in mass ratio - period plane. It was observed that below q $\le$ 0.085, period decreases with an increase in q and above it, period increases as the mass ratio increases. Interestingly, the observed mass ratio cut-off value lies close to the critical mass ratio range as predicted in the literature. The observational evidence of the cut-off of the mass ratio and its variation with orbital period are discussed in terms of mass transfer and angular momentum loss. Based on the results, we suggest that, ASAS J082243+1927.0 is at the verge of merger, eventually forming a fast rotating star.

[22]  arXiv:1409.7784 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The mass discrepancy problem in O stars of solar metallicity. Does it still exist?
Authors: N. Markova, J. Puls
Comments: 4 pages, 2 figures, IAU Symposium 307, New windows on massive stars: asteroseismology, interferometry, and spectropolarimetry, G. Meynet, C. Georgy, J.H. Groh \& Ph. Stee, eds
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Using own and literature data for a large sample of O stars in the Milky Way, we investigate the correspondence between their spectroscopic and evolutionary masses, and try to put constraints on various parameters that might influence the estimates of these two quantities.

[23]  arXiv:1409.7786 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Angular Momentum across the Hubble sequence from the CALIFA survey
Comments: 4 pages, 3 figures; to appear in the proceedings of the IAUs311 "Galaxy Masses as Constraints of Formation Models" held in July 2014 in Oxford (UK)
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We investigate the stellar angular momentum of galaxies across the Hubble sequence from the CALIFA survey. The distribution of CALIFA elliptical and lenticular galaxies in the $\lambda_{\rm Re}-\epsilon_{\rm e}$ diagram is consistent with that shown by the Atlas$^\mathrm{3D}$ survey. Our data, however, show that the location of spiral galaxies in this diagram is significantly different. We have found two families of spiral galaxies with particularly peculiar properties: (a) spiral galaxies with much higher $\lambda_{\rm Re}$ values than any elliptical and lenticular galaxy; (b) low-mass spiral galaxies with observed $\lambda_{\rm Re}$ values much lower than expected for their apparent flattening. We use these two families of objects to argue that (1) fading alone cannot explain the transformation of spiral to lenticular galaxies, and (2) that those low-mass spiral galaxies are in fact dark matter dominated, which explains the unusually low angular momentum.

[24]  arXiv:1409.7789 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Visibility based angular power spectrum estimation in low frequency radio interferometric observations
Authors: Samir Choudhuri (IIT Kharagpur), Somnath Bharadwaj (IIT Kharagpur), Abhik Ghosh (Kapteyn Astronomical Institute), SK. Saiyad Ali (Jadavpur University)
Comments: 20 pages, 15 figures, 1 table. Accepted for publication in MNRAS
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We present two estimators to quantify the angular power spectrum of the sky signal directly from the visibilities measured in radio interferometric observations. This is relevant for both the foregrounds and the cosmological 21-cm signal buried therein. The discussion here is restricted to the Galactic synchrotron radiation, the most dominant foreground component after point source removal. Our theoretical analysis is validated using simulations at 150 MHz, mainly for GMRT and also briefly for LOFAR. The Bare Estimator uses pairwise correlations of the measured visibilities, while the Tapered Gridded Estimator uses the visibilities after gridding in the uv plane. The former is very precise, but computationally expensive for large data. The latter has a lower precision, but takes less computation time which is proportional to the data volume. The latter also allows tapering of the sky response leading to sidelobe suppression, an useful ingredient for foreground removal. Both estimators avoid the positive bias that arises due to the system noise. We consider amplitude and phase errors of the gain, and the w-term as possible sources of errors . We find that the estimated angular power spectrum is exponentially sensitive to the variance of the phase errors but insensitive to amplitude errors. The statistical uncertainties of the estimators are affected by both amplitude and phase errors. The w-term does not have a significant effect at the angular scales of our interest. We propose the Tapered Gridded Estimator as an effective tool to observationally quantify both foregrounds and the cosmological 21-cm signal.

[25]  arXiv:1409.7811 [pdf, other]
Title: Spectral and morphological analysis of the remnant of Supernova 1987A with ALMA & ATCA
Authors: Giovanna Zanardo (ICRAR/UWA), Lister Staveley-Smith (ICRAR/UWA, CAASTRO), Remy Indebetouw (UVA, NRAO), Roger A. Chevalier (UVA), Mikako Matsuura (UCL), Bryan M. Gaensler (CAASTRO, SIfA), Michael J. Barlow (UCL), Claes Fransson (U Stockholm), Richard N. Manchester (CSIRO/CASS), Maarten Baes (U Ghent), Julia R. Kamenetzky (U Arizona), Masha Lakicevic (U Keele), Peter Lundqvist (U Stockholm), Jon M. Marcaide (U Valencia, DIPC), Ivan Marti-Vidal (OSO), Margaret Meixner (STScI, JHU), C.-Y. Ng (HKU), Sangwook Park (UT Arlington), George Sonneborn (NASA/GSFC), Jason Spyromilio (ESO), Jacco Th. van Loon (U Keele)
Comments: ApJ accepted. 21 pages, emulateapj
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We present a comprehensive spectral and morphological analysis of the remnant of Supernova (SN) 1987A with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The non-thermal and thermal components of the radio emission are investigated in images from 94 to 672 GHz ($\lambda$ 3.2 mm to 450 $\mu$m), with the assistance of a high-resolution 44 GHz synchrotron template from the ATCA, and a dust template from ALMA observations at 672 GHz. An analysis of the emission distribution over the equatorial ring in images from 44 to 345 GHz highlights a gradual decrease of the east-to-west asymmetry ratio with frequency. We attribute this to the shorter synchrotron lifetime at high frequencies. Across the transition from radio to far infrared, both the synchrotron/dust-subtracted images and the spectral energy distribution (SED) suggest additional emission beside the main synchrotron component ($S_{\nu}\propto\nu^{-0.73}$) and the thermal component originating from dust grains at $T\sim22$ K. This excess could be due to free-free flux or emission from grains of colder dust. However, a second flat-spectrum synchrotron component appears to better fit the SED, implying that the emission could be attributed to a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The residual emission is mainly localised west of the SN site, as the spectral analysis yields $-0.4\lesssim\alpha\lesssim-0.1$ across the western regions, with $\alpha\sim0$ around the central region. If there is a PWN in the remnant interior, these data suggest that the pulsar may be offset westward from the SN position.

[26]  arXiv:1409.7814 [pdf, other]
Title: Determination of Characteristics of Eclipsing Binaries with Spots: Phenomenological vs Physical Models
Comments: 12 pages, 10 figures, conference "RAGTime 16", Prague, October 11-19, 2014
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

We discuss methods for modeling eclipsing binary stars using the "physical", "simplified" and "phenomenological" models. There are few realizations of the "physical" Wilson-Devinney (1971) code and its improvements, e.g. Binary Maker, Phoebe. A parameter search using the Monte-Carlo method was realized by Zola et al. (2010), which is efficient in expense of too many evaluations of the test function. We compare existing algorithms of minimization of multi-parametric functions and propose to use a "combined" algorithm, depending on if the Hessian matrix is positively determined. To study methods, a simply fast-computed function resembling the "complete" test function for the physical model. Also we adopt a simplified model of an eclipsing binary at a circular orbit assuming spherical components with an uniform brightness distribution. This model resembles more advanced models in a sense of correlated parameter estimates due to a similar topology of the test function. Such a model may be applied to detached Algol-type systems, where the tidal distortion of components is negligible.

[27]  arXiv:1409.7815 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The AGN Hubble Diagram and Its Implications for Cosmology
Authors: Fulvio Melia
Comments: 14 pages, 3 figures. Accepted for publication in JCAP. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1109.4632 by other authors
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc)

We use a recently proposed luminosity distance measure for relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to test the predicted expansion of the Universe in the R_h=ct and LCDM cosmologies. This comparative study is particularly relevant to the question of whether or not the Universe underwent a transition from decelerated to accelerated expansion, which is believed to have occurred---on the basis of Type Ia SN studies---within the redshift range (0 < z < 1.3) that will eventually be sampled by these objects. We find that the AGN Hubble Diagram constructed from currently available sources does not support the existence of such a transition. While the scatter in the AGN data is still too large for any firm conclusions to be drawn, the results reported here nonetheless confirm and strengthen similar results of comparative analyses using other types of source, such as cosmic chronometers and gamma ray bursts. We show that the Akaike, Kullback, and Bayes Information Criteria all consistently yield a likelihood of ~74-93% that R_h=ct is closer to the "true" cosmology than LCDM is.

[28]  arXiv:1409.7838 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Models of dark matter halos based on statistical mechanics: I. The classical King model
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We consider the possibility that dark matter halos are described by the Fermi-Dirac distribution at finite temperature. This is the case if dark matter is a self-gravitating quantum gas made of massive neutrinos at statistical equilibrium. This is also the case if dark matter can be treated as a self-gravitating collisionless gas experiencing Lynden-Bell's type of violent relaxation. In order to avoid the infinite mass problem and carry out a rigorous stability analysis, we consider the fermionic King model. In this paper, we study the non-degenerate limit leading to the classical King model. This model was initially introduced to describe globular clusters. We propose to apply it also to large dark matter halos where quantum effects are negligible. We determine the caloric curve and study the thermodynamical stability of the different configurations. Equilibrium states exist only above a critical energy $E_c$ in the microcanonical ensemble and only above a critical temperature $T_c$ in the canonical ensemble. For $E<E_c$, the system undergoes a gravothermal catastrophe and, for $T<T_c$, it undergoes an isothermal collapse. We compute the profiles of density, circular velocity, and velocity dispersion. We compare the prediction of the classical King model to the observations of large dark matter halos. Because of collisions and evaporation, the central density increases while the slope of the halo density profile decreases until an instability takes place. We show that large dark matter halos are relatively well-described by the King model at, or close to, the point of marginal microcanonical stability. At that point, the King model generates a density profile that can be approximated by the modified Hubble profile. This profile has a flat core and decreases as $r^{-3}$ at large distances, like the observational Burkert profile. Less steep halos are unstable.

[29]  arXiv:1409.7840 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Models of dark matter halos based on statistical mechanics: II. The fermionic King model
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We discuss the nature of phase transitions in the fermionic King model which describes tidally truncated quantum self-gravitating systems. This distribution function takes into account the escape of high energy particles and has a finite mass. On the other hand, the Pauli exclusion principle puts an upper bound on the phase space density of the system and stabilizes it against gravitational collapse. As a result, there exists a statistical equilibrium state for any accessible values of energy and temperature. We plot the caloric curves and investigate the nature of phase transitions as a function of the degeneracy parameter in both microcanonical and canonical ensembles. We consider stable and metastable states and emphasize the importance of the latter for systems with long-range interactions. Phase transitions can take place between a "gaseous" phase unaffected by quantum mechanics and a "condensed" phase dominated by quantum mechanics. The phase diagram exhibits two critical points, one in each ensemble, beyond which the phase transitions disappear. There also exist a region of negative specific heats and a situation of ensemble inequivalence for sufficiently large systems. We apply the fermionic King model to the case of dark matter halos made of massive neutrinos. The gaseous phase describes large halos and the condensed phase describes dwarf halos. Partially degenerate configurations describe intermediate size halos. We argue that large dark matter halos cannot harbor a fermion ball because these nucleus-halo configurations are thermodynamically unstable (saddle points of entropy). Large dark matter halos may rather contain a central black hole resulting from a dynamical instability of relativistic origin occurring during the gravothermal catastrophe.

[30]  arXiv:1409.7866 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Photon mean free paths, scattering, and ever-increasing telescope resolution
Comments: Solar Physics, in press
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We revisit an old question: what are the effects of observing stratified atmospheres on scales below a photon mean free path? The mean free path of photons emerging from the solar photosphere and chromosphere is near 100 km. Using current 1m-class telescopes, the mean free path is on the order of the angular resolution. But the Daniel K. Inoue Solar Telescope will have a diffraction limit of 0.020'' near the atmospheric cutoff at 310nm, corresponding to 14 km at the solar surface. Even a small amount of scattering in the source function leads to physical smearing due to this solar 'fog', with effects similar to a degradation of the telescope PSF. We discuss a unified picture that depends simply on the nature and amount of scattering in the source function. Scalings are derived from which the scattering in the solar atmosphere can be transcribed into an effective Strehl ratio, a quantity useful to observers. Observations in both permitted (e.g., Fe I 630.2 nm) and forbidden (Fe I 525.0 nm) lines will shed light on both instrumental performance as well as on small scale structures in the solar atmosphere.

[31]  arXiv:1409.7870 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Very Weak Primordial Gravitational Waves Signal from BICEP2 and Planck HFI 353GHz Dust Polarization
Authors: Lixin Xu
Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

The dust polarization is parameterized as a power law form of the multipole $l$: $D^{XX}_{l}=A^{XX}l(l+1)l^{\alpha_{XX}}/(2\pi)$ ($XX$ denotes $BB$ or $EE$), where $A^{XX}$ is its amplitude with the ratio $A^{BB}/A^{EE}=0.52\pm 0.02$ and $\alpha_{BB,EE}=-2.42\pm 0.02$. Extrapolating to $150$GHz from $353$GHz yields a value of $D^{BB}_{l=80}=(1.32\pm 0.29)\times 10^{-2}\mu K^2$ (and an additional uncertainty $(+0.28,-0.24)\times 10^{-2}\mu K^2$) over the range $40<l<120$. Based on these data, in this brief paper, we report the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r=A_{t}/A_{s}$ defined at $k_0=0.05 \text{Mpc} ^{-1}$ by joining the BICEP2+{\it Planck}2013+WMAP9+BAO+HST and {\it Planck} HFI $353$GHz dust polarization and its implication to the detection of the primordial gravitational waves. Considering the $\Lambda$CDM+$r$ model, we found $r<0.108$ at $95\%$ confidence level with $\sigma_{stat}=0.29$ and $r<0.129$ at $95\%$ confidence level with $\sigma_{stat+extr}=0.29+0.28$. The results imply no significant evidence for the primordial gravitational waves in $1\sigma$ regions. However the post probability distribution of $r$ peaks at a small positive value. And $r$ moves to larger positive values when the extrapolation error bars are included. This might imply a very weak signal of the primordial gravitational waves. It also implies the crucial fact in calibrating the amplitude of the dust polarizations in detecting the primordial gravitational waves in the future.

[32]  arXiv:1409.7879 [pdf, other]
Title: Collisional effects on the formation of the second solar spectrum of the Sr {\sc ii} $λ$4078 line
Authors: C. Deb, M. Derouich
Comments: Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

This work aims to provide key elements to gain better understanding of the formation of the second solar spectrum of the Sr II $\lambda$4078 line. We show that in a certain range of hydrogen density, the effect of isotropic collisions between Sr II ions with hydrogen atoms is important in determining the polarization of the Sr II $\lambda$4078 line. The use of an atomic model that neglects the metastable level 4d of Sr II can induce errors of up to 25 \% in the value of the scattering polarization of the solar Sr II $\lambda$4078 line.

[33]  arXiv:1409.7906 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Near-infrared spectroscopy of candidate red supergiant stars in clusters
Comments: 16 pages, 10 figures, accepted to A&A 2014
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Clear identifications of Galactic young stellar clusters farther than a few kpc from the Sun are rare, despite the large number of candidate clusters. We aim to improve the selection of candidate clusters rich in massive stars with a multiwavelength analysis of photometric Galactic data that range from optical to mid-infrared wavelengths. We present a photometric and spectroscopic analysis of five candidate stellar clusters, which were selected as overdensities with bright stars (Ks < 7 mag) in GLIMPSE and 2MASS images. A total of 48 infrared spectra were obtained. The combination of photometry and spectroscopy yielded six new red supergiant stars with masses from 10 Msun to 15 Msun. Two red supergiants are located at Galactic coordinates (l,b)=(16.7deg,-0.63deg) and at a distance of about ~3.9 kpc; four other red supergiants are members of a cluster at Galactic coordinates (l,b)=(49.3deg,+0.72deg) and at a distance of ~7.0 kpc. Spectroscopic analysis of the brightest stars of detected overdensities and studies of interstellar extinction along their line of sights are fundamental to distinguish regions of low extinction from actual stellar clusters. The census of young star clusters containing red supergiants is incomplete; in the existing all-sky near-infrared surveys, they can be identified as overdensities of bright stars with infrared color-magnitude diagrams characterized by gaps.

[34]  arXiv:1409.7921 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Misaligned TeV gamma-ray sources in the vicinity of globular clusters
Comments: 14 pages, 2 figures, accepted to MNRAS
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

Globular clusters (GCs) contain huge number of low mass stars and also large number of millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Due to the number of stars, the stellar and MSP winds mix efficiently within the GC. Such mixture of winds leaves GC and interacts with the galactic medium creating a bow shock nebula around GC. The bow shock nebula is filled with relativistic leptons accelerated in the pulsar magnetospheres and/or wind regions. We argue that nebulae around globular clusters, immersed in relatively dense medium close to the galactic plane, should have complicated morphology due to interaction with the surrounding gas. Therefore, TeV $\gamma$-ray sources, related to these nebulae, are expected to be misaligned in respect to GC cores, as observed in the case of GC Ter 5. On the other hand, GCs in low density medium, i.e. far away from the galactic disk, should produce bow shocks at large distances from the GC cores. The TeV $\gamma$-ray sources around such nebulae are expected to be almost spherical and centred on the GC cores. We perform numerical calculations of the TeV $\gamma$-ray emission produced by leptons escaping from the GC Ter 5. It is shown that TeV $\gamma$-ray source related to Ter 5 should be misaligned in respect to the core of GC as observed by the HESS Collaboration.

[35]  arXiv:1409.7935 [pdf]
Title: Combining human and machine learning for morphological analysis of galaxy images
Comments: PASP, accepted
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (cs.CV); Learning (cs.LG)

The increasing importance of digital sky surveys collecting many millions of galaxy images has reinforced the need for robust methods that can perform morphological analysis of large galaxy image databases. Citizen science initiatives such as Galaxy Zoo showed that large datasets of galaxy images can be analyzed effectively by non-scientist volunteers, but since databases generated by robotic telescopes grow much faster than the processing power of any group of citizen scientists, it is clear that computer analysis is required. Here we propose to use citizen science data for training machine learning systems, and show experimental results demonstrating that machine learning systems can be trained with citizen science data. Our findings show that the performance of machine learning depends on the quality of the data, which can be improved by using samples that have a high degree of agreement between the citizen scientists. The source code of the method is publicly available.

[36]  arXiv:1409.7946 [pdf, other]
Title: Using 3D Spectroscopy to Probe the Orbital Structure of Composite Bulges
Comments: LaTeX, 2 pages, 1 PDF figure. To appear in "Proceedings of IAU Symposium 309: Galaxies in 3D across the Universe", eds. B. L. Ziegler, F. Combes, H. Dannerbauer, and M. Verdugo
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Detailed imaging and spectroscopic analysis of the centers of nearby S0 and spiral galaxies shows the existence of "composite bulges", where both classical bulges and disky pseudobulges coexist in the same galaxy. As part of a search for supermassive black holes in nearby galaxy nuclei, we obtained VLT-SINFONI observations in adaptive-optics mode of several of these galaxies. Schwarzschild dynamical modeling enables us to disentangle the stellar orbital structure of the different central components, and to distinguish the differing contributions of kinematically hot (classical bulge) and kinematically cool (pseudobulge) components in the same galaxy.

[37]  arXiv:1409.7949 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: On the asymptotic acoustic-mode phase in red-giant stars and its dependence on evolutionary state
Comments: MNRAS, in the press
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Asteroseismic investigations based on the wealth of data now available,in particular from the CoRoT and Kepler missions, require a good understanding of the relation between the observed quantities and the properties of the underlying stellar structure. Kallinger et al. 2012 found a relation between their determination of the asymptotic phase of radial oscillations in evolved stars and the evolutionary state, separating ascending-branch red giants from helium-burning stars in the `red clump'. Here we provide a detailed analysis of this relation, which is found to derive from differences between these two classes of stars in the thermodynamic state of the convective envelope. There is potential for distinguishing red giants and clump stars based on the phase determined from observations that are too short to allow distinction based on determination of the period spacing for mixed modes. The analysis of the phase may also point to a better understanding of the potential for using the helium-ionization-induced acoustic glitch to determine the helium abundance in the envelopes of these stars.

[38]  arXiv:1409.7952 [pdf, other]
Title: The Gaia-ESO Survey: the most metal-poor stars in the Galactic bulge
Comments: 7 pages, 5 figures. Accepted for publication by MNRAS
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present the first results of the EMBLA survey (Extremely Metal-poor BuLge stars with AAOmega), aimed at finding metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, where the oldest stars should now preferentially reside. EMBLA utilises SkyMapper photometry to pre-select metal-poor candidates, which are subsequently confirmed using AAOmega spectroscopy. We describe the discovery and analysis of four bulge giants with -2.72<=[Fe/H]<=-2.48, the lowest metallicity bulge stars studied with high-resolution spectroscopy to date. Using FLAMES/UVES spectra through the Gaia-ESO Survey we have derived abundances of twelve elements. Given the uncertainties, we find a chemical similarity between these bulge stars and halo stars of the same metallicity, although the abundance scatter may be larger, with some of the stars showing unusual [{\alpha}/Fe] ratios.

[39]  arXiv:1409.7981 [pdf, other]
Title: Stellar Evolution Bounds on the ALP-Photon Coupling: new Results and Perspectives
Comments: 4 pages, 1 figure. Contributed to the 10th Patras Workshop on Axions, WIMPs and WISPs, CERN, June 29 to July 4, 2014
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph)

Stellar evolution considerations are of fundamental importance in our understanding of the axion/ALP-photon coupling, g_{a\gamma}. Helium burning stars are the best laboratories to study this coupling. Here, we will review the bounds from massive and low mass helium burning stars, and present a new analysis of the bound from the horizontal branch stars. The analysis provides the strongest bound to date on g_{a\gamma} in a wide mass range.

[40]  arXiv:1409.7982 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Stacking Analysis of 12CO and 13CO Spectra of NGC3627: Existence of non-optically thick 12CO emission?
Comments: 16 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication in PASJ
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We stacked 12CO and 13CO spectra of NGC 3627 after redefining the velocity axis of each spectrum of the mapping data so that the zero corresponds to the local mean velocity of 12CO spectra. The signal-to-noise ratios of the resulting spectra are improved by a factor of up to 3.2 compared to those obtained with normal stacking analysis. We successfully detect a weak 13CO emission from the interarm region where the emission was not detected in the individual pointings. We compare the integrated intensity ratios I12 CO/I13 CO among six characteristic regions (center, bar, bar-end, offset, arm, and interarm). We find that I12CO/I13CO in the bar and interarm are higher than those in the other regions by a factor of ~2 and I12CO/I13CO in the center is moderately high. These high I12CO/I13CO ratios in the bar and center are attributed to a high intensity ratio (T12CO/T13CO) and one in the interarm is attributed to a high ratio of the full width at half maximum of spectra (FWHM12CO/FWHM13CO). The difference between FWHM12CO and FWHM13CO of the interarm indicates the existence of two components, one with a narrow line width (~FWHM13CO) and the other with a broad line width (~FWHM12CO). Additionally, the T12CO/T13CO ratio in the broad-line-width component of the interarm is higher than the other regions. The high T12CO/T13CO in the center and bar and of the broad-line-width component in the interarm suggest the existence of non-optically thick 12CO components. We find that more than half of the 12CO emissions of the interarm are likely to be radiated from the diffuse component. Our result suggests that the use of a universal CO-to-H2 conversion factor might lead to an overestimation of molecular gas mass and underestimation of star-formation efficiency in the interarm by a factor of a few.

[41]  arXiv:1409.8004 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: CC Sculptoris: Eclipsing SU UMa-Type Intermediate Polar
Authors: Taichi Kato (Kyoto U), Franz-Josef Hambsch (GEOS, BAV, VVS), Arto Oksanen (Nyrola Obs.), Peter Starr (Warrumbungle Obs.), Arne Henden (AAVSO)
Comments: 11 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in PASJ
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We observed the 2014 superoutburst of the SU UMa-type intermediate polar CC Scl. We detected superhumps with a mean period of 0.05998(2) d during the superoutburst plateau and during three nights after the fading. During the post-superoutburst stage after three nights, a stable superhump period of 0.059523(6) d was detected. We found that this object is an eclipsing system with an orbital period of 0.058567233(8) d. By assuming that the disk radius in the post-superoutburst phase is similar to those in other SU UMa-type dwarf novae, we obtained a mass ratio of q=0.072(3) from the dynamical precession rate of the accretion disk. The eclipse profile during outbursts can be modeled by an inclination of 80.6+/-0.5 deg. The 2014 superoutburst was preceded by a precursor outburst and the overall appearance of the outburst was similar to superoutbursts in ordinary SU UMa-type dwarf novae. We showed that the standard thermal-tidal instability model can explain the outburst behavior in this system and suggest that inner truncation of the disk by magnetism of the white dwarf does not strongly affect the behavior in the outer part of the disk.

[42]  arXiv:1409.8052 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Disk emission and absorption lines in LMXB. Note on the physical conditions of an absorbing material
Authors: Agata Rozanska
Comments: Proceedings of Suzaku-Maxi 2014, Expanding the Frontiers of the X-ray Universe. Editors: Manabu Ishida, Robert Petre and Kazuhisa Mitsuda, pp.95-98, 2 figures
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We show that the continuum X-ray spectrum of 4U 1630-472 with iron absorption lines can be satisfactorily modeled by the spectrum from an accretion disk atmosphere. We performed full radiative transfer calculations using our code ATM21 to model the emission from an accretion disk surface that is seen at different viewing angles. Computed models are then fitted to the high-resolution X-ray spectra of 4U 1630-472 obtained by {\it Suzaku} satellite. Absorption lines of highly ionized iron originating in a hot accretion-disk atmospheres are important part of the observed line profile, and can be an alternative or complementary explanation to the wind model usually favored for this type of sources. Next, assuming that absorption lines originate from the wind illuminated by X-ray central source in LMXBs, we can put constrains on the wind location only if we know the volume density number of the absorbing material. There are a few derivations of the distance to the wind in X-ray binaries. We show here, that the density number and the wind location agree with the density of an upper disk atmosphere at optical depth of two-thirds, at the same distance from the black hole. This comparison is done assuming optically thick, geometrically thin standard accretion disk model. Nevertheless, it shows that the wind physical conditions are the same as in thermalized disk gas, and we only have to figure out how the wind is blowing?

[43]  arXiv:1409.8075 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Mechanism of r-mode stability in young rapidly rotating pulsars
Comments: 4 pages, 3 figures
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We demonstrate that stability of r-modes in young rapidly rotating pulsars might be explained if one takes into account strong medium modifications of the nucleon-nucleon interaction because of the softening of pionic degrees of freedom in dense nucleon matter. Presence of the efficient direct Urca processes is not required. Within our model the most rapidly rotating observed young pulsar PSR J0537-6910 should have the mass $\geq 1.8M_{\odot}$.

[44]  arXiv:1409.8100 [pdf, other]
Title: Anisotropy in the Hubble constant as modeled by density gradients
Authors: L. Zaninetti
Comments: 26 pages 17 figures
Journal-ref: Published on Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics (2014) ,8, 599-625
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

The all-sky maps of the observed variation of the Hubble constant can be reproduced from a theoretical point of view by introducing an intergalactic plasma with a variable number density of electrons. The observed averaged value and variance of the Hubble constant are reproduced by adopting a rim model, an auto-gravitating model, and a Voronoi diagrams model as the backbone for an auto-gravitating medium. We also analyze an astronomer's model based on the 3D spatial distribution of galaxies as given by the 2MASS Redshift Survey and an auto-gravitating Lane--Emden ($n=5$) profile of the electrons. The simulation which involves the Voronoi diagrams is done in a cubic box with sides of 100 Mpc. The simulation which involves the 2MASS covers the range of redshift smaller than 0.05.

[45]  arXiv:1409.8101 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Radio-Gamma-ray connection and spectral evolution in 4C +49.22 (S4 1150+49): the Fermi, Swift and Planck view
Comments: 20 pages, 12 figures and 12 tables and accepted by MNRAS
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected a strong gamma-ray flare on 2011 May 15 from a source identified as 4C 49.22, a flat spectrum radio quasar also known as S4 1150+49. This blazar, characterised by a prominent radio-optical-X-ray jet, was in a low gamma-ray activity state during the first years of Fermi observations. Simultaneous observations during the quiescent, outburst and post-flare gamma-ray states were obtained by Swift, Planck and optical-IR-radio telescopes (INAOE, Catalina CSS, VLBA, Metsahovi). The flare is observed from microwave to X-ray bands with correlated variability and the Fermi, Swift and Planck data for this FSRQ show some features more typical of BL Lac objects, like the synchrotron peak in the optical band that outshines the thermal blue-bump emission, and the X-ray spectral softening. Multi-epoch VLBA observations show the ejection of a new component close in time with the GeV gamma-ray flare. The radio-to-gamma-ray spectral energy distribution is modeled and fitted successfully for the outburst and the post-flare epochs using either a single flaring blob with two emission processes (synchrotron self Compton, and external-radiation Compton), and a two-zone model with SSC-only mechanism.

[46]  arXiv:1409.8106 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Comment on the numerical measurements of the magnetohydrodynamic turbulence spectrum by A. Beresnyak (Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 (2011) 075001; MNRAS 422 (2012) 3495; ApJ 784 (2014) L20)
Comments: An extended discussion of the results presented in this comment can be found in Perez et.al., ApJL, 793, L13 (2014)
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Plasma Physics (physics.plasm-ph)

The inertial-interval energy spectrum of strong magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence with a uniform background magnetic field was observed numerically to be close to $k^{-3/2}$ by a number of independent groups. A dissenting opinion has been voiced by Beresnyak, A. 2011, PRL, 106, 075001-. 2012, MNRAS, 422, 3495-. 2014, ApJ, 784, L20 that the spectral scaling is close to $k^{-5/3}$. The conclusions of these papers are however incorrect as they are based on numerical simulations that are drastically unresolved, so that the discrete numerical scheme does not approximate the physical solution at the scales where the measurements are performed. These results have been rebutted in our more detailed papers Perez, J. C., Mason, J., Boldyrev, S., & Cattaneo, F. 2012, PRX, 2, 041005-. 2014, ApJL, 793, L13; here, by popular demand, we present a brief and simple explanation of our major criticism of Beresnyak's work.

[47]  arXiv:1409.8107 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Hot spot manifestation in eclipsing dwarf nova HT Cassiopeiae
Authors: K. Bakowska, A. Olech
Comments: 13 pages, 5 figures, 4 tables, accepted for publication in Acta Astronomica
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We report the detection of the hot spot in light curves of the eclipsing dwarf nova HT Cassiopeiae during its superoutburst in 2010 November. Analysis of eight reconstructed light curves of the hot spot eclipses showed directly that the brightness of the hot spot was changing significantly during the superoutburst. Thereby, detected hot spot manifestation in HT Cas is the newest observational evidence for the EMT model for dwarf novae.

[48]  arXiv:1409.8111 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Resolving the shocked gas in HH54 with Herschel: CO line mapping at high spatial and spectral resolution
Comments: 6 pages, 5 figures
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

The HH54 shock is a Herbig-Haro object, located in the nearby Chamaeleon II cloud. Observed CO line profiles are due to a complex distribution in density, temperature, velocity, and geometry. Resolving the HH54 shock wave in the far-infrared cooling lines of CO constrain the kinematics, morphology, and physical conditions of the shocked region. We used the PACS and SPIRE instruments on board the Herschel space observatory to map the full FIR spectrum in a region covering the HH54 shock wave. Complementary Herschel-HIFI, APEX, and Spitzer data are used in the analysis as well. The observed features in the line profiles are reproduced using a 3D radiative transfer model of a bow-shock, constructed with the Line Modeling Engine code (LIME). The FIR emission is confined to the HH54 region and a coherent displacement of the location of the emission maximum of CO with increasing J is observed. The peak positions of the high-J CO lines are shifted upstream from the lower J CO lines and coincide with the position of the spectral feature identified previously in CO(10-9) profiles with HIFI. This indicates a hotter molecular component in the upstream gas with distinct dynamics. The coherent displacement with increasing J for CO is consistent with a scenario where IRAS12500-7658 is the exciting source of the flow, and the 180 K bow-shock is accompanied by a hot (800 K) molecular component located upstream from the apex of the shock and blueshifted by -7 km s$^{-1}$. The spatial proximity of this knot to the peaks of the atomic fine-structure emission lines observed with Spitzer and PACS ([OI]63, 145 $\mu$m) suggests that it may be associated with the dissociative shock as the jet impacts slower moving gas in the HH54 bow-shock.

[49]  arXiv:1409.8117 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Validation of the magnetic energy vs. helicity scaling in solar magnetic structures
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We assess the validity of the free magnetic energy - relative magnetic helicity diagram for solar magnetic structures. We used two different methods of calculating the free magnetic energy and the relative magnetic helicity budgets: a classical, volume-calculation nonlinear force-free (NLFF) method applied to finite coronal magnetic structures and a surface-calculation NLFF derivation that relies on a single photospheric or chromospheric vector magnetogram. Both methods were applied to two different data sets, namely synthetic active-region cases obtained by three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations and observed active-region cases, which include both eruptive and noneruptive magnetic structures. The derived energy--helicity diagram shows a consistent monotonic scaling between relative helicity and free energy with a scaling index 0.84$\pm$0.05 for both data sets and calculation methods. It also confirms the segregation between noneruptive and eruptive active regions and the existence of thresholds in both free energy and relative helicity for active regions to enter eruptive territory. We consider the previously reported energy-helicity diagram of solar magnetic structures as adequately validated and envision a significant role of the uncovered scaling in future studies of solar magnetism.

[50]  arXiv:1409.8121 [pdf, other]
Title: Properties of optically selected BL Lac candidates from the SDSS
Comments: Accepted for publication in A\&A
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

\textbf{Context.} Deep optical surveys open the avenue for find large numbers of BL Lac objects that are hard to identify because they lack the unique properties classifying them as such. While radio or X-ray surveys typically reveal dozens of sources, recent compilations based on optical criteria alone have increased the number of BL Lac candidates considerably. However, these compilations are subject to biases and may contain a substantial number of contaminating sources. \textbf{Aims.} In this paper we extend our analysis of 182 optically selected BL Lac object candidates from the SDSS with respect to an earlier study. The main goal is to determine the number of bona fide BL Lac objects in this sample. \textbf{Methods.} We examine their variability characteristics, determine their broad-band radio-UV SEDs, and search for the presence of a host galaxy. In addition we present new optical spectra for 27 targets with improved S/N with respect to the SDSS spectra. \textbf{Results.} At least 59% of our targets have shown variability between SDSS DR2 and our observations by more than 0.1-0.27 mag de- pending on the telescope used. A host galaxy was detected in 36% of our targets. The host galaxy type and luminosities are consistent with earlier studies of BL Lac host galaxies. Simple fits to broad-band SEDS for 104 targets of our sample derived synchrotron peak frequencies between $13.5 \leq \mathrm{log}_{10}(\nu_{\mathrm{peak}}) \leq 16$ with a peak at $\mathrm{log}_{10} \sim 14.5$. Our new optical spectra do not reveal any new redshift for any of our objects. Thus the sample contains a large number of bona fide BL Lac objects and seems to contain a substantial fraction of intermediate-frequency peaked BL Lacs.

[51]  arXiv:1409.8124 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Self-Gravitating Relativistic Models of Fermions with Anisotropy and Cutoff Energy in their Distribution Function
Comments: 15 pages, 14 figures, 3 tables submitted to Phys. Rev. D
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

In this paper we study the gravitational equilibrium of the systems of anisotropic self-gravitating fermions, by extending to General Relativity the solutions obtained in a previous paper. This treatment also generalizes to anisotropic systems the relativistic self-gravitating Fermi gas model, by considering different degrees of anisotropy, and solving the equilibrium equations to obtain the density pro?les. We discuss some general characteristics of the models and generalize the relation between the anisotropy and the mass of particles in the relativistic regime.

[52]  arXiv:1409.8128 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Electron thermal conduction as a possible mechanism to make the inner heliosheath thnner
Comments: 7 pages, 2 figures, accepted for publication in Astrophys. Journal Letters
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Space Physics (physics.space-ph)

We show that the electron thermal conductivity may strongly affect the heliosheath plasma flow and the global pattern of the solar wind (SW) interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM). In particular, it leads to strong reduction of the inner heliosheath thickness that makes possible to explain (qualitatively) why Voyager 1 (V1) has crossed the heliopause at unexpectedly small heliocentric distance of 122 AU. To estimate the effect of thermal conductivity we consider a limiting case when thermal conduction is very effective. To do that we assume the plasma flow in the entire heliosphere is nearly isothermal.
Due to this effect, the heliospheric distance of the termination shock has increased by about 15 AU in V1 direction compared to the adiabatic case with gamma = 5/3. The heliospheric distance of the heliopause has decreased by about 27 AU. As a result, the thickness of the inner heliosheath in the model has decreased by about 42 AU and become equal to 32 AU.

[53]  arXiv:1409.8131 [pdf, other]
Title: VLT/UVES observations of peculiar alpha abundances in a sub-DLA at z ~ 1.8 towards the quasar B1101-26
Authors: Anne Fox (1), Philipp Richter (1), Cora Fechner (1) ((1) Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Potsdam, Germany)
Comments: 16 pages, 10 figures, to be published in A&A
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We present a detailed analysis of chemical abundances in a sub-damped Lyman alpha absorber at z=1.839 towards the quasar B1101-26, based on a very-high-resolution (R ~ 75,000) and high-signal-to-noise (S/N >100) spectrum observed with the UV Visual Echelle spectrograph (UVES) installed on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). The absorption line profiles are resolved into a maximum of eleven velocity components spanning a rest-frame velocity range of 200 km/s. Detected ions include CII, CIV, NII, OI, MgI, MgII, AlII, AlIII, SiII, SiIII, SiIV, FeII, and possibly SII. The total neutral hydrogen column density is log N(HI) = 19.48 +/- 0.01. From measurements of column densities and Doppler parameters we estimate element abundances of the above-given elements. The overall metallicity, as traced by [OI/HI], is -1.56 +/- 0.01. For the nitrogen-to-oxygen ratio we derive an upper limit of [NI/OI] < -0.65, which suggests a chemically young absorption line system. This is supported by a supersolar alpha/Fe ratio of [SiII/FeII] ~ 0.5. The most striking feature in the observed abundance pattern is an unusually high sulphur-to-oxygen ratio of 0.69 < [SII/OI] < 1.26. We calculate detailed photoionisation models for two subcomponents with Cloudy, and can rule out that ionisation effects alone are responsible for the high S/O ratio. We instead speculate that the high S/O ratio is caused by the combination of several effects, such as specific ionisation conditions in multi-phase gas, unusual relative abundances of heavy elements, and/or dust depletion in a local gas environment that is not well mixed and/or that might be related to star-formation activity in the host galaxy. We discuss the implications of our findings for the interpretation of alpha-element abundances in metal absorbers at high redshift.

[54]  arXiv:1409.8142 [pdf]
Title: Fe I Oscillator Strengths for Transitions from High-lying Even-Parity Levels
Comments: 18 pages, 4 tables, 4 figures. Accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

New radiative lifetimes, measured to $\pm$ 5 % accuracy, are reported for 31 even-parity levels of Fe I ranging from 45061 cm$^{-1}$ to 56842 cm$^{-1}$. These lifetimes have been measured using single-step and two-step time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atomic beam of iron atoms. Branching fractions have been attempted for all of these levels, and completed for 20 levels. This set of levels represents an extension of the collaborative work reported in Ruffoni et al. (2014). The radiative lifetimes combined with the branching fractions yields new oscillator strengths for 203 lines of Fe I. Utilizing a 1D-LTE model of the solar photosphere, spectral syntheses for a subset of these lines which are unblended in the solar spectrum yields a mean iron abundance of <log[{\epsilon}(Fe)]> = 7.45 $\pm$ 0.06.

[55]  arXiv:1409.8149 [pdf, other]
Title: Prospects for joint gravitational wave and short gamma-ray burst observations
Comments: 10 pages, 6 figures
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc)

We present a detailed evaluation of the expected rate of joint gravitational-wave and short gamma-ray burst (GRB) observations over the coming years. We begin by evaluating the improvement in distance sensitivity of the gravitational wave search that arises from using the GRB observation to restrict the time and sky location of the source. We argue that this gives a 25% increase in sensitivity when compared to an all-sky, all-time search, corresponding to more than doubling the number of detectable gravitational wave signals associated with GRBs. Using this, we present the expected rate of joint observations with the advanced LIGO and Virgo instruments, taking into account the expected evolution of the gravitational wave detector network. We show that in the early advanced gravitational wave detector observing runs, from 2015-2017, there is only a small chance of a joint observation. However, as the detectors approach their design sensitivities, there is a good chance of joint observations provided wide field GRB satellites, such as Fermi and the Interplanetary Network, continue operation. The rate will also depend critically upon the nature of the progenitor, with neutron star--black hole systems observable to greater distances than double neutron star systems. The relative rate of binary mergers and GRBs will depend upon the jet opening angle of GRBs. Consequently, joint observations, as well as accurate measurement of both the GRB rate and binary merger rates will allow for an improved estimation of the opening angle of GRBs.

[56]  arXiv:1409.8151 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Running of scalar spectral index in multi-field inflation
Authors: Jinn-Ouk Gong
Comments: 7 pages
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph); High Energy Physics - Theory (hep-th)

We compute the running of the scalar spectral index in general multi-field slow-roll inflation. By incorporating explicit momentum dependence at the moment of horizon crossing, we can find the running straightforwardly. At the same time, we can distinguish the contributions from the quasi de Sitter background and the super-horizon evolution of the field fluctuations.

[57]  arXiv:1409.8156 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Kepler-424 b: A "Lonely" Hot Jupiter That Found A Companion
Comments: 41 Pages, 13 figures, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

Hot Jupiter systems provide unique observational constraints for migration models in multiple systems and binaries. We report on the discovery of the Kepler-424 (KOI-214) two-planet system, which consists of a transiting hot Jupiter (Kepler-424b) in a 3.31-d orbit accompanied by a more massive outer companion in an eccentric (e=0.3) 223-d orbit. The outer giant planet, Kepler-424c, is not detected to transit the host star. The masses of both planets and the orbital parameters for the second planet were determined using precise radial velocity (RV) measurements from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) and its High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS). In stark contrast to smaller planets, hot Jupiters are predominantly found to be lacking any nearby additional planets, the appear to be "lonely" (e.g. Steffen et al.~2012). This might be a consequence of a highly dynamical past of these systems. The Kepler-424 planetary system is a system with a hot Jupiter in a multiple system, similar to upsilon Andromedae. We also present our results for Kepler-422 (KOI-22), Kepler-77 (KOI-127; Gandolfi et al.~2013), Kepler-43 (KOI-135; Bonomo et al.~2012), and Kepler-423 (KOI-183). These results are based on spectroscopic data collected with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), the Keck 1 telescope and HET. For all systems we rule out false positives based on various follow-up observations, confirming the planetary nature of these companions. We performed a comparison with planetary evolutionary models which indicate that these five hot Jupiters have a heavy elements content between 20 and 120 M_Earth.

[58]  arXiv:1409.8157 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Modelling CO emission from hydrodynamic simulations of nearby spirals, starbursting mergers, and high-redshift galaxies
Comments: submitted to A&A
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We model the intensity of emission lines from the CO molecule, based on hydrodynamic simulations of spirals, mergers, and high-redshift galaxies with very high resolutions (3pc and 10^3 Msun) and detailed models for the phase-space structure of the interstellar gas including shock heating, stellar feedback processes and galactic winds. The simulations are analyzed with a Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) model to compute the local emission in various molecular lines in each resolution element, radiation transfer and opacity effects, and the intensity emerging from galaxies, to generate synthetic spectra for various transitions of the CO molecule. This model reproduces the known properties of CO spectra and CO-to-H2 conversion factors in nearby spirals and starbursting major mergers. The high excitation of CO lines in mergers is dominated by an excess of high-density gas, and the high turbulent velocities and compression that create this dense gas excess result in broad linewidths and low CO intensity-to-H2 mass ratios. When applied to high-redshift gas-rich disks galaxies, the same model predicts that their CO-to-H2 conversion factor is almost as high as in nearby spirals, and much higher than in starbursting mergers. High-redshift disk galaxies contain giant star-forming clumps that host a high-excitation component associated to gas warmed by the spatially-concentrated stellar feedback sources, although CO(1-0) to CO(3-2) emission is overall dominated by low-excitation gas around the densest clumps. These results overall highlight a strong dependence of CO excitation and the CO-to-H2 conversion factor on galaxy type, even at similar star formation rates or densities. The underlying processes are driven by the interstellar medium structure and turbulence and its response to stellar feedback, which depend on global galaxy structure and in turn impact the CO emission properties.

[59]  arXiv:1409.8158 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: CO excitation of normal star forming galaxies out to $z=1.5$ as regulated by the properties of their interstellar medium
Comments: 18 pages, 17 figures, 4 tables, submitted to A&A
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We investigate the CO excitation of normal star forming galaxies at $z=1.5$ using IRAM PdBI observations of the CO[2-1], CO[3-2] and CO[5-4] transitions for 4 galaxies, and VLA observations of CO[1-0] for 3 of them, measuring reliable line fluxes with S/N$>4$-7 for individual transitions. While the average CO Spectral Line Energy Distribution (SLED) has a sub-thermal excitation similar to the Milky Way (MW) up to CO[3-2], we show that the average CO[5-4] emission is 4 times stronger than assuming MW excitation. This demonstrates the presence of an additional component of more excited, denser and possibly warmer molecular gas. The ratio of CO[5-4] to lower-J CO emission is however lower than in local (U)LIRGs and high-redshift starbursting SMGs, and appears to correlate closely with the average intensity of the radiation field $<U>$ and with the star formation surface density, but not with SF efficiency (SFE). This suggests that the overall CO excitation is at least indirectly affected by the metallicity of the ISM. The luminosity of the CO[5-4] transition is found to correlate linearly with the bolometric infrared luminosity over 4 orders of magnitudes, with BzK galaxies following the same linear trend as local spirals and (U)LIRGs and high redshift star bursting sub-millimeter galaxies. The CO[5-4] luminosity is thus related to the dense gas, and might be a more convenient way to probe it than standard high--density tracers. We see excitation variations among our sample galaxies, linked to their evolutionary state and clumpiness in optical rest frame images. In one galaxy we see spatially resolved excitation variations, the more highly excited part corresponds to the location of massive SF clumps. This provides support to models that suggest that giant clumps are the main source of the high excitation CO emission in high redshift disk-like galaxies.

[60]  arXiv:1409.8161 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Long-term BVRI light curves of 5 pre-main sequence stars in the field of "Gulf of Mexico"
Comments: 12 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in Bulgarian Astronomical Journal
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We present new data from BVRI photometric observations of five PMS stars during the period from April 2013 to July 2014. The stars are located in the field of NGC 7000/IC 5070 ("Gulf of Mexico") - a region with active star formation. The presented paper is a continuation of our long-term photometric investigations of the young stellar objects in this region. The long-term multicolor photometric observations of PMS stars are very important for their exact classification. Our results show that the studied stars exhibit different types of photometric variability in all bands. We tried to classify them using our data from the long-term photometry and data published by other authors.

[61]  arXiv:1409.8162 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays from Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei
Comments: 15 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in Astroparticle Physics. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1104.0825
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We investigate the production of ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) in relativistic jets from low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGN). We start by proposing a model for the UHECR contribution from the black holes (BHs) in LLAGN, which present a jet power $P_{\mathrm{j}} \leqslant 10^{46}$ erg s$^{-1}$. This is in contrast to the opinion that only high-luminosity AGN can accelerate particles to energies $ \geqslant 50$ EeV. We rewrite the equations which describe the synchrotron self-absorbed emission of a non-thermal particle distribution to obtain the observed radio flux density from sources with a flat-spectrum core and its relationship to the jet power. We find that the UHECR flux is dependent on the {\it observed radio flux density, the distance to the AGN, and the BH mass}, where the particle acceleration regions can be sustained by the magnetic energy extraction from the BH at the center of the AGN. We use a complete sample of 29 radio sources with a total flux density at 5 GHz greater than 0.5 Jy to make predictions for the maximum particle energy, luminosity, and flux of the UHECRs from nearby AGN. These predictions are then used in a semi-analytical code developed in Mathematica (SAM code) as inputs for the Monte-Carlo simulations to obtain the distribution of the arrival direction at the Earth and the energy spectrum of the UHECRs, taking into account their deflection in the intergalactic magnetic fields. For comparison, we also use the CRPropa code with the same initial conditions as for the SAM code. Importantly, to calculate the energy spectrum we also include the weighting of the UHECR flux per each UHECR source. Next, we compare the energy spectrum of the UHECRs with that obtained by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

[62]  arXiv:1409.8187 [pdf, other]
Title: The ground-based H, K, and L-band absolute emission spectra of HD 209458b
Comments: 10 pages, 12 figures, 4 tables, accepted to ApJ, Table 4 is published in its entirety in the electronic edition of ApJ
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

Here we explore the capabilities of NASA's 3.0 meter Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and SpeX spectrometer and the 5.08 meter Hale telescope with the TripleSpec spectrometer with near-infrared H, K, and L-band measurements of HD 209458b's secondary eclipse. Our IRTF/SpeX data are the first absolute L-band spectroscopic emission measurements of any exoplanet other than the hot Jupiter HD 189733b. Previous measurements of HD 189733b's L-band indicate bright emission hypothesized to result from non-LTE CH$_{4}$ $\nu_{3}$ fluorescence. We do not detect a similar bright 3.3 $\mu$m feature to ~3$\sigma$, suggesting that fluorescence does not need to be invoked to explain HD 209458b's L-band measurements. The validity of our observation and reduction techniques, which decrease the flux variance by up to 2.8 orders of magnitude, is reinforced by 1$\sigma$ agreement with existent $Hubble$/NICMOS and $Spitzer$/IRAC1 observations which overlap the H, K, and L-bands, suggesting that both IRTF/SpeX and Palomar/TripleSpec can measure an exoplanet's emission with high precision.

[63]  arXiv:1409.8200 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Morphology of the MRI in Axial Symmetry: existence of a magnetic threshold
Comments: 5 pages
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Plasma Physics (physics.plasm-ph)

We analyze the linear stability of an axially symmetric ideal plasma disk, embedded in a magnetic field and endowed with a differential rotation. This study is performed by adopting the magnetic flux surface function as the fundamental dynamical variable, in order to outline the role played by the co-rotation theorem, in the background configuration. The present formulation shows the existence of a magnetic threshold for the emergence of a Magneto-rotational instability. In the Keplerian case, triggering unstable modes requires the magnetic field forms an angle greater than 30 degree with the equatorial plane.

[64]  arXiv:1409.8201 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Brightest Fermi-LAT Flares of PKS 1222+216: Implications on Emission and Acceleration Processes
Authors: Pankaj Kushwaha (1), K. P. Singh (1), S. Sahayanathan (2) ((1) Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (2) Astrophysical Sciences Division, BARC, Mumbai, INDIA)
Comments: 17 pages, 9 figures, 4 tables, accepted for publication in ApJ
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present a high time resolution study of the two brightest $\gamma$-ray outbursts from a blazar PKS 1222+216 observed by the \textit{Fermi} Large Area Telescope (LAT) in 2010. The $\gamma$-ray light-curves obtained in four different energy bands: 0.1--3, 0.1--0.3, 0.3--1 and 1--3 GeV, with time bin of 6 hr, show asymmetric profiles with a similar rise time in all the bands but a rapid decline during the April flare and a gradual one during the June. The light-curves during the April flare show $\sim 2$ days long plateau in 0.1--0.3 GeV emission, erratic variations in 0.3--1 GeV emission, and a daily recurring feature in 1--3 GeV emission until the rapid rise and decline within a day. The June flare shows a monotonic rise until the peak, followed by a gradual decline powered mainly by the multi-peak 0.1--0.3 GeV emission. The peak fluxes during both the flares are similar except in the 1--3 GeV band in April which is twice the corresponding flux during the June flare. Hardness ratios during the April flare indicate spectral hardening in the rising phase followed by softening during the decay. We attribute this behavior to the development of a shock associated with an increase in acceleration efficiency followed by its decay leading to spectral softening. The June flare suggests hardening during the rise followed by a complicated energy dependent behavior during the decay. Observed features during the June flare favor multiple emission regions while the overall flaring episode can be related to jet dynamics.

[65]  arXiv:1409.8242 [pdf, other]
Title: Precision Tests of Parity Violation Over Cosmological Distances
Comments: 11 pages, 3 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

Recent measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background $B$-mode polarization power spectrum by the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR experiments have demonstrated new precision tools for probing fundamental physics. Regardless of origin, the fact that we can detect sub-$\mu$K CMB polarization represents a tremendous technological breakthrough. Yet more information may be latent in the CMB's polarization pattern. Because of its tensorial nature, CMB polarization may also reveal parity-violating physics via a detection of cosmic polarization rotation. Although current CMB polarimeters are sensitive enough to measure one degree-level polarization rotation with $>5\sigma$ statistical significance, they lack the ability to differentiate this effect from a systematic instrumental polarization rotation. Here, we motivate the search for cosmic polarization rotation from current CMB data as well as independent radio galaxy and quasar polarization measurements. We argue that an improvement in calibration accuracy would allow the precise measurement of parity- and Lorentz-violating effects. We describe the CalSat space-based polarization calibrator that will provide stringent control of systematic polarization angle calibration uncertainties to $0.05^\circ$ -- an order of magnitude improvement over current CMB polarization calibrators. CalSat-based calibration could be used with current CMB polarimeters searching for $B$-mode polarization, effectively turning them into probes of cosmic parity violation, i.e. without the need to build dedicated instruments.

[66]  arXiv:1409.8245 [pdf, other]
Title: KOI-183b: a half-Jupiter mass planet transiting a very old solar-like star
Comments: 13 pages, 13 figures, 5 tables. Submitted to A&A
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We report the spectroscopic confirmation of the Kepler object of interest KOI-183b (also known as KOI-183.01), a half-Jupiter mass planet transiting an old solar-like star every 2.7 days. Our analysis is the first to combine the full Kepler photometry (quarters 1-17) with high-precision radial velocity measurements taken with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. We simultaneously modelled the photometric and spectroscopic data-sets using Bayesian approach coupled with Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. We found that the Kepler pre-search data conditioned (PDC) light curve of KOI-183 exhibits quarter-to-quarter systematic variations of the transit depth, with a peak-to-peak amplitude of about 4.3 % and seasonal trends reoccurring every four quarters. We attributed these systematics to an incorrect assessment of the quarterly variation of the crowding metric. The host star KOI-183 is a G4 dwarf with $M_\star=0.85\pm0.04$ M$_\rm{Sun}$, $R_\star=0.95\pm0.04$ R$_\rm{Sun}$, $T_\mathrm{eff}=5560\pm80$ K, $[M/H]=-0.10\pm0.05$ dex, and with an age of $11\pm2$ Gyr. The planet KOI-183b has a mass of $M_\mathrm{p}=0.595\pm0.081$ M$_\mathrm{Jup}$ and a radius of $R_\mathrm{p}=1.192\pm0.052$ R$_\mathrm{Jup}$, yielding a planetary bulk density of $\rho_\mathrm{p}=0.459\pm0.083$ g/cm$^{3}$. The radius of KOI-183b is consistent with both theoretical models for irradiated coreless giant planets and expectations based on empirical laws. The inclination of the stellar spin axis suggests that the system is aligned along the line of sight. We detected a tentative secondary eclipse of the planet at a 2-$\sigma$ confidence level ($\Delta F_{\mathrm{ec}}=14.2\pm6.6$ ppm) and found that the orbit might have a small non-zero eccentricity of $e=0.019^{+0.028}_{-0.014}$. With a Bond albedo of $A_\mathrm{B}=0.037\pm0.019$, KOI-183b is one of the gas-giant planets with the lowest albedo known so far.

[67]  arXiv:1409.8246 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Strong Chromatic Microlensing in HE0047-1756 and SDSS1155+6346
Comments: 31 pages, 7 figures, 7 tables. Accepted for publication in ApJ
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We use spectra of the double lensed quasars HE0047-1756 and SDSS1155+6346 to study their unresolved structure through the impact of microlensing. There is no significant evidence of microlensing in the emission line profiles except for the Ly$\alpha$ line of SDSS1155+6346, which shows strong differences in the shapes for images A and B. However, the continuum of the B image spectrum in SDSS1155+6346 is strongly contaminated by the lens galaxy and these differences should be considered with caution. Using the flux ratios of the emission lines for image pairs as a baseline to remove macro-magnification and extinction, we have detected strong chromatic microlensing in the continuum measured by CASTLES (this http URL), in both lens systems, with amplitudes $0.09 (\lambda 16000) \lesssim |\Delta m |\lesssim 0.8 (\lambda 5439)$ for HE0047-1756, and $0.2 (\lambda 16000) \lesssim |\Delta m |\lesssim 0.8 (\lambda 5439)$ for SDSS1155+6346. Using magnification maps to simulate microlensing, and modeling the accretion disk as a Gaussian source (I $\propto$ exp(-R$^{2}$/2r$^2_s$)) of size r$_{s}$ $\propto$ $ \lambda^{p} $ we find, r$_{s}$ = 2.5$_{-1.4}^{+3.0}$ $\sqrt{M/0.3M_{\odot}}$ light days and p = 2.3 $\pm$ 0.8, at the rest frame for $\lambda$ = 2045, for HE0047-1756 (log prior), and r$_{s}$ = 5.5$_{-3.3}^{+8.2}$ $\sqrt{M/0.3M_{\odot}}$ light days and p = 1.5 $\pm$ 0.6 at the rest frame of $\lambda$ = 1398, for SDSS1155+6346 (log prior). Contrary to other studied lens systems, the chromaticity detected in HE0047-1756 and SDSS1155+6346 is large enough to fulfill the thin disk prediction. The inferred sizes, however, are very large compared to the predictions of this model, especially in the case of SDSS1155+6346.

[68]  arXiv:1409.8255 [pdf, other]
Title: A New Analytic Galactic Luminosity Profile Function
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

In 2010 Spergel introduced an alternative to the traditional Sersic form for galactic luminosity profiles based on modified Bessel functions of the second kind. His motivation was the desire for an accurate one-parameter profile form with a simple Fourier transform (in contrast to the Fourier transform of the Sersic profile which can't be written in closed form), but we have found that the Spergel profile almost universally makes integrals easier when it replaces the Sersic profile in the integrand. In the original paper on the subject Spergel noted that his profile seems to fit galaxies on average just as well as Sersic's. Here we make this observation quantitative by comparing the residuals from fitting Sersic and Spergel forms to data. We find that the Spergel profile actually fits better than the Sersic for a random sample of 16 galaxies.

[69]  arXiv:1409.8260 [pdf]
Title: On the Stability of the Interstellar Wind through the Solar System
Comments: 11 pages, 7 figures, presented at the 13th Annual International Astrophysics Conference, Myrtle Beach, March 10-14 2014, to be published in Journal of Physics Conference Series
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

As a follow-up of a recent study, we challenge the claim that the flow of interstellar helium through the solar system has changed substantially over the last decades. We argue that only the IBEX-Lo 2009-2010 measurements are discrepant with older consensus values. Then we show that the probability of the claimed variations of longitude and velocity are highly unlikely (about 1 per cent), in view of the absence of change in latitude and absence of change in the (flow velocity, flow longitude) relation, while random values would be expected. Finally, we report other independent studies showing the stability of Helium flow and the Hydrogen flow over the years 1996-2012, consistent with the seventies earlier determinations of the interstellar flow.

[70]  arXiv:1409.8262 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The extent of power-law energy spectra in collisionless relativistic magnetic reconnection in pair plasmas
Comments: 5 pages, 6 figures
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we characterize the energy spectra of particles accelerated by relativistic magnetic reconnection (without guide field) in collisionless electron-positron plasmas, for a wide range of upstream magnetizations $\sigma$ and system sizes $L$. The particle spectra are well-represented by a power law $\gamma^{-\alpha}$, with a combination of exponential and super-exponential high-energy cutoffs, proportional to $\sigma$ and $L$, respectively. For large $L$ and $\sigma$, the power-law index $\alpha$ approaches about 1.2.

[71]  arXiv:1409.8264 [pdf, other]
Title: Reduction of Integral Field Spectroscopic Data from the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (a commented example)
Authors: Davide Lena
Comments: 50 pages, 13 images, notes on the data reduction process
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

The use of integral field spectroscopy is becoming increasingly popular, hovewer data reduction is still a difficult process. Here I present a step-by-step guide to the reduction of integral field data acquired with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on GEMINI. The reduction process, separately applied to a standard star and to the science data, includes bias and sky subtraction, flat-fielding, trimming, wavelength and flux calibration, creation of the cubes for each exposure and final combination into a single cube. Typical problems encoutered during the reduction process are discussed. The command list has been adapted from IRAF scripts given as tutorials at the South American Gemini Data Workshop (S\~{a}o Jos\'e dos Campos, Brazil, October 27-30, 2011) and scripts kindly provided by collaborators.