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[1]  arXiv:1505.07103 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Using Double-peaked Supernova Light Curves to Study Extended Material
Authors: Anthony L. Piro (Carnegie Observatories)
Comments: 5 pages, 3 figures, submitted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Letters
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Extended material at large radii surrounding a supernova can result in a double-peaked light curve when the material is sufficiently massive that the supernova shock continues to propagate into it and sufficiently extended that it produces a bright first peak. Such material can be the leftover, low-mass envelope of a star that has been highly stripped, the mass associated with a wind, or perhaps mass surrounding the progenitor due to some type of pre-explosion activity. I summarize the conditions necessary for such a light curve to occur, describe what can be learned about the extended material from the light curve shape, and provide a semi-analytic model for fitting the first peak in these double-peaked supernovae. This is applied to the specific case of a Type Ic super-luminous supernova, LSQ14bdq. The mass in the extended material around this explosion's progenitor is measured to be small, ~0.2-0.5 Msun. The radius of this material must be >500 Rsun, but it is difficult to constrain due to a degeneracy between radius and the supernova's energy. In the future, spectra taken during the first peak will be important for measuring the velocity and composition of the extended material so that this degeneracy can be overcome.

[2]  arXiv:1505.07104 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Empirical microlensing event rates predicted by phenomenological model
Authors: R. Poleski
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

Estimating the number of microlensing events observed in different parts of the Galactic bulge is a crucial point in planning microlensing experiments. Reliable estimates are especially important if observing resources are scarce, as is the case for space missions: K2, WFIRST, and Euclid. Here we show that the number of detected events can be reliably estimated based on statistics of stars observed in targeted fields. The statistics can be estimated relatively easily, which makes presented method suitable for planning future microlensing experiments.

[3]  arXiv:1505.07105 [pdf, other]
Title: Systematics-insensitive periodic signal search with K2
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

From pulsating stars to transiting exoplanets, the search for periodic signals in K2 data, Kepler's 2-wheeled extension, is relevant to a long list of scientific goals. Systematics affecting K2 light curves due to the decreased spacecraft pointing precision inhibit the easy extraction of periodic signals from the data. We here develop a method for producing periodograms of K2 light curves that are insensitive to pointing-induced systematics; the Systematics-Insensitive Periodogram (SIP). Traditional sine-fitting periodograms use a generative model to find the frequency of a sinusoid that best describes the data. We extend this principle by including systematic trends, based on a set of 'Eigen light curves', following Foreman-Mackey et al. (2015), in our generative model as well as a sum of sine and cosine functions over a grid of frequencies. Using this method we are able to produce periodograms with vastly reduced systematic features. The quality of the resulting periodograms are such that we can recover acoustic oscillations in giant stars and measure stellar rotation periods without the need for any detrending. The algorithm is also applicable to the detection of other periodic phenomena such as variable stars, eclipsing binaries and short-period exoplanet candidates. The SIP code is available at https://github.com/RuthAngus/SIPK2.

[4]  arXiv:1505.07108 [pdf, other]
Title: The impact of spin temperature fluctuations on the 21-cm moments
Comments: 15 pages, 13 figure, 1 table. Submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

This paper considers the impact of Lyman-$\alpha$ (WF) coupling and X-ray heating on the evolution of the 21-cm brightness-temperature 1-point statistics (as predicted by semi-numerical simulations). The X-ray production efficiency is varied over four orders of magnitude and the hardness of the X-ray spectrum is also varied (from that predicted for high mass X-ray binaries to the softer spectrum expected from the hot inter-stellar medium). We find peaks in the redshift evolution of both the variance and skewness associated (in amplitude and redshift) to the efficiency of X-ray production. The amplitude of the variance is also sensitive to the hardness of the X-ray SED. It is possible to break this degeneracy as the skewness is not sensitive to the X-ray spectral hardness. There is an earlier peak in the variance's evolution associated with fluctuations in WF-coupling followed by a plateau connecting it to the heating peak; the redshift extent of this provides insight into the relative timing of the coupling and heating phases. Importantly, we note that a late X-ray heating scenario would seriously hamper our ability to constrain reionization with the variance. Late X-ray heating also qualitatively alters the evolution of the skewness, providing a clean way to constrain such models. We find that, if foregrounds can be removed, first generation instruments (such as LOFAR, MWA and PAPER) could constrain reionization and late X-ray heating models with the variance. We find that HERA and SKA (phase 1) will be able to constrain both reionization and heating by measuring the variance using foreground avoidance techniques. If foregrounds can be removed these instruments will also be able to tightly constrain the nature of WF coupling.

[5]  arXiv:1505.07111 [pdf, other]
Title: A Dynamical Model for the Formation of Gas Rings and Episodic Starbursts Near Galactic Centres
Comments: 18 pages, 16 figures, submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We develop a simple dynamical model for the evolution of gas in the centres of barred spiral galaxies, using the Milky Way's Central Molecular Zone (CMZ, i.e., the central few hundred pc) as a case study. We show that, in the presence of a galactic bar, gas in a disc in the central regions of a galaxy will be driven inwards by angular momentum transport induced by acoustic instabilities within the bar's inner Lindblad resonance. This transport process drives turbulence within the gas that temporarily keeps it strongly gravitationally stable and prevents the onset of rapid star formation. However, at some point the rotation curve must transition from approximately flat to approximately solid body, and the resulting reduction in shear reduces the transport rates and causes gas to build up, eventually producing a gravitationally-unstable region that is subject to rapid and violent star formation. For the observed rotation curve of the Milky Way, the accumulation happens $\sim 100$ pc from the centre of the Galaxy, in good agreement with the observed location of gas clouds and young star clusters in the CMZ. The characteristic timescale for gas accumulation and star formation is of order $10-20$ Myr. We argue that similar phenomena should be ubiquitous in other barred spiral galaxies.

[6]  arXiv:1505.07112 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: A NuSTAR observation of disk reflection from close to the neutron star in 4U 1608-52
Comments: 5 pages, 4 figures, 1 table, MNRAS Letters in press
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

Studying the reflection of X-rays off the inner edge of the accretion disk in a neutron star low-mass X-ray binary, allows us to investigate the accretion geometry and to constrain the radius of the neutron star. We report on a NuSTAR observation of 4U 1608-52 obtained during a faint outburst in 2014 when the neutron star, which has a known spin frequency of 620 Hz, was accreting at ~1-2% of the Eddington limit. The 3-79 keV continuum emission was dominated by a Gamma~2 power law, with a ~1-2% contribution from a kTbb~0.3-0.6 keV black body component. The high-quality NuSTAR spectrum reveals the hallmarks of disk reflection; a broad iron line peaking near 7~keV and a Compton back-scattering hump around ~20-30 keV. Modeling the disk reflection spectrum points to a binary inclination of i~30-40 degrees and a small `coronal' height of h<8.5 GM/c2. Furthermore, our spectral analysis suggests that the inner disk radius extended to Rin~7-10 GM/c2, close to the innermost stable circular obit. This constrains the neutron star radius to R<21 km and the redshift from the stellar surface to z>0.12, for a mass of M=1.5 Msun and a spin parameter of a=0.29.

[7]  arXiv:1505.07114 [pdf, other]
Title: Measuring Phased-Array Antenna Beampatterns with High Dynamic Range for the Murchison Widefield Array using 137 MHz ORBCOMM Satellites
Comments: 22 pages, 8 figures. Accepted for publication in Radio Science
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

Detection of the fluctuations in 21 cm line emission from neutral hydrogen during the Epoch of Reionization in thousand hour integrations poses stringent requirements on calibration and image quality, both of which necessitate accurate primary beam models. The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) uses phased array antenna elements which maximize collecting area at the cost of complexity. To quantify their performance, we have developed a novel beam measurement system using the 137 MHz ORBCOMM satellite constellation and a reference dipole antenna. Using power ratio measurements, we measure the {\it in situ} beampattern of the MWA antenna tile relative to that of the reference antenna, canceling the variation of satellite flux or polarization with time. We employ angular averaging to mitigate multipath effects (ground scattering), and assess environmental systematics with a null experiment in which the MWA tile is replaced with a second reference dipole. We achieve beam measurements over 30 dB dynamic range in beam sensitivity over a large field of view (65\% of the visible sky), far wider and deeper than drift scans through astronomical sources allow. We verify an analytic model of the MWA tile at this frequency within a few percent statistical scatter within the full width at half maximum. Towards the edges of the main lobe and in the sidelobes, we measure tens of percent systematic deviations. We compare these errors with those expected from known beamforming errors.

[8]  arXiv:1505.07115 [pdf, other]
Title: Extracting H$α$ flux from photometric data in the J-PLUS survey
Comments: 11 pages, 14 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present the main steps that will be taken to extract H$\alpha$ emission flux from Javalambre Photometric Local Universe Survey (J-PLUS) photometric data. For galaxies with $z\lesssim0.015$, the H$\alpha$+[NII] emission is covered by the J-PLUS narrow-band filter $F660$. We explore three different methods to extract the H$\alpha$ + [NII] flux from J-PLUS photometric data: a combination of a broad-band and a narrow-band filter ($r'$ and $F660$), two broad-band and a narrow-band one ($r'$, $i'$ and $F660$), and a SED-fitting based method using 8 photometric points. To test these methodologies, we simulated J-PLUS data from a sample of 7511 SDSS spectra with measured H$\alpha$ flux. Based on the same sample, we derive two empirical relations to correct the derived H$\alpha$+[NII] flux from dust extinction and [NII] contamination. We find that the only unbiased method is the SED fitting based one. The combination of two filters underestimates the measurements of the H$\alpha$ + [NII] flux by a 28%, while the three filters method by a 9%. We study the error budget of the SED-fitting based method and find that, in addition to the photometric error, our measurements have a systematic uncertainty of a 4.3%. Several sources contribute to this uncertainty: differences between our measurement procedure and the one used to derive the spectroscopic values, the use of simple stellar populations as templates, and the intrinsic errors of the spectra, which were not taken into account. Apart from that, the empirical corrections for dust extinction and [NII] contamination add an extra uncertainty of 14%. Given the J-PLUS photometric system, the best methodology to extract H$\alpha$ + [NII] flux is the SED-fitting based one. Using this method, we are able to recover reliable H$\alpha$ fluxes for thousands of nearby galaxies in a robust and homogeneous way.

[9]  arXiv:1505.07117 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: A Low-Mass Main-Sequence Star and Accretion Disk in the Very Faint Transient M15 X-3
Comments: 10 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ on May 22, 2015
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We present near-simultaneous Chandra/HST observations of the very faint ($L_{x} < 10^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$) X-ray transient source M15 X-3, as well as unpublished archival Chandra observations of M15 X-3. The Chandra observations constrain the luminosity of M15 X-3 to be $< 10^{34}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in all observed epochs. The X-ray spectrum shows evidence of curvature, and prefers a fit to a broken power-law with break energy $E_{\rm break} = 2.7^{+0.4}_{-0.6}$ keV, and power law indices of $\Gamma_{1} = 1.3^{+0.1}_{-0.2}$ and $\Gamma_{2} = 1.9^{+0.2}_{-0.2}$ over a single power law. We fit our new F438W ($B$), F606W (broad $V$), and F814W ($I$) HST data on the blue optical counterpart with a model for an accretion disk and a metal-poor main sequence star. From this fit, we determine the companion to be consistent with a main sequence star of mass $0.440^{+0.035}_{-0.060}$ $M_{\odot}$ in a $\sim$4-hour orbit. X-ray irradiation of the companion is likely to be a factor in the optical emission from the system, which permits the companion to be smaller than calculated above, but larger than $0.15$ $M_{\odot}$ at the $3\sigma$ confidence level. M15 X-3 seems to be inconsistent with all suggested hypotheses explaining very faint transient behavior, except for magnetospherically inhibited accretion.

[10]  arXiv:1505.07118 [pdf, other]
Title: A Hubble Diagram for Quasars
Comments: 13 pages, 9 figures, 2 tables, submitted to ApJ, comments welcome
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We present a new method to test the cosmological model, and to estimate the cosmological parameters, based on the non-linear relation between ultraviolet and X-ray luminosity of quasars. We built a data set of ~1,250 quasars by merging several literature samples with X-ray measurements at 2 keV and SDSS photometry, which was used to estimate the extinction-corrected 2500~\AA\ flux. We obtained three main results: (1) we checked the non-linear relation between X-ray and UV luminosities in small redshift bins up to z~6, confirming that it holds at all redshifts with the same slope; (2) we built a Hubble diagram for quasars up to z~6, which is well matched to that of supernovae in the common z=0-1.4 redshift interval, and extends the test of the cosmological model up to z~6; (3) we showed that this non-linear relation is a powerful tool to estimate cosmological parameters. With present data, assuming a $\Lambda$CDM model, we obtain $\Omega_M$=0.21$^{+0.08}_{-0.10}$ and $\Omega_\Lambda$=0.95$^{+0.30}_{-0.20}$ ($\Omega_M$=0.28$\pm$0.04 and $\Omega_\Lambda$=0.74$\pm0.08$ from a joint quasar-SNe fit). However, much more precise measurements will be achieved in the future. A few thousands SDSS quasars already have serendipitous X-ray observations with Chandra or XMM-Newton, and at least 100,000 quasars with UV and X-ray data will be available from the eROSITA all-sky survey in a few years. Euclid, LSST, and Athena surveys will further increase the sample size to at least several hundred thousands. Our simulations show that these samples will provide tight constraints on the cosmological parameters, and will allow to test possible deviations from the standard model with higher precisions than available today.

[11]  arXiv:1505.07119 [pdf, other]
Title: Study of FK Comae Berenices: VII. Correlating photospheric and chromospheric activity
Comments: 14 pages, 14 figures, 1 table; accepted for publication in A&A
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We study the connection between the chromospheric and photospheric behaviour of the active late-type star FK Comae. We use spot temperature modelling, light curve inversion based on narrow- and wide-band photometric measurements, Halpha observations from 1997-2010, and Doppler maps from 2004-2010 to compare the behaviour of chromospheric and photospheric features. Investigating low-resolution Halpha spectra we find that the changes in the chromosphere seem to happen mainly on a time scale longer than a few hours, but shorter variations were also observed. According to the Halpha measurements prominences are often found in the chromosphere that reach to more than a stellar radius and are stable for weeks, and which seem to be often, but not every time connected with dark photospheric spots. The rotational modulation of the Halpha emission seems to typically be anticorrelated with the light curve, but we did not find convincing evidence of a clear connection in the long-term trends of the Halpha emission and the brightness of the star. In addition, FK Com seems to be in an unusually quiet state in 2009-2010 with very little chromospheric activity and low spot contrast, that might indicate the long-term decrease of activity.

[12]  arXiv:1505.07121 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XXII. Multiplicity properties of the B-type stars
Comments: Accepted by A&A
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We investigate the multiplicity properties of 408 B-type stars observed in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with multi-epoch spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). We use a cross-correlation method to estimate relative radial velocities from the helium and metal absorption lines for each of our targets. Objects with significant radial-velocity variations (and with an amplitude larger than 16 km/s) are classified as spectroscopic binaries. We find an observed spectroscopic binary fraction (defined by periods of <10^3.5 d and mass ratios >0.1) for the B-type stars, f_B(obs) = 0.25 +/- 0.02, which appears constant across the field of view, except for the two older clusters (Hodge 301 and SL 639). These two clusters have significantly lower fractions of 0.08 +/- 0.08 and 0.10 +/- 0.09, respectively. Using synthetic populations and a model of our observed epochs and their potential biases, we constrain the intrinsic multiplicity properties of the dwarf and giant (i.e. relatively unevolved) B-type stars in 30 Dor. We obtain a present-day binary fraction f_B(true) = 0.58 +/- 0.11, with a flat period distribution. Within the uncertainties, the multiplicity properties of the B-type stars agree with those for the O stars in 30 Dor from the VFTS.

[13]  arXiv:1505.07126 [pdf, other]
Title: Abundance anomalies in metal-poor stars from Population III supernova ejecta hydrodynamics
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present a simulation of the long-term evolution of a Population III supernova remnant in a cosmological minihalo. Employing passive Lagrangian tracer particles, we investigate how chemical stratification and anisotropy in the explosion can affect the abundances of the first low-mass, metal-enriched stars. We find that reverse shock heating can leave the inner mass shells at entropies too high to cool, leading to carbon-enhancement in the re-collapsing gas. This hydrodynamic selection effect could explain the observed incidence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars at low metallicity. We further explore how anisotropic ejecta distributions, recently seen in direct numerical simulations of core-collapse explosions, may translate to abundances in metal-poor stars. We find that some of the observed scatter in the Population II abundance ratios can be explained by an incomplete mixing of supernova ejecta, even in the case of only one contributing enrichment event. We demonstrate that the customary hypothesis of fully-mixed ejecta clearly fails if post-explosion hydrodynamics prefers the recycling of some nucleosynthetic products over others. Furthermore, to fully exploit the stellar-archaeological program of constraining the Pop III initial mass function from the observed Pop II abundances, considering these hydrodynamical transport effects is crucial. We discuss applications to the rich chemical structure of ultra-faint dwarf satellite galaxies, to be probed in unprecedented detail with upcoming spectroscopic surveys.

[14]  arXiv:1505.07128 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: New insights on the Galactic Bulge Initial Mass Function
Authors: A. Calamida (STScI), K. C. Sahu (STScI), S. Casertano (STScI), J. Anderson (STScI), S. Cassisi (INAF-OACTe), M. Gennaro (STScI), M. Cignoni (STScI), T. M. Brown (STScI), N. Kains (STScI), H. Ferguson (STScI), M. Livio (STScI), H. E. Bond (STScI / Pennsylvania State Univ.), R. Buonanno (Univ. of Rome Tor Vergata / INAF-OACTe), W. Clarkson (Univ. of Michigan-Dearborn), I. Ferraro (INAF-OAR), A. Pietrinferni (INAF-OACTe), M. Salaris (Astrophysics Research Institute / Univ. of Liverpool), J. Valenti (STScI)
Comments: 13 pages, 8 figures, submitted to ApJ
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We have derived the Galactic bulge initial mass function of the SWEEPS field down to 0.15 $M_{\odot}$, using deep photometry collected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. Observations at several epochs, spread over 9 years, allowed us to separate the disk and bulge stars down to very faint magnitudes, $F814W \approx$ 26 mag, with a proper-motion accuracy better than 0.5 mas/yr (20 km/s). This allowed us to determine the initial mass function of the pure bulge component uncontaminated by disk stars for this low-reddening field in the Sagittarius window. In deriving the mass function, we took into account the presence of unresolved binaries, errors in photometry, distance modulus and reddening, as well as the metallicity dispersion and the uncertainties caused by adopting different theoretical color-temperature relations. We found that the Galactic bulge initial mass function can be fitted with two power laws with a break at $M \sim$ 0.56 $M_{\odot}$, the slope being steeper ($\alpha = -2.41\pm$0.50) for the higher masses, and shallower ($\alpha = -1.25\pm$0.20) for the lower masses. In the high-mass range, our derived mass function agrees well with the mass function derived for other regions of the bulge. In the low-mass range however, our mass function is slightly shallower, which suggests that separating the disk and bulge components is particularly important in the low-mass range. The slope of the bulge mass function is also similar to the slope of the mass function derived for the disk in the high-mass regime, but the bulge mass function is slightly steeper in the low-mass regime. We used our new mass function to derive stellar mass--to--light values for the Galactic bulge and we found $M/L_{F814W} =$ 2.2$\pm$0.3 and $M/L_{F606W} =$ 3.2$\pm$0.5.

[15]  arXiv:1505.07129 [pdf, other]
Title: Universal predictions of screened modified gravity on cluster scales
Comments: 12 pages, 9 figures
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

Modified gravity models require a screening mechanism to be able to evade the stringent constraints from local gravity experiments, and, at the same time give rise to observable astrophysical and cosmological signatures. Such screened modified gravity models necessarily have dynamics determined by complex non-linear equations that usually needs to be solved on a model-by-model basis to produce predictions. This makes testing them a cumbersome process. In this paper, we investigate if there is a common signature of all the different models that is suitable to test them on cluster scales. To do this we propose an observable related to the fifth-force -- which observationally can be related to the ratio of dynamical to lensing mass of a halo - and then show that the predictions for this observable can be rescaled to a near universal form for a large class of modified gravity models. We demonstrate this using the Hu-Sawicky $f(R)$, the Symmetron, the nDGP and the Dilaton model - as well as unifying parametrizations. The universal form is determined by only three quantities: a strength, a mass and a width-parameter. We also show how these parameters can be derived from a specific theory. This self-similarity in the predictions can hopefully be used to search for signatures of modified gravity on cluster scales in a model-independent way.

[16]  arXiv:1505.07146 [pdf, other]
Title: Deep imaging of the shell elliptical galaxy NGC3923 with MegaCam
Comments: 9 pages, 2 tables, 12 figures, submitted to A&A
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Context. The elliptical galaxy NGC 3923 is known to be surrounded by a number of stellar shells, a probable remnant of an accreted galaxy. Despite its uniqueness, the deepest images of its outskirts come from the 80s. B\'{i}lek et al. (2014) predicted a new shell to lie in this region on the basis of the MOND theory of modified dynamics.
Aims. To obtain the deepest image ever of the galaxy and to map the tidal features in it.
Methods. The image of the galaxy was taken by the MegaCam camera at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in the $g'$ band. It reached the surface-brightness limit of 29 mag arcsec$^{-2}$. Moreover, we reanalyze an archival HST image of the galaxy.
Results. We detected up to 42 shells in NGC 3923. This is by far most of all galaxies. We present the description of the shells and other tidal features in the galaxy. A probable progenitor of some of these features was discovered. The shell system likely originates from two or more progenitors. The predicted shell was not detected, but we found that the prediction was based on incorrect assumptions and poor data.

[17]  arXiv:1505.07148 [pdf, other]
Title: DEMNUni: The clustering of large-scale structures in the presence of massive neutrinos
Comments: 31 pages, 14 figs, 1 table
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

(abridged) We analyse the clustering features of Large Scale Structures (LSS) in the presence of massive neutrinos, employing a set of large-volume, high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations, where neutrinos are treated as a separate collisionless fluid. The volume of 8$\cGpc$, combined with a resolution of about $8\times 10^{10}\Ms$ for the cold dark matter (CDM) component, represents a significant improvement over previous N-body simulations in massive neutrino cosmologies. We show that most of the nonlinear evolution is generated exclusively by the CDM component. We find that accounting only for the nonlinear evolution of the CDM power spectrum allows to recover the total matter power spectrum with the same accuracy as the massless case. Indeed, we show that, the most recent version of the \halofit\ formula calibrated on $\Lambda$CDM simulations can be applied directly to the linear CDM power spectrum without requiring additional fitting parameters in the massive case. As a second step, we study the abundance and clustering properties of CDM halos, confirming that, in massive neutrino cosmologies, the proper definition of the halo bias should be made with respect to the {\em cold} rather than the {\em total} matter distribution, as recently shown in the literature. Here we extend these results to the redshift space, finding that, when accounting for massive neutrinos, an improper definition of the linear bias can lead to a systematic error of about 1-$2 \%$ in the determination of the linear growth rate from anisotropic clustering. This result is quite important if we consider that future spectroscopic galaxy surveys, as \eg\ Euclid, are expected to measure the linear growth-rate with statistical errors less than about $3 \%$ at $z\lesssim1$.

[18]  arXiv:1505.07154 [pdf, other]
Title: On wave dark matter in spiral and barred galaxies
Comments: 15 pages, 6 figures. Submitted to JCAP
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We recover spiral and barred spiral patterns in disk galaxy simulations with a Wave Dark Matter (WDM) background (also known as Scalar Field Dark Matter (SFDM), Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) dark matter, and Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) dark matter). Here we show how the interaction between a baryonic disk and its Dark Matter Halo triggers the formation of spiral structures when the halo is allowed to have a triaxial shape and angular momentum. This is a more realistic picture within the WDM model since a non-spherical rotating halo seems to be more natural. By performing hydrodynamic simulations, along with earlier test particles simulations, we demonstrate another important way in which wave dark matter is consistent with observations. The common existence of bars in these simulations is particularly noteworthy. This may have consequences when trying to obtain information about the dark matter distribution in a galaxy, the mere presence of spiral arms or a bar usually indicates that baryonic matter dominates the central region and therefore observations, like rotation curves, may not tell us what the DM distribution is at the halo center. But here we show that spiral arms and bars can develop in DM dominated galaxies with a central density core without supposing its origin on mechanisms intrinsic to the baryonic matter.

[19]  arXiv:1505.07155 [pdf, other]
Title: An extended X-ray object ejected from the PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 binary
Comments: 8 pages, 4 figures accepted for publication by ApJ
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We present the analysis of the Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the eccentric gamma-ray binary PSR B1259-63/LS 2883. The analysis shows that the extended X-ray feature seen in previous observations is still moving away from the binary with an average projected velocity of about 0.07c and shows a hint of acceleration. The spectrum of the feature appears to be hard (photon index of 0.8) with no sign of softening compared to previously measured values. We interpret it as a clump of plasma ejected from the binary through the interaction of the pulsar with the decretion disk of the O-star around periastron passage. We suggest that the clump is moving in the unshocked relativistic pulsar wind (PW), which can accelerate the clump. Its X-ray emission can be interpreted as synchrotron radiation of the PW shocked by the collision with the clump.

[20]  arXiv:1505.07167 [pdf, other]
Title: MAGIICAT V. Orientation of Outflows and Accretion Determine the Kinematics and Column Densities of the Circumgalactic Medium
Comments: 11 pages, 6 figures, 1 table. Submitted to the Astrophysical Journal on May 25, 2015
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We investigate the dependence of gas kinematics and column densities in the MgII-absorbing circumgalactic medium on galaxy color, azimuthal angle, and inclination to trace baryon cycle processes. Our sample of 30 foreground isolated galaxies at $0.3<z_{\rm gal}<1.0$, imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope, are probed by background quasars within a projected distance of $20<D<110$ kpc. From the high-resolution ($\Delta v\simeq 6.6$ km s$^{-1}$) quasar spectra, we quantify the extent of the absorber velocity structure with pixel-velocity two-point correlation functions. Absorbers with the largest velocity dispersions are associated with blue, face-on ($i<57^{\circ}$) galaxies probed along the projected minor axis ($\Phi \geq 45^{\circ}$), while those with the smallest velocity dispersions belong to red, face-on galaxies along the minor axis. The velocity structure is similar for edge-on ($i \geq 57^{\circ}$) galaxies regardless of galaxy color or azimuthal angle, for red galaxies with azimuthal angle, and for blue and red galaxies probed along the projected major axis ($\Phi<45^{\circ}$). The cloud column densities for face-on galaxies and red galaxies are smaller than for edge-on galaxies and blue galaxies, respectively. These results are consistent with biconical outflows along the minor axis for star-forming galaxies and accreting and/or rotating gas, which is most easily observed in edge-on galaxies probed along the major axis. Gas entrained in outflows may be fragmented with large velocity dispersions, while gas accreting onto or rotating around galaxies may be more coherent due to large path lengths and smaller velocity dispersions. Quiescent galaxies may exhibit little-to-no outflows along the minor axis, while accretion/rotation may exist along the major axis.

[21]  arXiv:1505.07175 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: On the diffuse soft X-ray emission from the nuclear region of M51
Authors: Jiren Liu, Shude Mao
Comments: 8 pages, 5 figures, to appear in RAA
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We present an analysis of the diffuse soft X-ray emission from the nuclear region of M51 combining both XMM-Newton RGS and Chandra data. Most of the RGS spectrum of M51 can be fitted with a thermal model with a temperature of $\sim0.5$ keV except for the OVII triplet, which is forbidden-line dominated. The Fe L-shell lines peak around the southern cloud, where the OVIII and NVII Lya lines also peak. In contrast, the peak of the OVII forbidden line is about 10$"$ offset from that of the other lines, indicating that it is from a spatially distinct component. The spatial distribution of the OVII triplet mapped by the Chandra data shows that most of the OVII triplet flux is located at faint regions near edges, instead of the southern cloud where other lines peak. This distribution of the OVII triplet is inconsistent with the photoionization model. Other mechanisms that could produce the anomalous OVII triplet, including a recombining plasma and charge exchange X-ray emission, are discussed.

[22]  arXiv:1505.07190 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: The fast molecular outflow in the Seyfert galaxy IC5063 as seen by ALMA
Comments: Accepted for publication in A&A. 11 pages, 8 figures
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We use high-resolution (0.5 arcsec) CO(2-1) observations performed with ALMA to trace the kinematics of the molecular gas in the Seyfert 2 galaxy IC5063. A fast outflow of molecular gas extends along the entire radio jet, with the highest outflow velocities about 0.5kpc from the nucleus, at the location of the brighter hot-spot in the W lobe. The data show that a massive, fast outflow with velocities up to 650 km/s of cold molecular gas is present, in addition to one detected earlier in warm H2, HI and ionised gas. Both the central AGN and the radio jet could energetically drive the outflow. However, the characteristics of the outflowing gas point to the radio jet being the main driver. This is important, because IC5063, although one of the most powerful Seyfert galaxies, is a relatively weak radio source (P = 3x10^23 W/Hz). All the observed characteristics can be described by a scenario of a radio plasma jet expanding into a clumpy medium, interacting directly with the clouds and inflating a cocoon that drives a lateral outflow into the interstellar medium. This model is consistent with results obtained by recent simulations such as those of Wagner et al.. A stronger, direct interaction between the jet and a gas cloud is present at the location of the brighter W lobe. Even assuming the most conservative values for the conversion factor CO-to-H2, the mass of the outflowing gas is between 1.9 and 4.8x10^7 Msun. These amounts are much larger than those of the outflow of warm gas (molecular and ionized) and somewhat larger than of the HI outflow. This suggests that most of the observed cold molecular outflow is due to fast cooling after being shocked. This gas is the end product of the cooling process. Our CO observations demonstrate that fast outflows of molecular gas can be driven by relativistic jets.

[23]  arXiv:1505.07191 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Physical properties of solar polar jets: A statistical study with Hinode XRT data
Comments: 21 pages, 10 figures, Submitted and accepted for publishing in Astronomy and Astrophysics journal
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The target of this work is to investigate the physical nature of polar jets in the solar corona and their possible contribution to coronal heating and solar wind flow based on the analysis of X-ray images acquired by the Hinode XRT telescope. We estimate the di?erent forms of energy associated with many of these small-scale eruptions, in particular the kinetic energy and enthalpy. Two Hinode XRT campaign datasets focusing on the two polar coronal holes were selected to analyze the physical properties of coronal jets; the analyzed data were acquired using a series of three XRT filters. Typical kinematical properties (e.g., length, thickness, lifetime, ejection rate, and velocity) of 18 jets are evaluated from the observed sequences, thus providing information on their possible contribution to the fast solar wind flux escaping from coronal holes. Electron temperatures and densities of polar-jet plasmas are also estimated using ratios of the intensities observed in di?erent filters.
We find that the largest amount of energy eventually provided to the corona is thermal. The energy due to waves may also be significant, but its value is comparatively uncertain. The kinetic energy is lower than thermal energy, while other forms of energy are comparatively low. Lesser and fainter events seem to be hotter, thus the total contribution by polar jets to the coronal heating could have been underestimated so far. The kinetic energy flux is usually around three times smaller than the enthalpy counterpart, implying that this energy is converted into plasma heating more than in plasma acceleration. This result suggests that the majority of polar jets are most likely not escaping from the Sun and that only cooler ejections could possibly have enough kinetic energy to contribute to the total solar wind flow.

[24]  arXiv:1505.07216 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Pulsation frequency distribution in Delta Scuti stars
Comments: 11 pages, 7 figures. 1 table
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We study the frequency distributions of Delta Scuti stars observed by the Kepler satellite in short-cadence mode. To minimize errors in the estimated stellar parameters, we divided the instability strip into ten regions and determined the mean frequency distribution in each region. We confirm that the presence of low frequencies is a property of all Delta Scuti stars, rendering meaningless the concept of Delta Sct/Gamma Dor hybrids. We obtained the true distribution of equatorial rotational velocities in each region and calculated the frequency distributions predicted by pulsation models, taking into account rotational splitting of the frequencies. We confirm that rotation cannot account for the presence of low frequencies. We calculated a large variety of standard pulsation models with different metal and helium abundances, but were unable to obtain unstable low-frequency modes driven by the kappa mechanism in any model. We also constructed models with modified opacities in the envelope. Increasing the opacity at a temperature log T = 5.06 by a factor of two does lead to instability of low-degree modes at low frequencies, but also decreases the frequency range of Delta Sct-type pulsations to some extent. We also re-affirm the fact that less than half of the stars in the Delta Sct instability strip have pulsations detectable by Kepler. We also point out the huge variety of frequency patterns in stars with roughly similar parameters, suggesting that nonlinearity is an important factor in Delta Sct pulsations.

[25]  arXiv:1505.07226 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: On the Physical Requirements for a Pre-Reionization Origin of the Unresolved Near-Infrared Background
Comments: 13 pages, 11 figures. Submitted to MNRAS
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

The study of the Cosmic Near-Infrared Background (CIB) light after subtraction of resolved sources can push the limits of current observations and infer the level of galaxy and black hole activity in the early universe. However, disentangling the relative contribution from low- and high-redshift sources is not trivial. Spatial fluctuations of the CIB exhibit a clustering excess at angular scales $\sim 1^\circ$ whose origin has not been conclusively identified. We explore the likelihood that this signal is dominated by emission from galaxies and accreting black holes in the early Universe. We find that, if the first small mass galaxies have a normal IMF, the light of their ageing stars (fossils) integrated over cosmic time contributes a comparable amount to the CIB as their pre-reionization progenitors. However, the measured fluctuation signal is too large to be produced by galaxies at redshifts $z>8$ unless their star formation efficiencies are much larger than those inferred from the observed Lyman-dropout population. In order to produce the observed level of CIB fluctuation without violating constraints from galaxy counts and the electron optical depth of the IGM, minihalos at $z>12$ must form stars with efficiency $f_\star \gtrsim 0.1$ and, although a top-heavy IMF is preferred, have a very low escape fraction of ionizing radiation, $f_{\rm esc}<0.01$. If instead the CIB fluctuations are produced by high-$z$ black holes, one requires vigorous accretion in the early universe reaching $\rho_{\rm acc} \gtrsim 10^5M_\odot{\rm Mpc^{-3}}$ by $z\simeq 10$. This growth must stop by $z \sim 6$ and be significantly obscured not to overproduce the soft cosmic X-ray background (CXB) and its observed coherence with the CIB. We therefore find the range of suitable possibilities at high-$z$ to be narrow, but could possibly be widened by including additional physics and evolution at those epochs.

[26]  arXiv:1505.07233 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Unusual A2142 supercluster with a collapsing core: distribution of light and mass
Comments: Comments: 13 pages, 9 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics
Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

We study the distribution, masses, and dynamical properties of galaxy groups in the A2142 supercluster. We analyse the global luminosity density distribution in the supercluster and divide the supercluster into the high-density core and the low-density outskirts regions. We find galaxy groups and filaments in the regions of different global density, calculate their masses and mass-to-light ratios and analyse their dynamical state with several 1D and 3D statistics. We use the spherical collapse model to study the dynamical state of the supercluster. We show that in A2142 supercluster groups and clusters with at least ten member galaxies lie along an almost straight line forming a 50 Mpc/h long main body of the supercluster. The A2142 supercluster has a very high density core surrounded by lower-density outskirt regions. The total estimated mass of the supercluster is M_est = 6.2 10^{15}M_sun. More than a half of groups with at least ten member galaxies in the supercluster lie in the high-density core of the supercluster, centered at the rich X-ray cluster A2142. Most of the galaxy groups in the core region are multimodal. In the outskirts of the supercluster, the number of groups is larger than in the core, and groups are poorer. The orientation of the cluster A2142 axis follows the orientations of its X-ray substructures and radio halo, and is aligned along the supercluster axis. The high-density core of the supercluster with the global density D8 > 17 and perhaps with D8 > 13 may have reached the turnaround radius and started to collapse. A2142 supercluster with luminous, collapsing core and straight body is an unusual object among galaxy superclusters. In the course of the future evolution the supercluster may be split into several separate systems.

[27]  arXiv:1505.07243 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Thermal absorption as the cause of gigahertz-peaked spectra in pulsars and magnetars
Comments: 19 pages, 3 figures, accepted to Astrophysical Journal
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

We present a model that explains the observed deviation of the spectra of some pulsars and magnetars from the power-law spectra which are seen in the bulk of the pulsar population. Our model is based on the assumption that the observed variety of pulsar spectra can be naturally explained by the thermal free-free absorption that takes place in the surroundings of the pulsars. In this context, the variety of the pulsar spectra can be explained according to the shape, density and temperature of the absorbing media and the optical path of the line-of-sight across that. We have put specific emphasis on the case of the radio magnetar SGR J1745-2900 (also known as Sgr A* magnetar), modeling the rapid variations of the pulsar spectrum after the outburst of Apr 2013 as due to the free-free absorption of the radio emission in the electron material ejected during the magnetar outburst. The ejecta expands with time and consequently the absorption rate decreases and the shape of the spectrum changes in such a way that the peak frequency shifts towards the lower radio frequencies. In the hypothesis of an absorbing medium, we also discuss the similarity between the spectral behaviour of the binary pulsar B1259-63 and the spectral peculiarities of isolated pulsars.

[28]  arXiv:1505.07245 [pdf, other]
Title: The Star Formation and AGN luminosity relation: Predictions from a semi-analytical model
Comments: 9 pages, 6 figures
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

In a Universe where AGN feedback regulates star formation in massive galaxies, a strong correlation between these two quantities is expected. If the gas causing star formation is also responsible for feeding the central black hole, then a positive correlation is expected. If powerful AGNs are responsible for the star formation quenching, then a negative correlation is expected. Observations so far have mainly found a mild correlation or no correlation at all (i.e. a flat relation between star formation rate (SFR) and AGN luminosity), raising questions about the whole paradigm of "AGN feedback". In this paper, we report the predictions of the GALFORM semi-analytical model, which has a very strong coupling between AGN activity and quenching of star formation. The predicted SFR-AGN luminosity correlation appears negative in the low AGN luminosity regime, where AGN feedback acts, but becomes strongly positive in the regime of the brightest AGN. Our predictions reproduce reasonably well recent observations by Rosario et al., yet there is some discrepancy in the normalisation of the correlation at low luminosities and high redshifts. Though this regime could be strongly influenced by observational biases, we argue that the disagreement could be ascribed to the fact that GALFORM neglects AGN variability effects. Interestingly, the galaxies that dominate the regime where the observations imply a weak correlation are massive early-type galaxies that are subject to AGN feedback. Nevertheless, these galaxies retain high enough molecular hydrogen contents to maintain relatively high star formation rates and strong infrared emission.

[29]  arXiv:1505.07259 [pdf, other]
Title: Search for Dark Matter Annihilation in the Galactic Center with IceCube-79
Comments: Submitted to EPJ-C
Subjects: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)

The Milky Way is expected to be embedded in a halo of dark matter particles, with the highest density in the central region, and decreasing density with the halo-centric radius. Dark matter might be indirectly detectable at Earth through a flux of stable particles generated in dark matter annihilations and peaked in the direction of the Galactic Center. We present a search for an excess flux of muon (anti-) neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in the Galactic Center using the cubic-kilometer-sized IceCube neutrino detector at the South Pole. There, the Galactic Center is always seen above the horizon. Thus, new and dedicated veto techniques against atmospheric muons are required to make the southern hemisphere accessible for IceCube. We used 319.7 live-days of data from IceCube operating in its 79-string configuration during 2010 and 2011. No neutrino excess was found and the final result is compatible with the background. We present upper limits on the self-annihilation cross-section, $\left<\sigma_\mathrm{A} v\right>$, for WIMP masses ranging from 30 GeV up to 10 TeV, assuming cuspy (NFW) and flat-cored (Burkert) dark matter halo profiles, reaching down to $\simeq 4 \cdot 10^{-24}$ cm$^3$ s$^{-1}$, and $\simeq 2.6 \cdot 10^{-23}$ cm$^3$ s$^{-1}$ for the $\nu\overline{\nu}$ channel, respectively.

[30]  arXiv:1505.07265 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Collisions of planetesimals and formation of planets
Comments: 2 pages, 2 figures, IAU Symposium 314, submitted
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

We present preliminary results of terrestrial planet formation using on the one hand classical numerical integration of hundreds of small bodies on CPUs and on the other hand -- for comparison reasons -- the results of our GPU code with thousands of small bodies which then merge to larger ones. To be able to determine the outcome of collision events we use our smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code which tracks how water is lost during such events.

[31]  arXiv:1505.07266 [pdf, other]
Title: Diagnostic of stellar magnetic fields with cumulative circular polarisation profiles
Authors: O. Kochukhov
Comments: 11 pages, 9 figures; accepted for publication in A&A
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Information about stellar magnetic field topologies is obtained primarily from high-resolution circular polarisation (Stokes $V$) observations. Due to their generally complex morphologies, the stellar Stokes $V$ profiles are usually interpreted with elaborate inversion techniques such as Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI). Here we further develop a new method of interpretation of circular polarisation signatures in spectral lines using cumulative Stokes $V$ profiles (anti-derivative of Stokes $V$). This method is complimentary to ZDI and can be applied for validation of the inversion results or when the available observational data are insufficient for an inversion. Based on the rigorous treatment of polarised line formation in the weak-field regime, we show that, for rapidly rotating stars, the cumulative Stokes $V$ profiles contain information about the spatially resolved longitudinal magnetic field density. Rotational modulation of these profiles can be employed for a simple, qualitative characterisation of the stellar magnetic field topologies. We apply this diagnostic method to the archival observations of the weak-line T Tauri star V410 Tau and Bp He-strong star HD 37776. We show that the magnetic field in V410 Tau is dominated by an azimuthal component, in agreement with the ZDI map that we recover from the same data set. For HD 37776 the cumulative Stokes $V$ profile variation indicates the presence of multiple regions of positive and negative field polarity. This behaviour agrees with the ZDI results but contradicts the popular hypothesis that the magnetic field of this star is dominated by an axisymmetric quadrupolar component.

[32]  arXiv:1505.07280 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Helium signature in red giant oscillation patterns observed by Kepler
Comments: 10 pages, 9 figures, accepted by A&A. AA/2014/25064
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler have provided a large amount of precise photometric data. Among the stars observed, red giants show a rich oscillation pattern that allows their precise characterization. Long-duration observations allow for investigating the fine structure of this oscillation pattern. A common pattern of oscillation frequency was observed in red giant stars, which corresponds to the second-order development of the asymptotic theory. This pattern, called the universal red giant oscillation pattern, describes the frequencies of stellar acoustic modes. We aim to investigate the deviations observed from this universal pattern, thereby characterizing them in terms of the location of the second ionization zone of helium. We also show how this seismic signature depends on stellar evolution. We measured the frequencies of radial modes with a maximum likelihood estimator method, then we identified a modulation corresponding to the departure from the universal oscillation pattern. We identify the modulation component of the radial mode frequency spacings in more than five hundred red giants. The variation in the modulation that we observe at different evolutionary states brings new constraints on the interior models for these stars. We also derive an updated form of the universal pattern that accounts for the modulation and provides highly precise radial frequencies.

[33]  arXiv:1505.07286 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: A Herschel/HIFI Legacy Survey of HF and H2O in the Galaxy: Probing Diffuse Molecular Cloud Chemistry
Authors: P. Sonnentrucker (STScI), M. Wolfire (UMd), D.A. Neufeld (JHU), N. Flagey (Institute for Astronomy), M. Gerin (Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne University), P. Goldsmith (JPL), D. Lis (Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne University), R. Monje (Caltech)
Comments: 53 pages; 12 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ main journal
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We combine Herschel observations of a total of 12 sources to construct the most uniform survey of HF and H2O in our Galactic disk. Both molecules are detected in absorption along all sight lines. The high spectral resolution of the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) allows us to compare the HF and H2O distributions in 47 diffuse cloud components sampling the disk. We find that the HF and H2O velocity distributions follow each other almost perfectly and establish that HF and H2O probe the same gas-phase volume. Our observations corroborate theoretical predictions that HF is a sensitive tracer of H2 in diffuse clouds, down to molecular fractions of only a few percent. Using HF to trace H2 in our sample, we find that the N(H2O)-to-N(HF) ratio shows a narrow distribution with a median value of 1.51. Our results further suggest that H2O might be used as a tracer of H2 -within a factor 2.5- in the diffuse interstellar medium. We show that the measured factor of ~2.5 variation around the median is driven by true local variations in the H2O abundance relative to H2 throughout the disk. The latter variability allows us to test our theoretical understanding of the chemistry of oxygen-bearing molecules in the diffuse gas. We show that both gas-phase and grain-surface chemistry are required to reproduce our H2O observations. This survey thus confirms that grain surface reactions can play a significant role in the chemistry occurring in the diffuse interstellar medium n_H < 1000 cm^-3.

[34]  arXiv:1505.07290 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Searching for Classical Be Stars from the LAMOST DR1
Comments: 7 pages, 3 figures, accepted by RAA
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We report on searching for Classical B-type emission-line (CBe) stars from the first data release (DR1) of the Large Sky Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST; also named the Guoshoujing Telescope). A total of 192 (12 known CBes) objects were identified as CBe candidates with prominent He~I~$\lambda4387$, He~I~$\lambda4471$, and Mg~II~$\lambda4481$ absorption lines, as well as H$\beta$~$\lambda4861$ and H$\alpha$~$\lambda6563$ emission lines. These candidates significantly increases current CBe sample of about 8\%. Most of the CBe candidates are distributed at the Galactic Anti-Center due to the LAMOST observing strategy. Only two of CBes are in the star clusters with ages of 15.8 and 398~Myr, respectively.

[35]  arXiv:1505.07307 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Direct Observations of Magnetic Reconnection Outflow and CME Triggering in a Small Erupting Solar Prominence
Comments: 13 pages, 10 figures
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We examine a small prominence eruption that occurred on 2014 May 1 at 01:35 UT and was observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Pre- and post-eruption images were taken by the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) on Hinode. Pre-eruption, a dome-like structure exists above the prominence, as demarcated by coronal rain. As the eruption progresses, we find evidence for reconnection between the prominence magnetic field and the overlying field. Fast flows are seen in AIA and IRIS, indicating reconnection outflows. Plane-of-sky flows of ~300 km s$^{-1}$ are observed in the AIA 171 A channel along a potentially reconnected field line. IRIS detects intermittent fast line-of-sight flows of ~200 km s$^{-1}$ coincident with the AIA flows. Differential emission measure calculations show heating at the origin of the fast flows. Post-eruption XRT images show hot loops probably due to reconfiguration of magnetic fields during the eruption and subsequent heating of plasma in these loops. Although there is evidence for reconnection above the prominence during the eruption, high spatial resolution images from IRIS reveal potential reconnection sites below the prominence. A height-time analysis of the erupting prominence shows a slow initial rise with a velocity of ~0.4 km s$^{-1}$ followed by a rapid acceleration with a final velocity of ~250 km s$^{-1}$. Brightenings in IRIS during the transition between these two phases indicate the eruption trigger for the fast part of the eruption is likely a tether-cutting mechanism rather than a break-out mechanism.

[36]  arXiv:1505.07311 [pdf]
Title: Possible scenarios that the New Horizons spacecraft may find in its close encounter with Pluto
Comments: 12 pages, 1 figure
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

Next year, 2015, the New Horizons spacecraft will have a close encounter with Pluto. In the present study we discuss some possibilities regarding what the spacecraft may encounter during its approach to Pluto. Among them we should include: the presence of geological activity due to heat generated by tides; the unlikely presence of an intrinsic magnetic field; the possibility of a plasmasphere and a plasmapause; the position of an ionopause; the existence of an ionospheric trans-terminator flow similar to that at Venus and Mars; and the presence of a Magnus force that produces a deflection of Pluto plasma wake. This deflection oscillates up and down in its orbit around the sun.

[37]  arXiv:1505.07319 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Constraints to dark-matter properties from asteroseismic analysis of KIC 2009504
Comments: Conference proceeding to be published in EPJ Web of Conferences The corresponding article in press to Physical Review D, arXiv:1505.01362
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Asteroseismology can be used to constrain some properties of dark-matter (DM) particles (Casanellas & Lopes, 2013). In this work, we performed an asteroseismic modelling of the main-sequence solar-like pulsator KIC 2009505 (also known as Dushera) in order to test the existence of DM particles with the characteristics that explain the recent results found in some of the DM direct detection experiments. We found that the presence of a convective core in KIC 2009504 is incompatible with the existence of some particular models of DM particles.

[38]  arXiv:1505.07324 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Stellar populations in $ω$ Centauri: a multivariate analysis
Authors: Didier Fraix-Burnet (IPAG), E. Davoust (IRAP)
Journal-ref: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy P - Oxford Open Option A, 2015, 450 (4), pp.3431-3441
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA); Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

We have performed multivariate statistical analyses of photometric and chemical abundance parameters of three large samples of stars in the globular cluster $\omega$ Centauri. The statistical analysis of a sample of 735 stars based on seven chemical abundances with the method of Maximum Parsimony (cladistics) yields the most promising results: seven groups are found, distributed along three branches with distinct chemical, spatial and kinematical properties. A progressive chemical evolution can be traced from one group to the next, but also within groups, suggestive of an inhomogeneous chemical enrichment of the initial interstellar matter. The adjustment of stellar evolution models shows that the groups with metallicities [Fe/H]\textgreater{}-1.5 are Helium-enriched, thus presumably of second generation. The spatial concentration of the groups increases with chemical evolution, except for two groups, which stand out in their other properties as well. The amplitude of rotation decreases with chemical evolution, except for two of the three metal-rich groups, which rotate fastest, as predicted by recent hydrodynamical simulations. The properties of the groups are interpreted in terms of star formation in gas clouds of different origins. In conclusion, our multivariate analysis has shown that metallicity alone cannot segregate the different populations of $\omega$ Centauri.

[39]  arXiv:1505.07327 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Var C: Long-term photometric and spectral variability of an LBV in M33
Comments: 13 pages plus 14 pages appendix, 8 figures (1 figure in appendix with reduced resolution); A&A, in press
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

So far the highly unstable phase of luminous blue variables (LBVs) has not been understood well. It is still uncertain why and which massive stars enter this phase. Investigating the variabilities by looking for a possible regular or even (semi-)periodic behaviour could give a hint at the underlying mechanism for these variations and might answer the question of where these variabilities originate. Finding out more about the LBV phase also means understanding massive stars better in general, which have (e.g. by enriching the ISM with heavy elements, providing ionising radiation and kinetic energy) a strong and significant influence on the ISM, hence also on their host galaxy. Photometric and spectroscopic data were taken for the LBV Var C in M33 to investigate its recent status. In addition, scanned historic plates, archival data, and data from the literature were gathered to trace Var C's behaviour in the past. Its long-term variability and periodicity was investigated. Our investigation of the variability indicates possible (semi-)periodic behaviour with a period of 42.3 years for Var C. That Var C's light curve covers a time span of more than 100 years means that more than two full periods of the cycle are visible. The critical historic maximum around 1905 is less strong but discernible even with the currently rare historic data. The semi-periodic and secular structure of the light curve is similar to the one of LMC R71. Both light curves hint at a new aspect in the evolution of LBVs.

[40]  arXiv:1505.07338 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Binary Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae Discovered Through Photometric Variability III: The Central Star of Abell 65
Comments: Accepted for publication in the Astronomical Journal
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

A growing number of close binary stars are being discovered among central stars of planetary nebulae. Recent and ongoing surveys are finding new systems and contributing to our knowledge of the evolution of close binary systems. The push to find more systems was largely based on early discoveries which suggested that 10 to 15% of all central stars are close binaries. One goal of this series of papers is confirmation and classification of these systems as close binaries and determination of binary system parameters. Here we provide time-resolved multi-wavelength photometry of the central star of Abell 65 as well as further analysis of the nebula and discussion of possible binary--nebula connections. Our results for Abell 65 confirm recent work showing that it has a close, cool binary companion, though several of our model parameters disagree with the recently published values. With our longer time baseline of photometric observations from 1989--2009 we also provide a more precise orbital period of 1.0037577 days.

[41]  arXiv:1505.07339 [pdf]
Title: Aqueye+: a new ultrafast single photon counter for optical high time resolution astrophysics
Comments: Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 9504, id. 95040C 14 pp. (2015)
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

Aqueye+ is a new ultrafast optical single photon counter, based on single photon avalanche photodiodes (SPAD) and a 4-fold split-pupil concept. It is a completely revisited version of its predecessor, Aqueye, successfully mounted at the 182 cm Copernicus telescope in Asiago. Here we will present the new technological features implemented on Aqueye+, namely a state of the art timing system, a dedicated and optimized optical train, a high sensitivity and high frame rate field camera and remote control, which will give Aqueye plus much superior performances with respect to its predecessor, unparalleled by any other existing fast photometer. The instrument will host also an optical vorticity module to achieve high performance astronomical coronography and a real time acquisition of atmospheric seeing unit. The present paper describes the instrument and its first performances.

[42]  arXiv:1505.07342 [pdf, other]
Title: Differential HBT Method for Binary Stars
Subjects: Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM)

Two photon correlations are studied for a binary star system. It is investigated how the differential Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) approach can be used in order to determine orbital parameters of a binary star.

[43]  arXiv:1505.07347 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Impact flux of asteroids and water transport to the habitable zone in binary star systems
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

By now, observations of exoplanets have found more than 50 binary star systems hosting 71 planets. We expect these numbers to increase as more than 70% of the main sequence stars in the solar neighborhood are members of binary or multiple systems. The planetary motion in such systems depends strongly on both the parameters of the stellar system (stellar separation and eccentricity) and the architecture of the planetary system (number of planets and their orbital behaviour). In case a terrestrial planet moves in the so-called habitable zone (HZ) of its host star, the habitability of this planet depends on many parameters. A crucial factor is certainly the amount of water. We investigate in this work the transport of water from beyond the snow-line to the HZ in a binary star system and compare it to a single star system.

[44]  arXiv:1505.07361 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Using the Sun to estimate Earth-like planets detection capabilities. V. Parameterizing the impact of solar activity components on radial velocities
Authors: Simon Borgniet, Nadège Meunier, Anne-Marie Lagrange (Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble)
Comments: Accepted to Astronomy and Astrophysics on May, 27th 2015. The manuscript includes 22 pages, 20 figures
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

Stellar activity induced by active structures (eg, spots, faculae) is known to strongly impact the radial velocity time series. It then limits the detection of small planetary RV signals (eg, an Earth-mass planet in the habitable zone of a solar-like star). In previous papers, we studied the detectability of such planets around the Sun seen as an edge-on star. For that purpose, we computed the RV and photometric variations induced by solar magnetic activity, using all active structures observed over one entire cycle. Our goal is to perform similar studies on stars with different physical and geometrical properties. As a first step, we focus on Sun-like stars seen with various inclinations, and on estimating detection capabilities with forthcoming instruments. To do so, we first parameterize the solar active structures with the most realistic pattern so as to obtain results consistent with the observed ones. We simulate the growth, evolution and decay of solar spots, faculae and network, using parameters and empiric laws derived from solar observations and literature. We generate the corresponding structure lists over a full solar cycle. We then build the resulting spectra and deduce the RV and photometric variations for a `Sun' seen with various inclinations. The produced RV signal takes into account the photometric contribution of structures as well as the attenuation of the convective blueshift. The comparison between our simulated activity pattern and the observed one validates our model. We show that the inclination of the stellar rotation axis has a significant impact on the time series. RV long-term amplitudes as well as short-term jitters are significantly reduced when going from edge-on to pole-on configurations. Assuming spin-orbit alignment, the optimal configuration for planet detection is an inclined star (i~45{\deg}).

[45]  arXiv:1505.07399 [pdf, other]
Title: Modeling Indications of Technology in Planetary Transit Light Curves -- Dark-side illumination
Authors: Eric J. Korpela (1), Shauna M. Sallmen (2), Diana Leystra Green (2) ((1) University of California, Berkeley, CA (2) University of Wisconsin - La Crosse, La Crosse, WI)
Comments: 14 pages, 12 figures, some color, Submitted to ApJ
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

We analyze potential effects of an extraterrestrial civilization's use of orbiting mirrors to illuminate the dark side of a synchronously rotating planet on planetary transit light curves. Previous efforts to detect civilizations based on side effects of planetary-scale engineering have focused on structures affecting the host star output (e.g. Dyson spheres). However, younger civilizations are likely to be less advanced in their engineering efforts, yet still capable of sending small spacecraft into orbit. Since M dwarfs are the most common type of star in the solar neighborhood, it seems plausible that many of the nearest habitable planets orbit dim, low-mass M stars, and will be in synchronous rotation. Logically, a civilization evolving on such a planet may be inspired to illuminate their planet's dark side by placing a single large mirror at the L2 Lagrangian point, or launching a fleet of small thin mirrors into planetary orbit. We briefly examine the requirements and engineering challenges of such a collection of orbiting mirrors, then explore their impact on transit light curves. We incorporate stellar limb darkening and model a simplistic mirror fleet's effects for transits of Earth-like (R = 0.5 to 2 R_Earth) planets which would be synchronously rotating for orbits within the habitable zone of their host star. Although such an installation is undetectable in Kepler data, JWST will provide the sensitivity necessary to detect a fleet of mirrors orbiting Earth-like habitable planets around nearby stars.

[46]  arXiv:1505.07419 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Radio Loud AGNs are Mergers
Comments: 16 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in the ApJ
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We measure the merger fraction of Type 2 radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei at z>1 using new samples. The objects have HST images taken with WFC3 in the IR channel. These samples are compared to the 3CR sample of radio galaxies at z>1 and to a sample of non-active galaxies. We also consider lower redshift radio galaxies with HST observations and previous generation instruments (NICMOS and WFPC2). The full sample spans an unprecedented range in both redshift and AGN luminosity. We perform statistical tests to determine whether the different samples are differently associated with mergers. We find that all (92%) radio-loud galaxies at z>1 are associated with recent or ongoing merger events. Among the radio-loud population there is no evidence for any dependence of the merger fraction on either redshift or AGN power. For the matched radio-quiet samples, only 38% are merging systems. The merger fraction for the sample of non-active galaxies at z>1 is indistinguishable from radio-quiet objects. This is strong evidence that mergers are the triggering mechanism for the radio-loud AGN phenomenon and the launching of relativistic jets from supermassive black holes. We speculate that major BH-BH mergers play a major role in spinning up the central supermassive black holes in these objects.

[47]  arXiv:1505.07423 [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Halpha3: an Halpha imaging survey of HI selected galaxies from ALFALFA. V: The Coma Supercluster survey completion
Journal-ref: 2015 Astronomy & Astrophysics, Volume 576, id.A16, 41 pp
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

Neutral hydrogen represents the major observable baryonic constituent of galaxies that fuels the formation of stars through the transformation in molecular hydrogen. The emission of the hydrogen recombination line Halpha is the most direct tracer of the process that transforms gas (fuel) into stars. We continue to present Halpha3 (acronym for Halpha-alpha-alpha), an extensive Halpha+[NII] narrow-band imaging campaign of galaxies selected from the HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA), using the instrumentation available at the San Pedro Martir observatory (Mexico). In only four years since 2011 we were able to complete in 48 nights the Halpha imaging observations of 724 galaxies in the region of the Coma supercluster 10^h < R.A. <16^h; 24^o < Dec. <28^o and 3900<cz<9000 kms^{-1}. Of these, 603 are selected from the HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA) and constitute a 97% complete sample. They provide for the first time a complete census of the massive star formation properties of local gas-rich galaxies belonging to different environments (cluster vs filaments), morphological type (spirals vs dwarf Irr), over a wide range of stellar mass (10^{8}-10^{11.5} Modot) in the Coma Supercluster. The present Paper V provides the Halpha data and the derived star formation rates for the observed galaxies.

[48]  arXiv:1505.07425 [pdf, other]
Title: Wind acceleration in AGB stars: Solid ground and loose ends
Authors: Susanne Höfner
Comments: Invited review, to appear in the proceedings of "Why Galaxies Care About AGB Stars III", eds. F.Kerschbaum, J.Hron, and R.Wing, ASP Conference Series (10 pages, 2 figures)
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)

The winds of cool luminous AGB stars are commonly assumed to be driven by radiative acceleration of dust grains which form in the extended atmospheres produced by pulsation-induced shock waves. The dust particles gain momentum by absorption or scattering of stellar photons, and they drag along the surrounding gas particles through collisions, triggering an outflow. This scenario, here referred to as Pulsation-Enhanced Dust-DRiven Outflow (PEDDRO), has passed a range of critical observational tests as models have developed from empirical and qualitative to increasingly self-consistent and quantitative. A reliable theory of mass loss is an essential piece in the bigger picture of stellar and galactic chemical evolution, and central for determining the contribution of AGB stars to the dust budget of galaxies. In this review, I discuss the current understanding of wind acceleration and indicate areas where further efforts by theorists and observers are needed.

[49]  arXiv:1505.07450 [pdf, other]
Title: Are the total mass density and the low-mass end slope of the IMF anti-correlated?
Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS Letter
Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

We conduct a detailed lensing, dynamics and stellar population analysis of nine massive lens early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the X-Shooter Lens Survey (XLENS). Combining gravitational lensing constraints from HST imaging with spatially-resolved kinematics and line-indices constraints from VLT X-Shooter (XSH) spectra, we infer the low-mass slope and the low cut-off mass of the stellar Initial Mass Function (IMF): $x_{250}=2.37^{+0.12}_{-0.12}$ and $M_{{\rm low}, 250}= 0.131^{+0.023}_{-0.026}\, M_{\odot}$, respectively, for a reference point with $\sigma \equiv 250\, {{\rm kms}}^{-1}$ and R$_{{\rm eff}} \equiv 10$ kpc. All the XLENS systems are consistent with an IMF slope steeper than Milky Way-like. We find no significant correlations between IMF slope and any other quantity, except for an anti-correlation between total dynamical mass density and low-mass IMF slope at the 87% CL [$dx/d\log(\rho)$ = $ -0.19^{+0.15}_{-0.15}$]. This anti-correlation is consistent with the low redshift lenses found by Smith et al. (2015) that have high velocity dispersions and high stellar mass densities but surprisingly shallow IMF slopes.