84 articles on Saturday, May 18

arXiv:2405.02339v1 [pdf, other]
Noise Models in the LISA Mission
Comments: No comment found

This document briefly describes the noise models and shapes used for the synthesis of the Drag-Free and Attitude Control System in the LISA space mission. LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) is one of the next large-class missions from the European Space Agency (ESA), expected to be launched in 2034. The main goal of the mission is to detect the gravitational waves, which are undulatory perturbations of the space-time fabric, extremely important to collect experimental proofs for the General Relativity Theory. In the 90s, different international collaborations of institutes laid the foundations for the first ground-based interferometers (see, e.g., LIGO and Virgo). However, ground-based interferometers have a limited bandwidth due to the Earth's environmental noises and short arm-length of few kilometers. Therefore, they cannot observe gravitational waves belonging to the portion of the spectrum below 1 Hz. This issue can be overcome by means of space-based interferometers, that can have arm-lengths up to millions of kilometers and exploit a quieter environment than the Earth's surface. The LISA system is affected by actuation, sensing and environmental disturbances and noises. Among the actuation noises we have those given by the Micro Propulsion System (MPS), the Gravitational Reference Sensor (GRS) and the Optical Assembly (OA) motor. Among the sensing noises we consider the interferometer, the Differential Wavefront Sensor (DWS) and the GRS. The environmental disturbances are given by the solar radiation pressure, the test-mass stiffness and self-gravity, and the environmental noises acting directly on the test-mass.

arXiv:2405.02348v1 [pdf, other]
Massive Compact Quiescent Galaxies in the $M_\star$ vs. $σ_\mathrm{e}$ Plane: Insights from stellar Population Properties
Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS

We investigated the stellar population properties of a sample of 1858 massive compact galaxies (MCGs) extracted from the SDSS survey. Motivated by previous results showing that older compact galaxies tend to have larger velocity dispersion at fixed stellar mass, we used the distance to the $\sigma_\mathrm{e}$ vs. $R_\mathrm{e}$ and $M_\star$ vs. $\sigma_\mathrm{e}$ relations as selection criteria. We found that MCGs are old ($\gtrsim 10$ Gyr), $\alpha$-enhanced ([$\alpha/\mathrm{Fe}] \sim 0.2$) and have solar to super-solar stellar metallicities. Metallicity increases with $\sigma_\mathrm{e}$, while age and [$\alpha$/Fe] do not vary significantly. Moreover, at fixed $\sigma_\mathrm{e}$, metallicity and stellar mass are correlated. Compared to a control sample of typical quiescent galaxies, MCGs have, on average, lower metallicities than control sample galaxies (CSGs) of similar $\sigma_\mathrm{e}$. For $\sigma_\mathrm{e} \lesssim 225$ km/s, MCGs are older and more $\alpha$-enhanced than CSGs, while for higher $\sigma_\mathrm{e}$ ages and $\alpha$-enhancement are similar. The differences in age and $\alpha$-enhancement can be explained by lower-$\sigma_\mathrm{e}$ CSGs being an amalgam of quiescent galaxies with a variety of ages. The origin of the differences in metallicity, however, is not clear. Lastly, we compared the stellar mass within the region probed by the SDSS fiber finding that, at fixed fiber velocity dispersion, MCGs have lower stellar masses on average. Since the velocity dispersion is a tracer of the dynamical mass, this raises the possibility that MCGs have, on average, a bottom heavier initial mass function or a larger dark matter fraction within the inner $\sim 1-2$ kpc.

arXiv:2405.02366v1 [pdf, other]
Bayesian and Convolutional Networks for Hierarchical Morphological Classification of Galaxies
Comments: No comment found

This work is focused on the morphological classification of galaxies following the Hubble sequence in which the different classes are arranged in a hierarchy. The proposed method, BCNN, is composed of two main modules. First, a convolutional neural network (CNN) is trained with images of the different classes of galaxies (image augmentation is carried out to balance some classes); the CNN outputs the probability for each class of the hierarchy, and its outputs/predictions feed the second module. The second module consists of a Bayesian network that represents the hierarchy and helps to improve the prediction accuracy by combining the predictions of the first phase while maintaining the hierarchical constraint (in a hierarchy, an instance associated with a node must be associated to all its ancestors), through probabilistic inference over the Bayesian network so that a consistent prediction is obtained. Different images from the Hubble telescope have been collected and labeled by experts, which are used to perform the experiments. The results show that BCNN performed better than several CNNs in multiple evaluation measures, reaching the next scores: 67% in exact match, 78% in accuracy, and 83% in hierarchical F-measure.

arXiv:2405.02368v1 [pdf, other]
Exploring the neutron star zoo: An observational review
Comments: Proceedings of the virtual meeting held 29 Nov-1 Dece, 2021 "Neutron Star Astrophysics at the Crossroads: Magnetars and the Multimessenger Revolution". Edited by Eleonora Troja and Matthew G. Baring. Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, Volume 363, pp. 51-60

Neutron stars have shown diverse characteristics, leading us to classify them into different classes. In this proceeding, I review the observational properties of isolated neutron stars: from magnetars, the strongest magnets we know of, to central compact objects, the so-called anti-magnetars, stopping by the rotation-powered pulsars and X-ray dim isolated neutron stars. Finally, I highlight a few sources that have exhibited features straddling those of different groups, blurring the apparent diversity of the neutron star zoo.

arXiv:2405.02382v1 [pdf, other]
Properties of electrons accelerated by the Ganymede-magnetosphere interaction: survey of Juno high-latitude observations
Comments: Accepted for publication in JGR: Space Physics

The encounter between the Jovian co-rotating plasma and Ganymede gives rise to electromagnetic waves that propagate along the magnetic field lines and accelerate particles by resonant or non-resonant wave-particle interaction. They ultimately precipitate into Jupiter's atmosphere and trigger auroral emissions. In this study, we use Juno/JADE, Juno/UVS data, and magnetic field line tracing to characterize the properties of electrons accelerated by the Ganymede-magnetosphere interaction in the far-field region. We show that the precipitating energy flux exhibits an exponential decay as a function of downtail distance from the moon, with an e-folding value of 29{\deg}, consistent with previous UV observations from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We characterize the electron energy distributions and show that two distributions exist. Electrons creating the Main Alfv\'en Wing (MAW) spot and the auroral tail always have broadband distribution and a mean characteristic energy of 2.2 keV while in the region connected to the Transhemispheric Electron Beam (TEB) spot the electrons are distributed non-monotonically, with a higher characteristic energy above 10 keV. Based on the observation of bidirectional electron beams, we suggest that Juno was located within the acceleration region during the 11 observations reported. We thus estimate that the acceleration region is extended, at least, between an altitude of 0.5 and 1.3 Jupiter radius above the 1-bar surface. Finally, we estimate the size of the interaction region in the Ganymede orbital plane using far-field measurements. These observations provide important insights for the study of particle acceleration processes involved in moon-magnetosphere interactions.

arXiv:2405.02388v1 [pdf, other]
Gravothermal Catastrophe in Resonant Self-interacting Dark Matter Models
Comments: 10 pages, 6 figures, 1 table, submitted to PRD

We investigate a self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) model featuring a velocity-dependent cross section with an order-of-magnitude resonant enhancement of the cross section at $\sim 16\,{\rm km}\,{\rm s}^{-1}$. To understand the implications for the structure of dark matter halos, we perform N-body simulations of isolated dark matter halos of mass $\sim 10^8\,{\rm M}_\odot$, a halo mass selected to have a maximum response to the resonance. We track the core formation and the gravothermal collapse phases of the dark matter halo in this model and compare the halo evolving with the resonant cross section with halos evolving with velocity-independent cross sections. We show that dark matter halo evolution with the resonant cross section exhibits a deviation from universality that characterizes halo evolution with velocity-independent cross sections. The halo evolving under the influence of the resonance reaches a lower minimum central density during core formation. It subsequently takes about $20\%$ longer to reach its initial central density during the collapse phase. These results motivate a more detailed exploration of halo evolution in models with pronounced resonances.

arXiv:2405.02391v1 [pdf, other]
X-ray Winds In Nearby-to-distant Galaxies (X-WING) - I: Legacy Surveys of Galaxies with Ultrafast Outflows and Warm Absorbers in $z \sim 0$-$4$
Comments: 34 pages, 4 tables, 7 figures, accepted in ApJS. The CSV files of Tables B2-B4 are available from the URL: http://www.kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~styamada/yamada2024bApJS/XWING-PaperI_tables.zip

As an inaugural investigation under the X-ray Winds In Nearby-to-distant Galaxies (X-WING) program, we assembled a dataset comprising 132 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) spanning redshifts $z \sim 0$-$4$ characterized by blueshifted absorption lines indicative of X-ray winds. Through an exhaustive review of previous research, we compiled the outflow parameters for 573 X-ray winds, encompassing key attributes such as outflow velocities ($V_{\rm out}$), ionization parameters ($\xi$), and hydrogen column densities. By leveraging the parameters $V_{\rm out}$ and $\xi$, we systematically categorized the winds into three distinct groups: ultrafast outflows (UFOs), low-ionization parameter (low-IP) UFOs, and warm absorbers. Strikingly, a discernible absence of linear correlations in the outflow parameters, coupled with distributions approaching instrumental detection limits, was observed. Another notable finding was the identification of a velocity gap around $V_{\rm out} \sim 10,000~{\rm km~s^{-1}}$. This gap was particularly evident in the winds detected via absorption lines within the $\lesssim$2 keV band, indicating disparate origins for low-IP UFOs and warm absorbers. In cases involving Fe XXV/Fe XXVI lines, where the gap might be attributed to potential confusion between emission/absorption lines and the Fe K-edge, the possibility of UFOs and galactic-scale warm absorbers being disconnected is considered. An examination of the outflow and dust sublimation radii revealed a distinction: UFOs appear to consist of dust-free material, whereas warm absorbers likely comprise dusty gas. From 2024, the X-Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission (XRISM) is poised to alleviate observational biases, providing insights into the authenticity of the identified gap, a pivotal question in comprehending AGN feedback from UFOs.

arXiv:2405.02393v1 [pdf, other]
Dark Kinetic Heating of Exoplanets and Brown Dwarfs
Comments: 24 pages, 11 figures

Dark kinetic heating of neutron stars has been previously studied as a promising dark matter detection avenue. Kinetic heating occurs when dark matter is sped up to relativistic speeds in the gravitational well of high-escape velocity objects, and deposits kinetic energy after becoming captured by the object, thereby increasing its temperature. We show that dark kinetic heating can be significant even in objects with low-escape velocities, such as exoplanets and brown dwarfs, increasing the discovery potential of such searches. This can occur if there is a long-range dark force, creating a "dark escape velocity", leading to heating rates substantially larger than those expected from neutron stars. We consequently set constraints on dark sector parameters using Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and JWST data on Super-Jupiter WISE 0855-0714, and map out future sensitivity to the dark matter scattering cross section below $10^{-40}~{\rm cm}^2$. We compare dark kinetic heating rates of other lower escape velocity objects such as the Earth, Sun, and white dwarfs, finding complementary kinetic heating signals are possible depending on particle physics parameters.

arXiv:2405.02396v1 [pdf, other]
Geometry, Dissipation, Cooling, and the Dynamical Evolution of Wind-Blown Bubbles
Comments: 41 pages, 20 figures, submitted to ApJ, comments welcome

Bubbles driven by energy and mass injection from small scales are ubiquitous in astrophysical fluid systems and essential to feedback across multiple scales. In particular, O stars in young clusters produce high velocity winds that create hot bubbles in the surrounding gas. We demonstrate that the dynamical evolution of these bubbles is critically dependent upon the geometry of their interfaces with their surroundings and the nature of heat transport across these interfaces. These factors together determine the amount of energy that can be lost from the interior through cooling at the interface, which in turn determines the ability of the bubble to do work on its surroundings. We further demonstrate that the scales relevant to physical dissipation across this interface are extremely difficult to resolve in global numerical simulations of bubbles for parameter values of interest. This means the dissipation driving evolution of these bubbles in numerical simulations is often of a numerical nature. We describe the physical and numerical principles that determine the level of dissipation in these simulations; we use this, along with a fractal model for the geometry of the interfaces, to explain differences in convergence behavior between hydrodynamical and magneto-hydrodynamical simulations presented here. We additionally derive an expression for momentum as a function of bubble radius expected when the relevant dissipative scales are resolved and show that it still results in efficiently-cooled solutions as postulated in previous work.

arXiv:2405.02397v1 [pdf, other]
The hydrodynamic response of small-scale structure to reionization drives large IGM temperature fluctuations that persist to z = 4
Comments: 6+1 pages, 2+1 figures, to be submitted to MNRAS letters. Comments welcome

The thermal history and structure of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at $z \geq 4$ is a key boundary condition for reionization, which has been measured using the Ly$\alpha$ forest of high-redshift quasars. It is also a key input for studies that use the forest to constrain the particle masses of alternative dark matter candidates. Most such inferences rely on simulations that lack the spatial resolution to fully resolve the hydrodynamic response of IGM filaments and minihalos caused by HI reionization heating. In this letter, we use high-resolution hydrodynamic+radiative transfer simulations to study the impact of these on the IGM thermal structure. We find that the adiabatic heating and cooling driven by the expansion of initially cold gas filaments and minihalos drives significant temperature fluctuations on small scales. These likely persist in much of the IGM until at least $z = 4$. Capturing this effect requires resolving the characteristic clumping scale of cold, pre-ionized gas, which demands spatial resolutions of at least $2$ $h^{-1}$kpc. Pre-heating of the IGM by X-Ray sources can slightly reduce the effect. Our preliminary estimate of the effect on the Ly$\alpha$ forest finds that, at $\log(k /[{\rm km^{-1} s}]) = -1.0$, the forest flux power (at fixed mean flux) can increase by $10-20\%$ when going from $8$ and $2$ $h^{-1}$kpc resolution at $z = 4-5$ for gas ionized at $z < 7$. These findings motivate a more careful analysis of how temperature fluctuations driven by pressure smoothing from reionization affect the Ly$\alpha$ forest.

arXiv:2405.02398v1 [pdf, other]
Evolution of central galaxy alignments in simulations
Comments: 10 pages, 11 figuras, submitted to A&A

Observations suggest that red central galaxies align closely with their group galaxies and the large-scale environment.This finding was also replicated in simulations, which added information about the alignment of the stars that form the galaxies with the dark matter in the halo they inhabit. These results were obtained for the present universe. Our study aims to build upon previous findings by examining the evolution of central galaxy alignment with their environment, as well as the alignment between their stellar and dark matter components. Based on previous studies, in this work, we describe the evolution of the alignment of bright central galaxies over time and try to understand the process leading to the current observed alignment. By employing the merger trees from the simulation, we track the alignment evolution of the central galaxy sample at z=0 used in a previous study, whose results correspond to the observations. In particular, we exploit the anisotropic correlation function to study the alignment of the central galaxies with the environment and the probability distribution of the angle between the axes of the shape tensor calculated for each component to deepen the analysis of the stellar and dark matter components. A description was given of the evolution of alignment in bright central galaxies with a focus on the distinctions between red and blue galaxies. Furthermore, it was found that the alignment of the dark matter halo differs from that of the stellar material within it. According to the findings, the assembly process and mergers influenced the evolution of alignment

arXiv:2405.02401v1 [pdf, other]
The Implications of Thermal Hydrodynamic Atmospheric Escape on the TRAPPIST-1 Planets
Comments: 33 pages including appendix. Accepted for Publication in the Planetary Science Journal

JWST observations of the 7-planet TRAPPIST-1 system will provide an excellent opportunity to test outcomes of stellar-driven evolution of terrestrial planetary atmospheres, including atmospheric escape, ocean loss and abiotic oxygen production. While most previous studies use a single luminosity evolution for the host star, we incorporate observational uncertainties in stellar mass, luminosity evolution, system age, and planetary parameters to statistically explore the plausible range of planetary atmospheric escape outcomes. We present probabilistic distributions of total water loss and oxygen production as a function of initial water content, for planets with initially pure water atmospheres and no interior-atmosphere exchange. We find that the interior planets are desiccated for initial water contents below 50 Earth oceans. For TRAPPIST-1e, f, g, and h, we report maximum water loss ranges of 8.0$^{+1.3}_{-0.9}$, 4.8$^{+0.6}_{-0.4}$, 3.4$^{+0.3}_{-0.3}$, and 0.8$^{+0.2}_{-0.1}$ Earth oceans, respectively, with corresponding maximum oxygen retention of 1290$^{+75}_{-75}$, 800$^{+40}_{-40}$, 560$^{+30}_{-25}$, and 90$^{+10}_{-10}$ bars. We explore statistical constraints on initial water content imposed by current water content, which could inform evolutionary history and planet formation. If TRAPPIST-1b is airless while TRAPPIST-1c possesses a tenuous oxygen atmosphere, as initial JWST observations suggest, then our models predict an initial surface water content of 8.2$^{+1.5}_{-1.0}$ Earth oceans for these worlds, leading to the outer planets retaining $>$1.5 Earth oceans after entering the habitable zone. Even if TRAPPIST-1c is airless, surface water on the outer planets would not be precluded.

arXiv:2405.02404v1 [pdf, other]
Star Formation Rates in [Ne V] 3426 Å Selected Active Galactic Nuclei: Evidence for a Decrease along the Main Sequence?
Comments: 10 pages, 8 figures, 1 table, accepted for publication in ApJ

Studying the behavior along the galaxy main sequence is key in furthering our understanding of the possible connection between AGN activity and star formation. We select a sample of 1215 AGN from the catalog of SDSS galaxy properties from the Portsmouth group by detection of the high-ionization [Ne V] 3426 \r{A} emission line. Our sample extends from 10$^{40}$ to 10$^{42.5}$ erg/s in [Ne V] luminosity in a redshift range z = 0.17 to 0.57. We compare the specific star formation rates (sSFRs, SFR scaled by galaxy mass) obtained from the corrected [O II] and H{\alpha} luminosities, and the SED-determined values from Portsmouth. We find that the emission-line-based sSFR values are unreliable for the [Ne V] sample due to the AGN contribution, and proceed with the SED sSFRs for our study of the main sequence. We find evidence for a decrease in sSFR along the main sequence in the [Ne V] sample which is consistent with results from the hard X-ray BAT AGN sample, which extends to lower redshifts than our [Ne V] sample. Although we do not find evidence that the concurrent AGN activity is suppressing star formation, our results are consistent with a lower gas fraction in the host galaxies of the AGN as compared to that of the star forming galaxies. If the evacuation of gas, and therefore suppression of star formation is due to AGN activity, it must have occurred in a previous epoch.

arXiv:2405.02408v1 [pdf, other]
Exomoons & Exorings with the Habitable Worlds Observatory I: On the Detection of Earth-Moon Analog Shadows & Eclipses
Comments: 16 pages, 11 figures, in review at AJ, includes revisions from first round of review, comments welcome

The highest priority recommendation of the Astro2020 Decadal Survey for space-based astronomy was the construction of an observatory capable of characterizing habitable worlds. In this paper series we explore the detectability of and interference from exomoons and exorings serendipitously observed with the proposed Habitable Worlds Observatory (HWO) as it seeks to characterize exoplanets, starting in this manuscript with Earth-Moon analog mutual events. Unlike transits, which only occur in systems viewed near edge-on, shadow (i.e., solar eclipse) and lunar eclipse mutual events occur in almost every star-planet-moon system. The cadence of these events can vary widely from ~yearly to multiple events per day, as was the case in our younger Earth-Moon system. Leveraging previous space-based (EPOXI) lightcurves of a Moon transit and performance predictions from the LUVOIR-B concept, we derive the detectability of Moon analogs with HWO. We determine that Earth-Moon analogs are detectable with observation of ~2-20 mutual events for systems within 10pc, and larger moons should remain detectable out to 20pc. We explore the extent to which exomoon mutual events can mimic planet features and weather. We find that HWO wavelength coverage in the near-IR, specifically in the 1.4 micron water band where large moons can outshine their host planet, will aid in differentiating exomoon signals from exoplanet variability. Finally, we predict that exomoons formed through collision processes akin to our Moon are more likely to be detected in younger systems, where shorter orbital periods and favorable geometry enhance the probability and frequency of mutual events.

arXiv:2405.02418v1 [pdf, other]
Self-organization in collisionless, high-$β$ turbulence
Comments: 42 pages, 13 figures

The MHD equations, as a collisional fluid model that remains in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), have long been used to describe turbulence in myriad space and astrophysical plasmas. Yet, the vast majority of these plasmas, from the solar wind to the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters, are only weakly collisional at best, meaning that significant deviations from LTE are not only possible but common. Recent studies have demonstrated that the kinetic physics inherent to this weakly collisional regime can fundamentally transform the evolution of such plasmas across a wide range of scales. Here we explore the consequences of pressure anisotropy and Larmor-scale instabilities for collisionless, $\beta \gg 1$ turbulence, focusing on the role of a self-organizational effect known as 'magneto-immutability'. We describe this self-organization analytically through a high-$\beta$, reduced ordering of the CGL-MHD equations, finding that it is a robust inertial-range effect that dynamically suppresses magnetic-field-strength fluctuations, anisotropic-pressure stresses, and dissipation due to heat fluxes. As a result, the turbulent cascade of Alfv\'enic fluctuations continues below the putative viscous scale to form a robust, nearly conservative, MHD-like inertial range. These findings are confirmed numerically via Landau-fluid CGL-MHD turbulence simulations that employ a collisional closure to mimic the effects of microinstabilities. We find that microinstabilities occupy a small ($\sim 5\%$) volume-filling fraction of the plasma, even when the pressure anisotropy is driven strongly towards its instability thresholds. We discuss these results in the context of recent predictions for ion-versus-electron heating in low-luminosity accretion flows and observations implying suppressed viscosity in ICM turbulence.

arXiv:2405.02423v1 [pdf, other]
A Test of Spectroscopic Age Estimates of White Dwarfs using Wide WD+WD Binaries
Comments: 38 pages, 17 figures, submitted to ApJ

White dwarf stars have been used for decades as precise and accurate age indicators. This work presents a test of the reliability of white dwarf total ages when spectroscopic observations are available. We conduct follow-up spectroscopy of 148 individual white dwarfs in widely separated double-white-dwarf (WD+WD) binaries. We supplement the sample with 264 previously published white dwarf spectra, as well as 1292 high-confidence white dwarf spectral types inferred from their Gaia XP spectra. We find that spectroscopic fits to optical spectra do not provide noticeable improvement to the age agreement among white dwarfs in wide WD+WD binaries. The median age agreement is $\approx$$1.5\sigma$ for both photometrically and spectroscopically determined total ages, for pairs of white dwarfs with each having a total age uncertaintiy $<$ 20\%. For DA white dwarfs, we further find that photometrically determined atmospheric parameters from spectral energy distribution fitting give better total age agreement ($1.0\sigma$, 0.2 Gyr, or 14\% of the binary's average total age) compared to spectroscopically determined parameters from Balmer-line fits (agreement of $1.5\sigma$, 0.3 Gyr, or 28\% of binary's average total age). We find further evidence of a significant merger fraction among wide WD+WD binaries: across multiple spectroscopically identified samples, roughly 20\% are inconsistent with a monotonically increasing initial-final mass relation. We recommend the acquisition of an identification spectrum to ensure the correct atmospheric models are used in photometric fits in order to determine the most accurate total age of a white dwarf star.

arXiv:2405.02459v1 [pdf, other]
Distance estimate method for Asymptotic Giant Branch stars using Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions
Comments: Accepted to APJ

We present a method to estimate distances to Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars in the Galaxy, using spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in the near- and mid-infrared. By assuming that a given set of source properties (initial mass, stellar temperature, composition, and evolutionary stage) will provide a typical SED shape and brightness, sources are color-matched to a distance-calibrated template and thereafter scaled to extract the distance. The method is tested by comparing the distances obtained to those estimated from Very Long Baseline Interferometry or Gaia parallax measurements, yielding a strong correlation in both cases. Additional templates are formed by constructing a source sample likely to be close to the Galactic center, and thus with a common, typical distance for calibration of the templates. These first results provide statistical distance estimates to a set of almost 15,000 Milky Way AGB stars belonging to the Bulge Asymmetries and Dynamical Evolution (BAaDE) survey, with typical distance errors of $\pm 35$%. With these statistical distances a map of the intermediate-age population of stars traced by AGBs is formed, and a clear bar structure can be discerned, consistent with the previously reported inclination angle of 30$^\circ$ to the GC-Sun direction vector. These results motivate deeper studies of the AGB population to tease out the intermediate-age stellar distribution throughout the Galaxy, as well as determining statistical properties of the AGB population luminosity and mass-loss rate distributions.

arXiv:2405.02460v1 [pdf, other]
Asymmetric drift in MaNGA: Mass and radially-dependent stratification rates in galaxy disks
Comments: 21 pages, 18 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRAS

We measure the age-velocity relationship from the lag between ionized gas and stellar tangential speeds in ~500 nearby disk galaxies from MaNGA in SDSS-IV. Selected galaxies are kinematically axisymmetric. Velocity lags are asymmetric drift, seen in the Milky Way's (MW) solar neighborhood and other Local Group galaxies; their amplitude correlates with stellar population age. The trend is qualitatively consistent in rate (d(sigma)/dt) with a simple power-law model where sigma is proportional to t^b that explains the dynamical phase-space stratification in the solar neighborhood. The model is generalized based on disk dynamical times to other radii and other galaxies. We find in-plane radial stratification parameters sigma_(0,r} (dispersion of the youngest populations) in the range of 10-40 km/s and 0.2<b_r<0.5 for MaNGA galaxies. Overall b_r increases with galaxy mass, decreases with radius for galaxies above 10.4 dex (M_solar) in stellar mass, but is ~constant with radius at lower mass. The measurement scatter indicates the stratification model is too simple to capture the complexity seen in the data, unsurprising given the many possible astrophysical processes that may lead to stellar population dynamical stratification. Nonetheless, the data show dynamical stratification is broadly present in the galaxy population, with systematic trends in mass and density. The amplitude of the asymmetric drift signal is larger for the MaNGA sample than the MW, and better represented in the mean by what is observed in the disks of M31 and M33. Either typical disks have higher surface-density or, more likely, are dynamically hotter (hence thicker) than the MW.

arXiv:2405.02465v1 [pdf, other]
Discovery of merging twin quasars at z = 6.05
Comments: Published from ApJL. A companion paper (T. Izumi et al.) presents the associated ALMA observations

We report the discovery of two quasars at a redshift of $z$ = 6.05, in the process of merging. They were serendipitously discovered from the deep multi-band imaging data collected by the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru Strategic Program survey. The quasars, HSC $J$121503.42$-$014858.7 (C1) and HSC $J$121503.55$-$014859.3 (C2), both have luminous ($>$10$^{43}$ erg s$^{-1}$) Ly$\alpha$ emission with a clear broad component (full width at half maximum $>$1000 km s$^{-1}$). The rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) absolute magnitudes are $M_{1450} = -23.106 \pm 0.017$ (C1) and $-22.662 \pm 0.024$ (C2). Our crude estimates of the black hole masses provide $\log (M_{\rm BH}/M_\odot) = 8.1 \pm 0.3$ in both sources. The two quasars are separated by 12 kpc in projected proper distance, bridged by a structure in the rest-UV light suggesting that they are undergoing a merger. This pair is one of the most distant merging quasars reported to date, providing crucial insight into galaxy and black hole build-up in the hierarchical structure formation scenario. A companion paper will present the gas and dust properties captured by Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations, which provide additional evidence for and detailed measurements of the merger and also demonstrate that the two sources are not gravitationally-lensed images of a single quasar.

arXiv:2405.02468v1 [pdf, other]
Merging gas-rich galaxies that harbor low-luminosity twin quasars at z = 6.05: a promising progenitor of the most luminous quasars
Comments: 14 pages incl. Appendix, 4 main figures, 1 table, 1 appendix figure. Submitted to AAS journal

We present ALMA [CII] 158 $\mu$m line and underlying far-infrared continuum emission observations ($0''.57 \times 0''.46$ resolution) toward a quasar-quasar pair system recently discovered at $z = 6.05$ (Matsuoka et al. 2024). The quasar nuclei (C1 and C2) are very faint ($M_{\rm 1450} \gtrsim -23$ mag), but we detect very bright [CII] emission bridging the 12 kpc between the two objects and extending beyond them (total luminosity $L_{\rm [CII]} \simeq 6 \times 10^9~L_\odot$). The total star formation rate of the system is $\sim 100$ to 550 $M_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$, with a [CII]-based total gas mass of $\sim 10^{11}~M_\odot$. The dynamical masses of the two galaxies are large ($\sim 9 \times 10^{10}~M_\odot$ for C1 and $\sim 5 \times 10^{10}~M_\odot$ for C2). There is a smooth velocity gradient in [CII], indicating that these quasars are a tidally interacting system. We identified a dynamically distinct, fast [CII] component around C1. Detailed inspection of the line spectrum reveals the presence of a broad wing component, which we interpret as the indication of fast outflows with a velocity of $\sim 600$ km s$^{-1}$. The expected mass loading factor of the outflows, after accounting for multiphase gas, would be $\gtrsim 3-8$, as expected for an AGN-driven outflow. Hydrodynamic simulations in the literature predicted that this pair will evolve to a luminous ($M_{\rm 1450} \lesssim -26$ mag), starbursting ($\gtrsim 1000~M_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$) quasar after coalescence, one of the most extreme populations in the early universe.

arXiv:2405.02483v1 [pdf, other]
The Stagger Code for Accurate and Efficient, Radiation-Coupled MHD Simulations
Comments: accepted for the Astrophysical Journal

We describe the Stagger Code for simulations of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) systems. This is a modular code with a variety of physics modules that will let the user run simulations of deep stellar atmospheres, sunspot formation, stellar chromospheres and coronae, proto-stellar disks, star formation from giant molecular clouds and even galaxy formation. The Stagger Code is efficiently and highly parallelizable, enabling such simulations with large ranges of both spatial and temporal scales. We, describe the methodology of the code, and present the most important of the physics modules, as well as its input and output variables. We show results of a number of standard MHD tests to enable comparison with other, similar codes. In addition, we provide an overview of tests that have been carried out against solar observations, ranging from spectral line shapes, spectral flux distribution, limb darkening, intensity and velocity distributions of granulation, to seismic power-spectra and the excitation of p modes. The Stagger Code has proven to be a high fidelity code with a large range of uses.

arXiv:2405.02507v1 [pdf, other]
Prospects for the Observation of Continuous Gravitational Waves from Deformed Fast-spinning White Dwarfs
Comments: Accepted for publication in MNRAS

There has been a growing interest within the astrophysics community in highly magnetized and fast-spinning white dwarfs (WDs), commonly referred to as HMWDs. WDs with these characteristics are quite uncommon and possess magnetic fields $\geqslant 10^6$ G, along with short rotation periods ranging from seconds to just a few minutes. Based on our previous work, we analyze the emission of Gravitational Waves (GWs) in HMWDs through two mechanisms: matter accretion and magnetic deformation, which arise due to the asymmetry surrounding the star's rotational axis. Here, we perform a thorough self-consistent analysis, accounting for rotation and employing a realistic equation of state to investigate the stability of stars. Our investigation focuses on the emission of gravitational radiation from six rapidly spinning WDs: five of them are situated within binary systems, while one is an AXP, proposed as a magnetic accreting WD. Furthermore, we apply the matter accretion mechanism alongside the magnetic deformation mechanism to assess the influence of one process on the other. Our discoveries indicate that these WDs could potentially act as GW sources for BBO and DECIGO, depending on specific parameters, such as their mass, the angle ($\alpha$) between the magnetic and rotational axes, and the accumulated mass ($\delta m$) at their magnetic poles, which is influenced by the effect of matter accretion. However, detecting this particular class of stars using the LISA and TianQin space detectors seems unlikely due to the challenging combination of parameters such as a large $\delta m$, a large $\alpha$ angle and a small WD mass value.

arXiv:2405.02530v1 [pdf, other]
A catalog of newly discovered close binary open clusters in the Milky Way from Gaia DR3
Comments: 10 pages, 5 figures, 2 tables

The unprecedented precision in Gaia measurements of parallax allows us to capture a larger number of binary clusters. With the releases of Gaia data, the number of Galactic open clusters (OCs) increases with great rapidity, providing an excellent opportunity to confirm more binary clusters in the Milky Way. Using a recently released OC catalog, we employed the photometric and astrometric data of and OCs and their member stars to find close binary open clusters (CBOCs). The 3-dimensional spatial coordinates, proper motions, and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), and a new CBOC identification technique are used for identifying CBOCs. We finally found 13 new pairs of CBOCs. The fundamental parameters of these CBOCs are determined by fitting the CMDs to the isochrones of stellar populations. When we check the similarity of reddenings, ages and metallicities of the sub-clusters of CBOCs, eight CBOCs are shown to be primordial binary open clusters (PBOCs). This paper reports the detailed data of the 13 newly found CBOCs, which will help us to do many further researches on binary star clusters.

arXiv:2405.02535v1 [pdf, other]
Observations of Titan's Stratosphere During Northern Summer: Temperatures, CH3CN and CH3D Abundances
Comments: Accepted for publication in the Planetary Science Journal. 9 Figures, 1 table

Titan's atmospheric composition and dynamical state have previously been studied over numerous epochs by both ground- and space-based facilities. However, stratospheric measurements remain sparse during Titan's northern summer and fall. The lack of seasonal symmetry in observations of Titan's temperature field and chemical abundances raises questions about the nature of the middle atmosphere's meridional circulation and evolution over Titan's 29-yr seasonal cycle that can only be answered through long-term monitoring campaigns. Here, we present maps of Titan's stratospheric temperature, acetonitrile (or methyl cyanide; CH$_3$CN), and monodeuterated methane (CH$_3$D) abundances following Titan's northern summer solstice obtained with Band 9 ($\sim0.43$ mm) ALMA observations. We find that increasing temperatures towards high-southern latitudes, currently in winter, resemble those observed during Titan's northern winter by the Cassini mission. Acetonitrile abundances have changed significantly since previous (sub)millimeter observations, and we find that the species is now highly concentrated at high-southern latitudes. The stratospheric CH$_3$D content is found to range between 4-8 ppm in these observations, and we infer the CH$_4$ abundance to vary between $\sim0.9-1.6\%$ through conversion with previously measured D/H values. A global value of CH$_4=1.15\%$ was retrieved, lending further evidence to the temporal and spatial variability of Titan's stratospheric methane when compared with previous measurements. Additional observations are required to determine the cause and magnitude of stratospheric enhancements in methane during these poorly understood seasons on Titan.

arXiv:2405.02545v1 [pdf, other]
Prediction of Space Weather Events through Analysis of Active Region Magnetograms using Convolutional Neural Network
Comments: 6 pages, 12 figures

Although space weather events may not directly affect human life, they have the potential to inflict significant harm upon our communities. Harmful space weather events can trigger atmospheric changes that result in physical and economic damages on a global scale. In 1989, Earth experienced the effects of a powerful geomagnetic storm that caused satellites to malfunction, while triggering power blackouts in Canada, along with electricity disturbances in the United States and Europe. With the solar cycle peak rapidly approaching, there is an ever-increasing need to prepare and prevent the damages that can occur, especially to modern-day technology, calling for the need of a comprehensive prediction system. This study aims to leverage machine learning techniques to predict instances of space weather (solar flares, coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic storms), based on active region magnetograms of the Sun. This was done through the use of the NASA DONKI service to determine when these solar events occur, then using data from the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory to compile a dataset that includes magnetograms of active regions of the Sun 24 hours before the events. By inputting the magnetograms into a convolutional neural network (CNN) trained from this dataset, it can serve to predict whether a space weather event will occur, and what type of event it will be. The model was designed using a custom architecture CNN, and returned an accuracy of 90.27%, a precision of 85.83%, a recall of 91.78%, and an average F1 score of 92.14% across each class (Solar flare [Flare], geomagnetic storm [GMS], coronal mass ejection [CME]). Our results show that using magnetogram data as an input for a CNN is a viable method to space weather prediction. Future work can involve prediction of the magnitude of solar events.

arXiv:2405.02584v1 [pdf, other]
A new timescale-mass scaling for the optical variation of active galactic nuclei across the intermediate-mass to supermassive scales
Comments: 22 pages, 12 figures, Accepted by ApJ

Variability of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has long been servicing as an essential avenue of exploring the accretion physics of black hole (BH). There are two commonly used methods for analyzing AGN variability. First, the AGN variability, characterized by the structure function (SF) of a single band, can be well described by a damped random walk (DRW) process on timescales longer than ~weeks, shorter than which departures have been reported. Second, the color variation (CV) between two bands behaves timescale-dependent, raising challenges to the widely accepted reprocessing scenario. However, both the departure from the DRW process and the timescale-dependent CV are hitherto limited to AGNs, mainly quasars, at the supermassive scale. Here, utilizing the high-cadence multi-wavelength monitoring on NGC 4395 harboring an intermediate-mass BH, we unveil at the intermediate-mass scale for the first time, prominent departures from the DRW process at timescales shorter than ~hours in all three nights and bands, and plausible timescale-dependent CVs in the two longest nights of observation. Furthermore, comparing SFs of NGC 4395 to four AGNs at the supermassive scale, we suggest a new scaling relation between the timescale (\uptau; across nearly three orders of magnitude) and the BH mass (M_BH): \uptau \propto M^\gamma_BH where the exponent \gamma is likely ~ 0.6 - 0.8. This exponent differs from most previous measurements, but confirms a few and is consistent with a recent theoretical prediction, suggesting a similar accretion process in AGNs across different mass scales.

arXiv:2405.02614v1 [pdf, other]
MARTIANS (MARs2020, TIANwen and So on) would see more potentially hazardous asteroids than Earthlings
Comments: 7 pages, 2 figures, accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters

Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are a special subset of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) that can come close to the Earth and are large enough to cause significant damage in the event of an impact. Observations and researches of Earth-PHAs have been underway for decades. Here, we extend the concept of PHAs to Mars and study the feasibility of detecting Mars-PHAs in the near future. We focus on PHAs that truly undergo close approaches with a planet (dubbed CAPHAs) and aim to compare the actual quantities of Earth-CAPHAs and Mars-CAPHAs by conducting numerical simulations incorporating the Yarkovsky effect, based on observed data of the main asteroid belt. The estimated number of Earth-CAPHAs and Mars-CAPHAs are 4675 and 16910, respectively. The occurrence frequency of Mars-CAPHAs is about 52 per year, which is 2.6 times that of Earth-CAPHAs, indicating significant potential for future Mars-based observations. Furthermore, a few Mars-CAPHAs are predicted to be observable even from Earth around the time of next Mars opposition in 2025.

arXiv:2405.02656v1 [pdf, other]
Information content of JWST spectra of WASP-39b
Comments: Accepted by A&A. 25 pages, 26 figures, 3 tables

WASP-39b was observed using several different JWST instrument modes and the spectra were published in a series of papers by the ERS team. The current study examines the information content of these spectra measured using the different instrument modes, focusing on the complexity of the temperature-pressure profiles and number of chemical species warranted by the data. We examine if H2O, CO, CO2, K, H2S, CH4, and SO2 are detected in each of the instrument modes. Two Bayesian inference methods are used to perform atmospheric retrievals: standard nested sampling and supervised machine learning of the random forest (trained on a model grid). For nested sampling, Bayesian model comparison is used as a guide to identify the set of models with the required complexity to explain the data. Generally, non-isothermal transit chords are needed to fit the transmission spectra of WASP-39b, although the complexity of the Tp-profile required is mode-dependent. The minimal set of chemical species needed to fit a spectrum is mode-dependent as well, and also depends on whether grey or non-grey clouds are assumed. When a non-grey cloud model is used to fit the G395H spectrum, it generates a spectral continuum that compensates for the H2O opacity. The same compensation is absent when fitting the non-grey cloud model to the PRISM spectrum (which has broader wavelength coverage), suggesting that it is spurious. The interplay between the cloud spectral continuum and the H2O opacity determines if SO2 is needed to fit either spectrum. The inferred elemental abundances of carbon and oxygen and the carbon-to-oxygen (C/O) ratios are all mode- and model-dependent, and should be interpreted with caution. Bayesian model comparison does not always offer a clear path forward for favouring specific retrieval models (e.g. grey versus non-grey clouds) and thus for enabling unambiguous interpretations of exoplanet spectra.

arXiv:2405.02658v1 [pdf, other]
Modeling Hadronic Interactions in Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays within Astrophysical Environments: A Parametric Approach
Comments: 14 pages, 12 figures, submitted to PRD

Interactions of ultra-high energy cosmic-rays (UHECRs) accelerated in astrophysical environments have been shown to shape the energy production rate of nuclei escaping from the confinement zone. To address the influence of hadronic interactions, Hadronic Interaction Models (HIM) come into play. In this context, we present a parameterization capable of capturing the outcomes of two distinct HIMs, namely EPOS-LHC and Sibyll2.3d, in terms of secondary fluxes, including escaping nuclei, neutrinos, photons, and electrons. Our parametrization is systematically evaluated against the source codes, both at fixed energy and mass, as well as in a physical case scenario. The comparison demonstrates that our parameterization aligns well with the source codes, establishing its reliability as a viable alternative for analytical or fast Monte Carlo approaches dedicated to the study of UHECR propagation within source environments. This suggests the potential for utilizing our parameterization as a practical substitute in studies focused on the intricate dynamics of ultra-high energy cosmic rays.

arXiv:2405.02755v1 [pdf, other]
On the Impact of Dark Matter Scattering on the Trajectory of High-Energy Cosmic Rays
Comments: 26 pages, 9 Figures

We study the impact on the trajectory of high-energy cosmic-ray protons of scattering off the cosmic dark matter. We compute the scattering angle as a function of the cosmic-ray energy, of the dark matter mass, and of the interaction strength for a few representative choices for the relevant interaction cross section. We find that the typical deflection angle over the cosmic ray path is largely independent of the dark matter mass. Given existing limits on the interaction strength, we compute the average deflection angle. We find that for large interaction cross sections and low cosmic ray energies, the predicted deflection angle is much larger than the angular resolution of very high-energy cosmic-ray observatories such as Pierre Auger.

arXiv:2405.02773v1 [pdf, other]
Magnetar Eruptions and Electromagnetic Fireworks
Comments: (11 pages, 3 figures, accepted for publication by PoS)

Highly magnetized neutron stars are a source of extreme transients observed in different bands, like the fast radio burst (FRB) and associated hard X-ray burst from the Galactic magnetar SGR 1935+2154. The origin of such outbursts, hard X-rays on the one hand and millisecond duration FRBs on the other hand, is still unknown. We present a global model for various kinds of such magnetar outbursting activities. Crustal surface motions are expected to twist the inner magnetar magnetosphere by shifting the frozen-in footpoints of magnetic field lines. We discuss criteria for the development of instabilities of 3D twisted flux bundles in the force-free dipolar magnetospheres and compare their energetic properties to observations of magnetar X-ray flares. We then review a recently developed FRB generation mechanism in the outer magnetosphere of a magnetar. The strong magnetic pulse induced by a magnetar flare collides with the current sheet of the magnetar wind, compresses and fragments it into a self-similar chain of magnetic islands. Time-dependent plasma currents created during their collisions produce relatively narrow-band GHz emission with luminosities sufficient to explain bright extragalactic FRBs.

arXiv:2405.02799v1 [pdf, other]
Solar Flare Ribbon Fronts. II. Evolution of heating rates in individual flare footpoints
Comments: Accepted in the Astrophysical Journal

Solar flare ribbon fronts appear ahead of the bright structures that normally characterise solar flares, and can persist for an extended period of time in spatially localised patches before transitioning to 'regular' bright ribbons. They likely represent the initial onset of flare energy deposition into the chromosphere. Chromospheric spectra (e.g. He I 10830A and the Mg II near-UV lines) from ribbon fronts exhibit properties rather different to typical flare behaviour. In prior numerical modelling efforts we were unable to reproduce the long lifetime of ribbon fronts. Here we present a series of numerical experiments that are rather simple but which have important implications. We inject a very low flux of nonthermal electrons ($F = 5\times10^{8}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$) into the chromosphere for 100 s before ramping up to standard flare energy fluxes $(F = 10^{10-11}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$). Synthetic spectra not only sustained their ribbon front-like properties for significantly longer, in the case of harder nonthermal electron spectra the ribbon front behaviour persisted for the entirety of this weak-heating phase. Lengthening or shortening the duration of the weak-heating phase commensurately lengthened or shortened the ribbon front lifetimes. Ribbon fronts transitioned to regular bright ribbons when the upper chromosphere became sufficiently hot and dense, which happened faster for softer nonthermal electron spectra. Thus, the lifetime of flare ribbon fronts are a direct measure of the duration over which a relatively low flux of high energy electrons precipitates to the chromosphere prior to the bombardment of a much larger energy flux.

arXiv:2405.02806v1 [pdf, other]
Foreground removal and angular power spectrum estimation of 21 cm signal using harmonic space ILC method
Comments: 20 pages, 15 figures

Mapping the distribution of neutral atomic hydrogen (HI) in the Universe through its 21 cm emission line provides a powerful cosmological probe to map the large-scale structures and shed light on various cosmological phenomena. The Baryon Acoustic Oscillations at low redshifts can potentially be probed by sensitive HI intensity mapping experiments and constrain the properties of dark energy. However, the 21 cm signal detection faces formidable challenges due to the dominance of various astrophysical foregrounds, which can be several orders of magnitude stronger. Our current work introduces a novel and model-independent Internal Linear Combination (ILC) method in harmonic space using the principal components of the 21 cm signal for accurate foreground removal and power spectrum estimation. We estimate the principal components by incorporating prior knowledge of the theoretical 21 cm covariance matrix. We test our methodology by detailed simulations of radio observations, incorporating synchrotron emission, free-free radiation, extragalactic point sources, and thermal noise. We estimate the full sky 21 cm angular power spectrum after application of a mask on the full sky cleaned 21 cm signal by using the mode-mode coupling matrix. These full sky estimates of angular spectra can be directly used to measure the cosmological parameters. For the first time, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a foreground model-independent ILC method in harmonic space to reconstruct the 21 cm signal.

arXiv:2405.02855v1 [pdf, other]
Accretion-modified Stars in Accretion Disks of Active Galactic Nuclei: Observational Characteristics in Different Regions of the Disks
Comments: 20 pages, 5 figures, 2 tables. Accepted for publication in ApJ

Stars and compact objects embedded in accretion disks of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), dubbed as ''accretion-modified star" (AMS), often experience hyper-Eddington accretion in the dense gas environment, resulting in powerful outflows as the Bondi explosion and formation of cavities. The varying gas properties across different regions of the AGN disk can give rise to diverse and intriguing phenomena. In this paper, we conduct a study on the characteristics of AMSs situated in the outer, middle, and inner regions of the AGN disk, where growth of the AMSs during the shift inwards is considered. We calculate their multiwavelength spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and thermal light curves. Our results reveal that the thermal luminosity of Bondi explosion occurring in the middle region leads to UV flares with a luminosity of $\sim 10^{44}\rm \,erg\,s^{-1}$. The synchrotron radiation of Bondi explosion in the middle and inner regions peaks at the X-ray band with luminosities of $\sim 10^{43}$ and $\sim 10^{42}\rm \,erg\,s^{-1}$, respectively. The $\gamma$-ray luminosity of inverse Compton radiation spans from $10^{42}$ to $10^{43}\rm \,erg\,s^{-1}$ peaked at $\sim 10\,$MeV (outer region) and $\sim$ GeV (middle and inner regions) bands. The observable flares of AMS in the middle region exhibits a slow rise and rapid Gaussian decay with a duration of months, while in the inner region, it exhibits a fast rise and slow Gaussian decay with a duration of several hours. These various SED and light curve features provides valuable insights into the various astronomical transient timescales associated with AGNs.

arXiv:2405.02863v1 [pdf, other]
Stellar X-ray activity and habitability revealed by ROSAT sky survey
Comments: 17 pages, 12 figures, accept for publish in ApJS

Using the homogeneous X-ray catalog from ROSAT observations, we conducted a comprehensive investigation into stellar X-ray activity-rotation relations for both single and binary stars. Generally, the relation for single stars consists of two distinct regions: a weak decay region, indicating a continued dependence of the magnetic dynamo on stellar rotation rather than a saturation regime with constant activity, and a rapid decay region, where X-ray activity is strongly correlated with the Rossby number. Detailed analysis reveals more fine structures within the relation: in the extremely fast rotating regime, a decrease in X-ray activity was observed with increasing rotation rate, referred to as super-saturation, while in the extremely slow rotating region, the relation flattens, mainly due to the scattering of F stars. This scattering may result from intrinsic variability in stellar activities over one stellar cycle or the presence of different dynamo mechanisms. Binaries exhibit a similar relation to that of single stars while the limited sample size prevented the identification of fine structures in the relation for binaries. We calculated the mass loss rates of planetary atmosphere triggered by X-ray emissions from host stars. Our findings indicate that for an Earth-like planet within the stellar habitable zone, it would easily lose its entire primordial H/He envelope (equating to about 1% of the planetary mass).

arXiv:2405.02895v1 [pdf, other]
Dark Energy predictions from GREA: Background and linear perturbation theory
Comments: 9 pages, 9 figures

General Relativistic Entropic Acceleration (GREA) theory provides a covariant formalism for out-of-equilibrium phenomena in GR, extending the Einstein equations with an entropic force that behaves like bulk viscosity with a negative effective pressure. In particular, the growth of entropy associated with the homogeneous causal horizon can explain the present acceleration of the Universe, without introducing a cosmological constant. The dynamics of the accelerated Universe is characterized by a single parameter $\alpha$, the ratio of the causal horizon to the curvature scale, which provides a unique history of the Universe distinguishable from that of LCDM. In particular, we explain the coincidence problem and the Hubble tension by shifting the coasting point to higher redshifts. All background observables are correlated among themselves due to their common dependence on $\alpha$. This scenario gives a specific evolution for the effective equation of state parameter, $w(a)$. Furthermore, we study the linear growth of matter perturbations in the context of a homogeneous expanding background driven by the entropy of the causal horizon. We find that the rate of growth of matter fluctuations in GREA slows down due to the accelerated expansion and alleviates the $\sigma_8$ tension of LCDM. We compute the growth function of matter fluctuations, the redshift space distortions in the galaxy correlation function, as well as the redshift evolution of the BAO scale, and find that the ISW effect is significantly larger than in LCDM. It is interesting to note that many of the tensions and anomalies of the standard model of cosmology are alleviated by the inclusion of this transient period of acceleration of the Universe based on known fundamental physics. In the near future we will be able to constrain this theory with present data from deep galaxy surveys.

arXiv:2405.02912v1 [pdf, other]
Close Encounters of Wide Binaries Induced by the Galactic Tide: Implications for Stellar Mergers and Gravitational-Wave Sources
Comments: 20 pages, 9 figures

A substantial fraction of stars can be found in wide binaries with projected separations between $\sim10^2$ and $10^5\,\rm AU$. In the standard lore of binary physics, these would evolve as effectively single stars that remotely orbit one another on stationary Keplerian ellipses. However, embedded in their Galactic environment their low binding energy makes them exceptionally prone to perturbations from the gravitational potential of the Milky Way and encounters with passing stars. Employing a fully relativistic $N$-body integration scheme, we study the impact of these perturbations on the orbital evolution of wide binaries along their trajectory through the Milky Way. Our analysis reveals that the torques exerted by the Galaxy can cause large-amplitude oscillations of the binary eccentricity to $1-e\lesssim10^{-8}$. As a consequence, the wide binary members pass close to each other at periapsis, which, depending on the type of binary, potentially leads to a mass transfer or collision of stars or to an inspiral and subsequent merger of compact remnants due to gravitational-wave radiation. Based on a simulation of $10^5$ wide binaries across the Galactic field, we find that this mechanism could significantly contribute to the rate of stellar collisions and binary black hole mergers as inferred from observations of Luminous Red Novae and gravitational-wave events by LIGO/Virgo/Kagra. We conclude that the dynamics of wide binaries, despite their large mean separation, can give rise to extreme interactions between stars and compact remnants.

arXiv:2405.02927v1 [pdf, other]
Project Hephaistos - II. Dyson sphere candidates from Gaia DR3, 2MASS, and WISE
Comments: Accepted to be published in MNRAS

The search for extraterrestrial intelligence is currently being pursued using multiple techniques and in different wavelength bands. Dyson spheres, megastructures that could be constructed by advanced civilizations to harness the radiation energy of their host stars, represent a potential technosignature, that in principle may be hiding in public data already collected as part of large astronomical surveys. In this study, we present a comprehensive search for partial Dyson spheres by analyzing optical and infrared observations from Gaia, 2MASS, and WISE. We develop a pipeline that employs multiple filters to identify potential candidates and reject interlopers in a sample of five million objects, which incorporates a convolutional neural network to help identify confusion in WISE data. Finally, the pipeline identifies 7 candidates deserving of further analysis. All of these objects are M-dwarfs, for which astrophysical phenomena cannot easily account for the observed infrared excess emission.

arXiv:2405.02930v1 [pdf, other]
MHD Modeling of the Molecular Filament Evolution
Comments: No comment found

We perform numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the gravitational collapse and fragmentation of a cylindrical molecular cloud with the help of the FLASH code. The cloud collapses rapidly along its radius without any signs of fragmentation in the simulations without magnetic field. The radial collapse of the cloud is stopped by the magnetic pressure gradient in the simulations with parallel magnetic field. Cores with high density form at the cloud ends during further evolution. The core densities are $n \approx 1.7 \cdot 10^{8}$ and $2 \cdot 10^{7}$ cm$^{-3}$ in the cases with initial magnetic field strengths $B = 1.9 \cdot 10^{-4}$ and $6 \cdot 10^{-4}$ G, respectively. The cores move toward the cloud center with supersonic speeds $|v_{z}|=3.6$ and $5.3$ km$\cdot$s$^{-1}$. The sizes of the cores along the filaments radius and filament main axis are $d_{r} = 0.0075$ pc and $d_{z} = 0.025$ pc, $d_{r} = 0.03$ pc and $d_{z} = 0.025$ pc, respectively. The masses of the cores increase during the filament evolution and lie in range of $\approx 10-20\,M_\odot$. According to our results, the cores observed at the edges of molecular filaments can be a result of the filament evolution with parallel magnetic field.

arXiv:2405.02938v1 [pdf, other]
Morphokinematical study of the planetary nebula Me2-1: Unveiling its point-symmetric and unusual physical structure
Comments: Accepted by A&A. 12 pages, 6 figures, 5 tables, an Appendix with 3 figures

(Abridged) We present narrow-band images in several emission lines, and high- and intermediate-resolution long-slit spectra of Me2-1 to investigate its morphology and 3D structure, its physical parameters and chemical abundances. We identified in Me2-1: an elliptical ring; two elongated, curved structures (caps) that contain three pairs of bright point-symmetric (PS) knots; a shell interior of the ring; and a faint halo or attached shell. The caps are observed in all images, the PS knots only in the low-excitation emission line ones. These structures are also identified in the high-resolution long-slit spectra. The 3D reconstruction shows that Me2-1 consists of a ring seen almost pole-on, and a virtually spherical shell, to which the caps and PS knots are attached. Caps and PS knots most probably trace the sites where high-velocity collimated bipolar outflows, ejected along a wobbling axis, collide with the spherical shell, are slowed down, and remain attached to it. Although the main excitation mechanism in Me2-1 is found to be photoionization, a contribution of shocks in the PS knots is suggested by their emission line ratios. The combination of collimated outflows and a ring with a spherical shell is unusual among planetary nebulae. We speculate that two planets, each with less than one Jupiter mass, could be involved in the formation of Me2-1 if both enter a common envelope evolution during the asymptotic giant branch phase of the progenitor. One planet is tidally disrupted, forming an accretion disk around the central star, from which collimated bipolar outflows are ejected; the other planet survives, causing wobbling of the accretion disk. The derived physical parameters and chemical abundances are similar to those obtained in previous analyses, with the abundances also pointing to a low-mass progenitor of Me2-1.

arXiv:2405.02960v1 [pdf, other]
Silk Damping in Scalar-Induced Gravitational Waves: A Novel Probe for New Physics
Comments: 6 pages, 2 figures

Silk damping is well known in the study of cosmic microwave background (CMB) and accounts for suppression of the angular power spectrum of CMB on large angular multipoles. In this Letter, we study the effect of Silk damping on the scalar-induced gravitational waves (SIGWs). Resulting from the dissipation of cosmic fluid, the Silk damping notably suppresses the energy-density spectrum of SIGWs on scales comparable to a diffusion scale at the decoupling time of feebly-interacting particles. The effect offers a novel observable for probing the underlying particle interaction, especially for those mediated by heavy gauge bosons beyond the standard model of particles. We anticipate that pulsar timing arrays are sensitive to gauge bosons with mass $\sim10^{3}-10^{4}\,\mathrm{GeV}$, while space- and ground-based interferometers to those with mass $\sim10^7-10^{12}\,\mathrm{GeV}$, leading to essential complements to on-going and future experiments of high-energy physics.

arXiv:2405.02976v1 [pdf, other]
The Fe i lines and the chromospheric activity
Comments: 4 pages, 3 figures

Neutral Fe lines are the most abundant in the spectrum of late stars. They are used to obtain different basic stellar parameters such as relative abundances, surface gravity, and effective temperature. However, the centers of many of these lines are formed in the stellar chromosphere, being affected by the changes produced by magnetic activity. Calculating non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) semi-empirical models of the stellar atmosphere, it is possible to study the formation of these lines in detail. We present a new updated model of the Fe i atom, which allows us to calculate 1715 lines of Fe i between 3000 and 7000 A in stars with different levels of chromospheric activity. Preliminary results show the presence of spectral ranges more sensitive to chromospheric heating, suggesting that the lines with greater variations must be taken into account, and should even be excluded, when be used for the purposes described above.

arXiv:2405.02978v1 [pdf, other]
Four-hundred Very Metal-poor Stars Studied with LAMOST and Subaru. III. Dynamically Tagged Groups and Chemodynamical Properties
Comments: 30 pages, 24 figures, published in ApJ

Very metal-poor (VMP) stars record the signatures of early accreted galaxies, making them essential tools for unraveling the early stages of Galaxy formation. Understanding the origin of VMP stars requires comprehensive studies of their chemical compositions and kinematics, which are currently lacking. Hence, we conduct a chemodynamical analysis of 352 VMP stars selected from one of the largest uniform high-resolution VMP star samples, jointly obtained from LAMOST and Subaru. We apply a friends-of-friends clustering algorithm to the master catalog of this high-resolution sample, which consists of 5778 VMP stars. It results in 131 dynamically tagged groups with 89 associated with known substructures in the Milky Way, including Gaia-Sausage-Enceladus (GSE), Thamnos, Helmi streams, Sequoia, Wukong, Pontus, and the very metal-poor disk (VMPD). Our findings are: (i) the VMPD shows lower Zn abundances than the rest, which indicates that it could be a relic of small stellar systems; (ii) Sequoia shows moderately high r-process abundances; (iii) Helmi streams show deficiencies in carbon and light neutron-capture elements; (iv) the fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars with no enhancement in heavy elements (CEMP-no stars) seems low in the VMPD and the Helmi streams; and (v) a subgroup in GSE exhibits a very high fraction of r-process enhanced stars, with four out of five showing [Eu/Fe]> +1.0. The abundance patterns of other elements in VMP substructures largely match the whole VMP sample. We also study large-scale correlations between abundance ratios and kinematics without classifying stars into substructures, but it does not yield significant correlations once the overall chemical evolution is considered for most elements.

arXiv:2405.02999v1 [pdf, other]
Spectro-photometry of Phobos simulants: I. Detectability of hydrated minerals and organic bands
Comments: 58 pages, 19 figures, submitted to Icarus

Previous observations of Phobos and Deimos, the moons of Mars, have improved our understanding of these small bodies. However, their formation and composition remain poorly constrained. Physical and spectral properties suggest that Phobos may be a weakly thermal-altered captured asteroid but the dynamical properties of the martian system suggest a formation by giant collision similar to the Earth moon. In 2027, the JAXA's MMX mission aims to address these outstanding questions. We undertook measurements with a new simulant called OPPS (Observatory of Paris Phobos Simulant) which closely matches Phobos spectra in the visible to the mid-infrared range. The simulant was synthesized using a mixture of olivine, saponite, anthracite, and coal. Since observation geometry is a crucial aspect of planetary surface remote sensing exploration, we evaluated the parameters obtained by modeling the phase curves -- obtained through laboratory measurements -- of two different Phobos simulants (UTPS-TB and OPPS) using Hapke IMSA model. Our results show that the photometric properties of Phobos simulants are not fully consistent with those of Tagish Lake, Allende, or the NWA 4766 shergottite. We also investigated the detection of volatiles/organic compounds and hydrated minerals, as the presence of such components is expected on Phobos in the hypothesis of a captured primitive asteroid. The results indicate that a significant amount of organic compounds is required for the detection of C-H bands at 3.4 $\mu$m. In contrast, the 2.7 $\mu$m absorption band, due to hydrated minerals, is much deeper and easier to detect than C-H organic features at the same concentration levels. Posing limits on detectability of some possible key components of Phobos surface will be pivotal to prepare and interpret future observations of the MIRS spectrometer onboard MMX mission.

arXiv:2405.03024v1 [pdf, other]
CMB low multipole alignments across data releases
Comments: 15 pages, 10 figures, 4 appendices. Submitted to MNRAS

Since the first data release from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe's (WMAP) observations of the microwave sky, cleaned cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps thus derived were subjected to a variety of tests, to evaluate their conformity with expectations of the standard cosmological model. Specifically many peculiarities that have come to be called "anomalies" were reported that violate the \emph{Cosmological principle}. These were followed until the end of WMAP's final nine year data release and continued with the CMB maps derived from the recently concluded ESA's \textit{Planck} mission. One of the early topics of intense scrutiny is the alignment of multipoles corresponding to large angular scales of the CMB sky. In this paper, we revisit this particular anomaly and analyze this phenomenon across all data sets from WMAP and \textit{Planck} to gain a better understanding of its current status and import.

arXiv:2405.03033v1 [pdf, other]
Discovery of an accretion streamer and a slow wide-angle outflow around FU Orionis
Comments: No comment found

We present ALMA 12-m, 7-m & Total Power (TP) Array observations of the FU Orionis outbursting system, covering spatial scales ranging from 160 to 25,000 au. The high-resolution interferometric data reveals an elongated $^{12}$CO(2-1) feature previously observed at lower resolution in $^{12}$CO(3-2). Kinematic modeling indicates that this feature can be interpreted as an accretion streamer feeding the binary system. The mass infall rate provided by the streamer is significantly lower than the typical stellar accretion rates (even in quiescent states), suggesting that this streamer alone is not massive enough to sustain the enhanced accretion rates characteristic of the outbursting class prototype. The observed streamer may not be directly linked to the current outburst but rather a remnant of a previous, more massive streamer that may have contributed enough to the disk mass to render it unstable and trigger FU Ori's outburst. The new data detects, for the first time, a vast, slow-moving carbon monoxide molecular outflow emerging from this object. To accurately assess the outflow properties (mass, momentum, kinetic energy), we employed $^{13}$CO(2-1) data to correct for optical depth effects. The analysis indicates that the outflow corresponds to swept-up material not associated with the current outburst, similar to slow-molecular outflows observed around other FUor and Class I protostellar objects.

arXiv:2405.03068v1 [pdf, other]
A census of new globular clusters in the Galactic bulge
Comments: 9 pages, 5 figures. Accepted for publication in A&A

The number of known globular clusters in the Galactic bulge has been increasing steadily thanks to different new surveys. The aim of this study is to provide a census of the newly revealed globular clusters in the Galactic bulge, and analyze their characteristics. In recent years, many globular clusters have been discovered or identified. The stellar populations to which they belong are indicated in their original studies: they are mostly bulge clusters, with some identified as disk or halo members. We collected 41 new globular clusters revealed in the last decade and compared them to the known bulge clusters. The new clusters are intrinsically faint with $M_V$ of around -6.0 mag. The distance to the Sun of the ensemble of well-known and new bulge clusters is compatible with the Galactocentric distance measurements from the Galactic black hole location. The ensemble sample shows metallicity peaks at [Fe/H] ~ -1.08 $\pm$ 0.35 and -0.51 $\pm$ 0.25 dex, confirming previous findings. The age-metallicity relation of the new clusters younger than 10 Gyr is compatible with that of the ex situ samples of the dwarf galaxies Sagittarius, Canis Majoris, and Gaia-Enceladus-Sausage. The clusters with ages between 11.5 and 13.5 Gyr show no age-metallicity relation, because they are all old. This is compatible with their formation in situ in the early Galaxy.

arXiv:2405.03078v1 [pdf, other]
ATAT: Astronomical Transformer for time series And Tabular data
Comments: No comment found

The advent of next-generation survey instruments, such as the Vera C. Rubin Observatory and its Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST), is opening a window for new research in time-domain astronomy. The Extended LSST Astronomical Time-Series Classification Challenge (ELAsTiCC) was created to test the capacity of brokers to deal with a simulated LSST stream. We describe ATAT, the Astronomical Transformer for time series And Tabular data, a classification model conceived by the ALeRCE alert broker to classify light-curves from next-generation alert streams. ATAT was tested in production during the first round of the ELAsTiCC campaigns. ATAT consists of two Transformer models that encode light curves and features using novel time modulation and quantile feature tokenizer mechanisms, respectively. ATAT was trained on different combinations of light curves, metadata, and features calculated over the light curves. We compare ATAT against the current ALeRCE classifier, a Balanced Hierarchical Random Forest (BHRF) trained on human-engineered features derived from light curves and metadata. When trained on light curves and metadata, ATAT achieves a macro F1-score of 82.9 +- 0.4 in 20 classes, outperforming the BHRF model trained on 429 features, which achieves a macro F1-score of 79.4 +- 0.1. The use of Transformer multimodal architectures, combining light curves and tabular data, opens new possibilities for classifying alerts from a new generation of large etendue telescopes, such as the Vera C. Rubin Observatory, in real-world brokering scenarios.

arXiv:2405.03108v1 [pdf, other]
Impact of Postshock Turbulence on the Radio Spectrum of Radio Relic Shocks in Merging Clusters
Comments: 11 pages, 8 figures, accepted in Journal of Korean Astronomical Society

This study investigates the impact of magnetic turbulence on cosmic ray (CR) electrons through Fermi-II acceleration behind merger-driven shocks in the intracluster medium and examines how the ensuing synchrotron radio emission is influenced by the decay of magnetic energy through dissipation in the postshock region. We adopt simplified models for the momentum diffusion coefficient, specifically considering transit-time-damping resonance with fast-mode waves and gyroresonance with Alfv\'en waves. Utilizing analytic solutions derived from diffusive shock acceleration theory, at the shock location, we introduce a CR spectrum that is either shock-injected or shock-reaccelerated. We then track its temporal evolution along the Lagrangian fluid element in the time domain. The resulting CR spectra are mapped onto a spherical shell configuration to estimate the surface brightness profile of the model radio relics. Turbulent acceleration proves to be a significant factor in delaying the aging of postshock CR electrons, while decaying magnetic fields have marginal impacts due to the dominance of inverse Compton cooling over synchrotron cooling. However, the decay of magnetic fields substantially reduces synchrotron radiation. Consequently, the spatial distribution of the postshock magnetic fields affects the volume-integrated radio spectrum and its spectral index. We demonstrate that the Mach numbers estimated from the integrated spectral index tend to be higher than the actual shock Mach numbers, highlighting the necessity for accurate modeling of postshock magnetic turbulence in interpreting observations of radio relics.

arXiv:2405.03116v1 [pdf, other]
A Multi-Peak Solar Flare with a High Turnover Frequency of The Gyrosynchrotron Spectra from the Loop-Top Source
Comments: 23 pages, 11 figures

The origin of multiple peaks in lightcurves of various wavelengths remains illusive during flares. Here we discuss the flare of SOL2023-05-09T03:54M6.5 with six flux peaks as recorded by a tandem of new microwave and Hard X-ray instruments. According to its microwave spectra, the flare represents a high-turnover frequency (>15 GHz) event. The rather-complete microwave and HXR spectral coverage provides a rare opportunity to uncover the origin of such event together with simultaneous EUV images. We concluded that (1) the microwave sources originates around the top section of the flaring loops with a trend of source spatial dispersion with frequency;(2) the visible movement of the microwave source from peak to peak originates from the process of new flaring loops appearing sequentially along the magnetic neutral line; 3) the optically-thin microwave spectra are hard with the indices varying from -1.2 to -0.4, and the turnover frequency always exceeds 15 GHz; 4) higher turnover/peak frequency corresponds to stronger peak intensity and harder optically-thin spectra. Using the Fokker-Planck and GX simulator codes we obtained a good fit to the observed microwave spectra and spatial distribution of the sources at all peaks, if assuming the radiating energetic electrons have the same spatial distribution and single-power-law spectra but with the number density varying in a range of 30%. We conclude that the particle acceleration in this flare happens in a compact region nearing the looptop. These results provide new constraints on the acceleration of energetic electrons and the underlying flare intermittent reconnection process.

arXiv:2405.03117v1 [pdf, other]
Galaxies with Biconical Ionized Structure in MaNGA - I. Sample Selection and Driven Mechanisms
Comments: 12 pages, 9 figures, 1 table, Accepted for publication in MNRAS

Based on the integral field unit (IFU) data from Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey, we develop a new method to select galaxies with biconical ionized structures, building a sample of 142 edge-on biconical ionized galaxies. We classify these 142 galaxies into 81 star-forming galaxies, 31 composite galaxies, and 30 AGNs (consisting of 23 Seyferts and 7 LI(N)ERs) according to the {\nii}-BPT diagram. The star-forming bicones have bar-like structures while AGN bicones display hourglass structures, and composite bicones exhibit transitional morphologies between them due to both black hole and star-formation activities. Star-forming bicones have intense star-formation activities in their central regions, and the primary driver of biconical structures is the central star formation rate surface density. The lack of difference in the strength of central black hole activities (traced by dust attenuation corrected {\oiii}$\lambda$5007 luminosity and Eddington ratio) between Seyfert bicones and their control samples can be naturally explained as that the accretion disk and the galactic disk are not necessarily coplanar. Additionally, the biconical galaxies with central LI(N)ER-like line ratios are edge-on disk galaxies that show strong central dust attenuation. The radial gradients of {\ha} surface brightness follow the $r^{-2.35}$ relation, roughly consistent with $r^{-2}$ profile, which is expected in the case of photoionization by a central point-like source. These observations indicate obscured AGNs or AGN echoes as the primary drivers of biconical structures in LI(N)ERs.

arXiv:2405.03135v1 [pdf, other]
CURLING - I. The Influence of Point-like Image Approximation on the Outcomes of Cluster Strong Lens Modeling
Comments: 12 pages, 8 figures

Cluster-scale strong lensing is a powerful tool for exploring the properties of dark matter and constraining cosmological models. However, due to the complex parameter space, pixelized strong lens modeling in galaxy clusters is computationally expensive, leading to the point-source approximation of strongly lensed extended images, potentially introducing systematic biases. Herein, as the first paper of the ClUsteR strong Lens modelIng for the Next-Generation observations (CURLING) program, we use lensing ray-tracing simulations to quantify the biases and uncertainties arising from the point-like image approximation for JWST-like observations. Our results indicate that the approximation works well for reconstructing the total cluster mass distribution, but can bias the magnification measurements near critical curves and the constraints on the cosmological parameters, the total matter density of the Universe $\Omega_{\rm m}$, and dark energy equation of state parameter $w$. To mitigate the biases, we propose incorporating the extended surface brightness distribution of lensed sources into the modeling. This approach reduces the bias in magnification from 46.2 per cent to 0.09 per cent for $\mu \sim 1000$. Furthermore, the median values of cosmological parameters align more closely with the fiducial model. In addition to the improved accuracy, we also demonstrate that the constraining power can be substantially enhanced. In conclusion, it is necessary to model cluster-scale strong lenses with pixelized multiple images, especially for estimating the intrinsic luminosity of highly magnified sources and accurate cosmography in the era of high-precision observations.

arXiv:2405.03139v1 [pdf, other]
Choked precessing jets in tidal disruption events and high-energy neutrinos
Comments: 9 pages, 6 figures

It has been suggested that relativistic jets might have been commonly formed in tidal disruption events (TDEs), but those with relatively weak power could be choked by the surrounding envelope. The discovery of high-energy neutrinos possibly associated with some normal TDEs may support this picture in the hypothesis that the neutrinos are produced by choked jets. Recently, it was noted that disrupted stars generally have misaligned orbits with respect to the supermassive black hole spin axis and highly misaligned precessing jets are more likely to be choked. Here we revisit the jet break-out condition for misaligned precessing jets by considering the jet could be collimated by the cocoon pressure while propagating in the disk wind envelope. The jet head opening angle decreases as the jet propagates in the envelope, but the minimum power of a successful jet remains unchanged in terms of the physical jet power. We further calculate the neutrino flux from choked precessing jets, assuming that the cocoon energy does not exceed the kinetic energy of the disk wind. We find that neutrino flux from highly misaligned choked jets is sufficient to explain the neutrinos from AT2019aalc, while it is marginal to explain the neutrinos from AT2019dsg and AT2019fdr. The latter could be produced by weakly misaligned choked jets, since the duty cycle that the jet sweeps across increases as the misaligned angle decreases. We also show that the population of choked TDE jets could contribute to ~10% of the observed diffuse neutrino flux measured by IceCube.

arXiv:2405.03187v1 [pdf, other]
LURAD: Design Study of a Comprehensive Radiation Monitor Package for the Gateway and the Lunar Surface
Comments: 28 pages, 14 figures

Moon is an auspicious environment for the study of Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Solar particle events (SEP) due to the absence of magnetic field and atmosphere. The same characteristics raise the radiation risk for human presence in orbit around it or at the lunar surface. The secondary (albedo) radiation resulting from the interaction of the primary radiation with the lunar soil adds an extra risk factor, because neutrons are produced, but also it can be exploited to study the soil composition. In this paper, the design of a comprehensive radiation monitor package tailored to the lunar environment is presented. The detector, named LURAD, will perform spectroscopic measurements of protons, electrons, heavy ions, as well as gamma-rays, and neutrons. A microdosimetry monitor subsystem is foreseen which can provide measurements of LET(Si) spectra in a wide dynamic range of LET(Si) and flux for SPE and GCR, detection of neutrons and biological dose for radiation protection of astronauts. The LURAD design leverages on the following key enabling technologies: (a) Fully depleted Si monolithic active pixel sensors; (b) Scintillators read by silicon photomultipliers (SiPM); (c) Silicon on Insulator (SOI) microdosimetry sensors; These technologies promise miniaturization and mass reduction with state-of-the-art performance. The instrument's design is presented, and the Monte Carlo study of the feasibility of particle identification and kinetic energy determination is discussed

arXiv:2405.03195v1 [pdf, other]
Probing dark energy using anisotropies in the clustering of post-EoR HI distribution
Comments: Submitted

We propose an anisotropy quantifier of the HI 21-cm signal traditionally used to clock the astrophysics of the reionization era as a post-reionization dark energy diagnostic. We find that the anisotropy probe can be measured at SNR $\sim 10$ in both auto-correlation and in cross-correlation with the Ly-$\alpha$ forest over a wide $z$ and $k-$range. We propose to use the BAO signature on the anisotropy signal to measure $( H(z), D_A(z))$. Subsequently, we put constraints on a dark energy model involving a negative cosmological constant on top of a quintessence scalar field and find that such a model is consistent with futuristic observations.

arXiv:2405.03209v1 [pdf, other]
Evidence for a cyclotron absorption line and spectral transition in EXO 2030+375 during 2021 giant outburst
Comments: 17 pages, 13 figure, 5 tables, accept for the publication in ApJ

Based on HXMT observations of EXO 2030+375 during its 2021 giant outburst, we report the analysis of pulse variations and the broadband X-ray spectrum, and find the presence of a potential cyclotron resonant scattering feature with the fundamental line at 47 keV from both average spectra and phase-resolved spectroscopy. During the outburst, the source reached an X-ray luminosity of $\sim 1\times 10^{38}$ erg /cm/s from 2-105 keV at a distance of 7.1 kpc. The X-ray pulsar at the spin period of 41.27 seconds exhibits complex timing and spectral variations with both energy and luminosity during the outburst. The shapes of the pulses profiles show the single main peak above 20 keV, while appear to exhibit multi-peak patterns in low energy bands, and the transition of pulse profiles from multi-peak to single-peak is observed at $0.8\times 10^{38}$ erg /cm/s, which suggests the evolution from the subcritical luminosity (pencil-beam dominated) to supercritical luminosity (fan-beam dominated) regimes. A dip structure before the energy of the cyclotron resonant scattering features is found in the pulse fraction-energy relation near the peak luminosity. A detailed analysis of spectral parameters showed that the power-law photon index exhibits three distinct trends as luminosity increases, and these changes also signify a spectral transition from sub-critical to super-critical regimes. The critical luminosity infers the magnetic field of $(4.8-6.0)\times 10^{12}$ G, which supports the presence of the cyclotron line at 47 keV. A Comptonization model applied for the broad X-ray spectra during the outburst also suggests the surface magnetic field ranging from $(5-9)\times 10^{12}$ G.

arXiv:2405.03211v1 [pdf, other]
On bursty star formation during cosmological reionization - how does it influence the baryon mass content of dark matter halos?
Comments: 12 pages, 9 figures. Accepted for publication in Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia

The baryon mass content of dark matter halos in the early Universe depends on global factors - e.g. ionising ultraviolet (UV) radiation background - and local factors - e.g. star formation efficiency and assembly history. We use a lightweight semi-analytical model to investigate how local and global factors impact halo baryon mass content at redshifts of $z\geq 5$. Our model incorporates a time delay between when stars form and when they produce feedback, which drive bursts of star formation, and a mass and redshift dependent UV background, which captures the influence of cosmological reionization on gas accretion onto halos. We use statistically representative halo assembly histories and assume that the cosmological gas accretion rate is proportional to the halo mass accretion rate. Delayed feedback leads to oscillations in gas mass with cosmic time, behaviour that cannot be captured with instantaneous feedback. Highly efficient star formation drives stronger oscillations, while strong feedback impacts when oscillations occur; in contrast, inefficient star formation and weak feedback produce similar long-term behaviour to that observed in instantaneous feedback models. If the delayed feedback timescale is too long, a halo retains its gas reservoir but the feedback suppresses star formation. Our model predicts that lower mass systems ($\leq 10^7 \text{M}_\odot$) at $z \leq 10$ should be strongly gas deficient, whereas higher mass systems retain their gas reservoirs because they are sufficiently massive to continue accreting gas through cosmological reionization. Interestingly, in higher mass halos, the median $m_\star/(m_\star+m_\text{g}) \simeq 0.01-0.05$, but is a factor of 3-5 smaller when feedback is delayed. Our model does not include seed supermassive black hole feedback, which is necessary to explain massive quenched galaxies in the early Universe.

arXiv:2405.03240v1 [pdf, other]
Accretion Efficiency Evolution of Central Supermassive Black Holes in Quasars
Comments: No comment found

The ongoing debate regarding the most accurate accretion model for supermassive black holes at the center of quasars has remained a contentious issue in astrophysics. One significant challenge is the variation in calculated accretion efficiency, with values exceeding the standard range of $0.038 < \epsilon < 0.42$. This discrepancy is especially pronounced in high redshift supermassive black holes, necessitating the development of a comprehensive model that can address the accretion efficiency for supermassive black holes in both the low and high redshift ranges. In this study, we have focused on low redshift ($z < 0.5$) PG quasars (79 quasars) and high redshift ($z \geq 3$) quasars with standard disks from the flux- and volume-limited QUOTAS+QuasarNET dataset (76 quasars) to establish a model for accretion efficiency. An interesting trend is revealed where in redshift larger than 3, accretion efficiency increases as redshift decreases, while in redshift lower than 0.5, accretion efficiency decreases with reducing redshift. This suggests a peak in accretion efficiency between the low and high redshift quasars. This peak is recognized for the flux- and volume-limited QUOTAS+QuasarNET+DL11 dataset, which is $z \sim 2.675$, and it seems to be related to the peak of the star formation rate. ($1 < z_{SFR} < 3$). This result can potentially lead to a more accurate correlation between the star formation rate in quasars and their relationship with the mass of the central supermassive black holes with a more comprehensive disk model in future studies.

arXiv:2405.03247v1 [pdf, other]
The colliding-wind binary HD 168112
Comments: 13 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysics

Radio surveys of early-type stars have revealed a number of non-thermal emitters. Most of these have been shown to be binaries, where the collision between the two stellar winds is responsible for the non-thermal emission. HD 168112 is a non-thermal radio emitter, whose binary nature has only recently been confirmed spectroscopically. We obtained independent spectroscopic observations to determine its orbit, in addition to radio observations to see if the thermal or non-thermal nature of the emission changes during the periastron passage. We monitored HD 168112 spectroscopically for a 13 year time span. From these data, we determined the orbital parameters, which we compared to the previous results in the literature. From the spectral index of the radio observations, we found how the nature of the emission changes as the system goes through periastron. Combining our results with other literature data allowed us to further constrain the orbital and stellar parameters. We find HD 168112 to have an orbital period of P = 512.17+0.41-0.11 d, an eccentricity of e = 0.7533+0.0053-0.0124, and a mass ratio close to one. From our spectroscopic modelling, we derived the stellar parameters, but we had difficulty arriving at a spectroscopic mass ratio of one. The radio observations around periastron show only thermal emission, suggesting that most of the synchrotron photons are absorbed in the two stellar winds at that phase. Combining our data with the optical interferometry detection, we could constrain the inclination angle to i ~ 63 deg, and the mass of each component to ~ 26 Msun. We have provided an independent spectroscopic confirmation of the binary nature of HD 168112. Although detected as a non-thermal radio emitter, near periastron the radio emission of this highly eccentric system is thermal and is mainly formed in the colliding-wind region. [abridged]

arXiv:2405.03271v1 [pdf, other]
Understanding the effects of spacecraft trajectories through solar coronal mass ejection flux ropes using 3DCOREweb
Comments: submitted to ApJ 2024 Mai 3, 23 pages, 21 figures, 2 tables

This study investigates the impact of spacecraft positioning and trajectory on in situ signatures of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Employing the 3DCORE model, a 3D flux rope model that can generate in situ profiles for any given point in space and time, we conduct forward modeling to analyze such signatures for various latitudinal and longitudinal positions, with respect to the flux rope apex, at 0.8au. Using this approach, we explore the appearance of the resulting in situ profiles for different flux rope types, with different handedness and inclination angles, for both high and low twist CMEs. Our findings reveal that even high twist CMEs exhibit distinct differences in signatures between apex hits and flank encounters, with the latter displaying stretched-out profiles with reduced rotation. Notably, constant, non-rotating in situ signatures are only observed for flank encounters of low twist CMEs, suggesting implications for the magnetic field structure within CME legs. Additionally, our study confirms the unambiguous appearance of different flux rope types in in situ signatures, contributing to the broader understanding and interpretation of observational data. Given the model assumptions, this may refute trajectory effects to be the cause for mismatching flux rope types as identified in solar signatures. While acknowledging limitations inherent in our model, such as the assumption of constant twist and non-deformable torus-like shape, we still draw relevant conclusions within the context of global magnetic field structures of CMEs and the potential for distinguishing flux rope types based on in situ observations.

arXiv:2405.03292v1 [pdf, other]
Source Region and Launch Characteristics of Magnetic-arch-blowout Solar Coronal Mass Ejections Driven by Homologous Compact-flare Blowout Jets
Comments: 24 pages, 11 Figures, 1 Table, Accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal

We study the formation of four coronal mass ejections (CMEs) originating from homologous blowout jets. All of the blowout jets originated from NOAA active region (AR) 11515 on 2012 July 2, within a time interval of $\approx$14 hr. All of the CMEs were wide (angular widths $\approx$95$-$150$^\circ$), and propagated with speeds ranging between $\approx$300$-$500 km s$^{-1}$ in LASCO coronagraph images. Observations at various EUV wavelengths in Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images reveal that in all the cases, the source region of the jets lies at the boundary of the leading part of AR 11515 that hosts a small filament before each event. Coronal magnetic field modeling based on nonlinear force free extrapolations indicate that in each case the filament is contained inside of a magnetic flux rope that remains constrained by overlying compact loops. The southern footpoint of each filament is rooted in the negative polarity region where the eruption onsets occur. This negative-polarity region undergoes continuous flux changes, including emergence and cancellation with opposite polarity in the vicinity of the flux rope, and the EUV images reveal brightening episodes near the filament's southeastern footpoint before each eruption. Therefore, these flux changes are likely the cause of the subsequent eruptions. These four homologous eruptions originate near adjacent feet of two large-scale loop systems connecting from that positive-polarity part of the AR to two remote negative-polarity regions, and result in large-scale consequences in the solar corona.

arXiv:2405.03293v1 [pdf, other]
Deep Learning and genetic algorithms for cosmological Bayesian inference speed-up
Comments: No comment found

In this paper, we present a novel approach to accelerate the Bayesian inference process, focusing specifically on the nested sampling algorithms. Bayesian inference plays a crucial role in cosmological parameter estimation, providing a robust framework for extracting theoretical insights from observational data. However, its computational demands can be substantial, primarily due to the need for numerous likelihood function evaluations. Our proposed method utilizes the power of deep learning, employing feedforward neural networks to approximate the likelihood function dynamically during the Bayesian inference process. Unlike traditional approaches, our method trains neural networks on-the-fly using the current set of live points as training data, without the need for pre-training. This flexibility enables adaptation to various theoretical models and datasets. We perform simple hyperparameter optimization using genetic algorithms to suggest initial neural network architectures for learning each likelihood function. Once sufficient accuracy is achieved, the neural network replaces the original likelihood function. The implementation integrates with nested sampling algorithms and has been thoroughly evaluated using both simple cosmological dark energy models and diverse observational datasets. Additionally, we explore the potential of genetic algorithms for generating initial live points within nested sampling inference, opening up new avenues for enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of Bayesian inference methods.

arXiv:2405.03295v1 [pdf, other]
Modeling non stationary noise in pulsar timing array data analysis
Comments: 14 pages, 14 figures

Pulsar Timing Array (PTA) collaborations recently reported evidence for the presence of a gravitational wave background (GWB) in their datasets. The main candidate that is expected to produce such a GWB is the population of supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHB). Some analyses showed that the recovered signal may exhibit time-dependent properties, i.e. non-stationarity. In this paper, we propose an approximated non-stationary Gaussian process (GP) model obtained from the perturbation of stationary processes. The presented method is applied to the second data release of the European pulsar timing array to search for non-stationary features in the GWB. We analyzed the data in different time slices and showed that the inferred properties of the GWB evolve with time. We find no evidence for such non-stationary behavior and the Bayes factor in favor of the latter is $\mathcal{B}^{NS}_{S} = 1.5$. We argue that the evolution of the GWB properties most likely comes from the \mf{improvement of the observation cadence} with time and \mf{better} characterization of the noise of individual pulsars. Such non-stationary GWB could also be produced by the leakage of non-stationary features in the noise of individual pulsars or by the presence of an eccentric single source.

arXiv:2405.03308v1 [pdf, other]
Statistical Equivalence of Metrics for Meteor Dynamical Association
Comments: Accepted for publication in Advances in Space Research

We statistically evaluate and compare four orbital similarity criteria within five-dimensional parameter space ($D_{SH}$, $D_D$, $D_H$, and $\varrho_2$) to study dynamical associations using the already classified meteors (manually by a human) in CAMS database as a benchmark. In addition, we assess various distance metrics typically used in Machine Learning with two different vectors: ORBIT, grounded in heliocentric orbital elements, and GEO, predicated on geocentric observational parameters. Additionally, we compute the optimal cut-offs for all methods for distinguishing sporadic background events. Our findings demonstrate the superior performance of the sEuclidean metric in conjunction with the GEO vector. Within the scope of D-criteria, $D_{SH}$ emerged as the preeminent metric, closely followed by $\varrho_2$. $\varrho_2$ stands out as the most equivalence to the distance metrics when utilizing the GEO vector and the most compatible with GEO and ORBIT simultaneously, whereas $D_D$ aligns more closely when using the ORBIT vector. The stark contrast in $D_D$'s behavior compared to other D-criteria highlights potential inequivalence. Geocentric features provide a more robust basis than orbital elements for meteor dynamical association. Most distance metrics associated with the GEO vector surpass the D-criteria when differentiating the meteoroid background. Accuracy displayed a dependence on solar longitude with a pronounced decrease around 180$^\circ$ matching an apparent increase in the meteoroid background activity, tentatively associated with the transition from the Perseids to the Orionids. Considering lately identified meteor showers, $\sim$27\% of meteors in CAMS would have different associations. This work unveils that Machine Learning distance metrics can rival or even exceed the performance of tailored orbital similarity criteria for meteor dynamical association.

arXiv:2405.03324v1 [pdf, other]
Investigation of Galactic supernova remnants and their environment in 26.6° < l < 30.6°, $\vert b \vert \leq$ 1.25° using radio surveys
Comments: No comment found

The problem of missing Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) refers to the issue that the currently known Galactic SNRs are significantly incomplete compared to the theoretical prediction. To expand the sample of Galactic SNRs, we use GLEAM and THOR+VGPS data across four wavebands ranging from 118 to 1420 MHz to drive a spectral index map covering the region within 26.6{\deg} < l < 30.6{\deg}, $\vert b \vert \leq$ 1.25{\deg}, where numerous SNR candidates were recently found. By using the spectral index map of the sky region and detailed analysis of the spectral indices of individual sources, we confirmed four SNR candidates, namely G26.75+0.73, G27.06+0.04, G28.36+0.21, and G28.78$-$0.44, as SNRs. Additionally, we discovered an expanding molecular superbubble located in this region, discussed pulsars associated with SNR candidates, and discovered a long H$\alpha$ filament that spatially overlaps with the candidate G29.38+0.10. We suggest that the problem of missing Galactic SNRs not only arises from observation limitations, but also could be due to the low-density environments of some SNRs, and the different SN explosion properties.

arXiv:2405.03330v1 [pdf, other]
Swarm intelligence for full Stokes dynamic imaging reconstruction of interferometric data
Comments: Accepted in A&A

In very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) the combination of multiple antennas permits the synthesis of a virtual telescope with a larger diameter and consequently higher resolution than the individual antennae. Yet, due to the sparse nature of the array, recovering an image from the observed data is a challenging ill-posed inverse problem. The VLBI community is interested in not only recovering an image in total intensity from interferometric data, but also to obtain results in the polarimetric and the temporal domain. Only a few algorithms are able to work in all these domains simultaneously. In particular, the algorithms based on optimization that consider various penalty terms specific to static total intensity imaging, time-variability and polarimetry are restricted to grids the domain of the objective function. In this work we present a novel algorithm, multiobjective particle swarm optimization, that is able to recover the optimal weights without any space-gridding, and to obtain the marginal contribution of each the playing terms. To this end, we utilize multiobjective optimization together with particle swarm metaheuristics. We let the swarm of weights to converge together to the best position. We evaluate our algorithm with representative synthetic data sets focused on the instrumental configuration of the Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration and its planned successors. We successfully recover the polarimetric, static and time-dynamic signature of the ground truth movie, even with relative sparsity, and a set of realistic data corruptions. This is a novel, fast, weighting space gridding-free algorithm that successfully recovers static and dynamic polarimetric reconstructions. Compared to Regularized Maximum Likelihood methods, it avoids the need for parameter surveys, and it is not limited to the number of pixels such as recently proposed multiobjective imaging algorithms.

arXiv:2405.03350v1 [pdf, other]
A Simplified Model for the Forced Libration of Icy Moons with Subsurface Oceans: Application to Enceladus and Mimas
Comments: 7 pages, 12 figures, submitted to MNRAS

In this work, we investigate a minimalist model capable of accurately replicating the forced librations of an icy moon with a subsurface ocean. The model holds potential to predict the presence of a subsurface ocean through analysis of longitudinal librations. We demonstrate that a two-layered model, with a prestressed icy crust and a fixed mantle cavity, can effectively model the librational behavior of icy moons. The proposed model is applied to model the longitudinal libration of Enceladus and Mimas, two medium-sized icy moons of Saturn.

arXiv:2405.03365v1 [pdf, other]
Jet Collimation and Acceleration in the Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar 1928+738
Comments: 20 pages, 12 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics

Using time-resolved multifrequency Very Long Baseline Array data and new KaVA (KVN and VERA Array) observations, we study the structure and kinematics of the jet of the flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) 1928+738. We find two distinct jet geometries as function of distance from the central black hole, with the inner jet having a parabolic shape, indicating collimation, and the outer jet having a conical shape, indicating free expansion of the jet plasma. Jet component speeds display a gradual outward acceleration up to a bulk Lorentz factor $\Gamma_{\rm max} \approx10$, followed by a deceleration further downstream. The location of the acceleration zone matches the region where the jet collimation occurs; this is the first direct observation of an acceleration and collimation zone (ACZ) in an FSRQ. The ACZ terminates approximately at a distance of 5.6$\times 10^6$ gravitational radii, which is in good agreement with the sphere of gravitational influence of the supermassive black hole, implying that the physical extent of the ACZ is controlled by the black hole gravity. Our results suggest that confinement by an external medium is responsible for the jet collimation and that the jet is accelerated by converting Poynting flux energy to kinetic energy.

arXiv:2405.03368v1 [pdf, other]
Updating neutrino mass constraints with Background measurements
Comments: 9 pages, 5 figures

Low-redshift probes, such as Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and Supernovae Ia luminosity distances, have been shown to be crucial for improving the bounds on the total neutrino mass from cosmological observations, due to their ability to break degeneracies among the different parameters. Here, we expand background observations to include $H(z)$ measurements from cosmic chronometers, distance moduli from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), and angular diameter distances from galaxy clusters. For the very first time, we find neutrino mass limits below the minimal expectations from neutrino oscillation probes, suggesting non-standard neutrino and/or cosmological scenarios. The tightening of the neutrino mass bound is due to the slightly higher value of the Hubble constant $H_0$ preferred by the former three background probes, and also due to the improved errors on $H_0$ and the matter mass-energy density $\Omega_{\rm m}$. All values of $H_0$ are however in agreement at the $1-2\sigma$ level. Interestingly, it is not only the combination of the three background probes that is responsible for the $\sum m_\nu <0.06$~eV limits, but also each of them independently. The tightest bound we find here is $\sum m_\nu<0.043$~eV at $2\sigma$ after combining Cosmic Microwave Background Planck data with DESI BAO, Supernovae Ia, GRBs, cosmic chronometers, and galaxy clusters, showing a clear tension between neutrino oscillation results and cosmological analyses. In general, removing either one of the two background probes still provides a limit $\sum m_\nu \lesssim 0.06$~eV, reassuring the enormous potential of these low-redshift observations in constraining the neutrino mass.

arXiv:2405.03375v1 [pdf, other]
Three-temperature radiation hydrodynamics with PLUTO: Thermal and kinematic signatures of accreting protoplanets
Comments: Accepted to Astronomy and Astrophysics; 22 pages, 19 figures incl. Appendix. Comments and questions welcome

In circumstellar disks around young stars, the gravitational influence of nascent planets produces telltale patterns in density, temperature, and kinematics. To better understand these signatures, we first performed 3D hydrodynamical simulations of a 0.012 $M_{\odot}$ disk, with a Saturn-mass planet orbiting circularly in-plane at 40 au. We tested four different disk thermodynamic prescriptions (in increasing order of complexity, local isothermality, $\beta$-cooling, two-temperature radiation hydrodynamics, and three-temperature radiation hydrodynamics), finding that $\beta$-cooling offers a reasonable approximation for the three-temperature approach when the planet is not massive or luminous enough to substantially alter the background temperature and density structure. Thereafter, using the three-temperature scheme, we relaxed this assumption, simulating a range of different planet masses (Neptune-mass, Saturn-mass, Jupiter-mass) and accretion luminosities (0, $10^{-3} L_{\odot}$) in the same disk. Our investigation revealed that signatures of disk-planet interaction strengthen with increasing planet mass, with circumplanetary flows becoming prominent in the high-planet-mass regime. Accretion luminosity, which adds pressure support around the planet, was found to weaken the midplane Doppler-flip, potentially visible in optically thin tracers like C$^{18}$O, while strengthening the spiral signature, particularly in upper disk layers sensitive to thicker lines, like those of $^{12}$CO.

arXiv:2405.03391v1 [pdf, other]
Blueberry galaxies up to 200 Mpc and their optical/infrared properties
Comments: 18 pages, 11 + 4 (appendix) figures. Accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysics on 2024-05-02

Dwarf highly star-forming galaxies (SFGs) dominated the early Universe and are considered the main driver of its reionization. Direct observations of these very distant galaxies are limited mainly to rest-frame ultraviolet and visible wavelengths, and as a result, some of their properties are out of reach. Therefore, the study of their local analogs, the Green Pea (GP) and Blueberry (BB) galaxies is still of paramount importance. This work aims to expand the number of known BBs to smaller distances and the south equatorial sky. In addition to the already known, this new sample of BBs allows for a statistically significant study of their properties probed by visible and infrared (IR) light. We utilize HECATE, a catalog of galaxies up to 200 Mpc, which provides optical/IR photometry and characterization of the sources. We adopt the Pan-STARSS and SDSS optical photometries, and MPA-JHU analysis for sources having spectroscopic observations. Benefited by the multiwavelength coverage, we perform spectral energy distribution fitting to provide homogeneous star-formation rates and stellar masses. This work has identified 48 BBs out of which 40 are new. The nearest BB lies at 19 Mpc while 14 BBs are in the south equatorial sky. The BBs tend to be extremely IR red in both WISE W1-W2 and W2-W3 colors, located in different positions in this diagram compared to typical SFGs. Overall, dwarf SFGs with higher specific star-formation rates tend to have redder IR colors. Although GPs and BBs share many similarities, the latter are the most intensively star-forming sources of the local Universe among dwarf galaxies. Overall BBs are intrinsically bluer in visible light, redder in the IR, less massive, have higher specific star-formation rates and equivalent widths, lower metallicities, and have the most strongly ionized interstellar medium compared to typical SFGs and GPs.

arXiv:2405.03397v1 [pdf, other]
Cosmology using Strong Gravitational Lensing
Comments: PhD Thesis, 191 pages

The light we observe from distant astrophysical objects including supernovae and quasars allows us to determine large distances in terms of a cosmological model. Despite the success of the standard cosmological model in fitting the data, there remains no underlying explanation for the accelerated expansion and dark matter. Furthermore, there is a current tension between early- and late-universe determinations of the Hubble constant. New techniques may offer the possibility of measuring out to larger distances, provide complementary information, or be able to side-step current limitations. After reviewing in detail the fundamentals of standard cosmology and gravitational lensing, including a derivation of the cosmological lens equation, this thesis investigates a novel method of cosmography based on combining the techniques of strong gravitational lensing time delay measurements and quasar reverberation mapping. The motivation for this method was the possibility of avoiding lens modelling challenges, such as the mass-sheet degeneracy, typically associated with time delay cosmography. It suggested that differential time delays originating from spatially separated signals in the Broad Line Region of a quasar could be distinguished and measured from the spectroscopy of the images, and utilised to provide a ratio of cosmological distances independent of the lensing potential. An analytic description of the effect of the differential lensing on the emission line spectral flux for axisymmetric Broad Line Region geometries is given, with the inclined ring or disk, spherical shell, and double cone as examples. This critical examination shows that the proposed method is unable to recover cosmological information, as the observed time delay and inferred line-of-sight velocity do not uniquely map to the three-dimensional position within the quasar.

arXiv:2405.03408v1 [pdf, other]
An Image Quality Evaluation and Masking Algorithm Based On Pre-trained Deep Neural Networks
Comments: Accepted by the AJ. The code could be downloaded from: https://nadc.china-vo.org/res/r101415/ with DOI of: 10.12149/101415

With the growing amount of astronomical data, there is an increasing need for automated data processing pipelines, which can extract scientific information from observation data without human interventions. A critical aspect of these pipelines is the image quality evaluation and masking algorithm, which evaluates image qualities based on various factors such as cloud coverage, sky brightness, scattering light from the optical system, point spread function size and shape, and read-out noise. Occasionally, the algorithm requires masking of areas severely affected by noise. However, the algorithm often necessitates significant human interventions, reducing data processing efficiency. In this study, we present a deep learning based image quality evaluation algorithm that uses an autoencoder to learn features of high quality astronomical images. The trained autoencoder enables automatic evaluation of image quality and masking of noise affected areas. We have evaluated the performance of our algorithm using two test cases: images with point spread functions of varying full width half magnitude, and images with complex backgrounds. In the first scenario, our algorithm could effectively identify variations of the point spread functions, which can provide valuable reference information for photometry. In the second scenario, our method could successfully mask regions affected by complex regions, which could significantly increase the photometry accuracy. Our algorithm can be employed to automatically evaluate image quality obtained by different sky surveying projects, further increasing the speed and robustness of data processing pipelines.

arXiv:2405.03434v1 [pdf, other]
Point-Spread Function errors for weak lensing - density cross-correlations. Application to UNIONS
Comments: 11 pages, 5 figures

Aims:Calibrating the point spread function (PSF) is a fundamental part of weak gravitational lensing analyses. Even with corrected galaxy images, imperfect calibrations can introduce biases. We propose an analytical framework for quantifying PSF-induced systematics as diagnostics for cross-correlation measurements of weak lensing with density tracers, e.g., galaxy-galaxy lensing. We show how those systematics propagate to physical parameters of the density tracers. Those diagnostics only require a shape catalogue of PSF stars and foreground galaxy positions. Methods:We consider the PSF-induced multiplicative bias, and introduce three second-order statistics as additive biases. We compute both biases for the weak-lensing derived halo mass of spectroscopic foreground galaxy samples, in particular, their effect on the tangential shear and fitted halo mass as a function of stellar mass. In addition, we assess their impact on the recently published black-hole - halo-mass relation for type I Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs). Results:Using weak-lensing catalogues from the Ultraviolet Near Infrared Optical Northern Survey (UNIONS) and Dark Energy Survey (DES), we find the multiplicative biases in the tangential shear to be less than $0.5\%$. No correlations between additive bias and galaxy properties of the foreground sample are detected. The combined PSF systematics affect low-mass galaxies and small angular scales; halo mass estimates can be biased by up to 18$\%$ for a sample of central galaxies in the stellar mass range 9.0 $\leq$ log $M_*/\rm M_{\odot}$ < 9.5. Conclusions:The PSF-induced multiplicative bias is a subdominant contribution to current studies of weak-lensing - density cross-correlations, but might become significant for upcoming Stage-VI surveys. For samples with a low tangential shear, additive PSF systematics can induce a significant bias on derived properties such as halo mass.

arXiv:2405.03441v1 [pdf, other]
Prediction of the amplitude of solar cycle 25 from the ratio of sunspot number to sunspot-group area, low latitude activity, and 130-year solar cycle
Comments: 18 pages, 10 figures, 3 tables, Accepted in Advances in Space Research

We analysed the combined data of sunspot groups from Greenwich Photoheliographic Results (GPR) during the period 1874-1976 and Debrecen Photoheliographic Data (DPD) during 1977-2017 and determined the monthly mean, annual mean, and 13-month smoothed monthly mean whole sphere sunspot-group area (WSGA). We have also analysed the monthly mean, annual mean, and 13-month smoothed monthly mean version 2 of international sunspot number (SN) during the period 1874-2017. We fitted the annual mean WSGA and SN data during each of Solar Cycles 12-24 separately to the linear and nonlinear (parabola) forms. In the cases of Solar Cycles 14, 17, and 24 the nonlinear fits are found better than the linear fits. We find that there exists a secular decreasing trend in the slope of the WSGA-SN linear relation during Solar Cycles 12-24. A secular decreasing trend is also seen in the coefficient of the first order term of the nonlinear relation. The existence of ~77-year variation is seen in the ratio of the amplitude to WSGA at the maximum epoch of solar cycle. From the pattern of this long-term variation of the ratio we inferred that Solar Cycle 25 will be larger than both Solar Cycles 24 and 26. Using an our earlier method (now slightly revised) we predicted 127 (plus or minus 26) and 141 (plus or minus 19) for the amplitude of Solar Cycle~25. Based on ~130-year periodicity found in the cycle-to-cycle variation of the amplitudes of Solar Cycles 12-24 we find the shape of Solar Cycle 25 would be similar to that of Solar Cycle 13 and predicted for Solar Cycle 25 the amplitude 135 (plus or minus 8), maximum epoch 2024.21 (March 2024) plus or minus 6-month, and end epoch 2032.21 (March 2032) plus or minus 6-month with SN ~4.

arXiv:2405.03447v1 [pdf, other]
One-dimensional power spectrum from first DESI Lyman-α forest
Comments: 4 pages, 3 figures, contribution to the 2024 Cosmology session of the 58th Rencontres de Moriond

The Lyman-alpha forest is a unique probe of large-scale matter density fluctuations at high redshift z > 2. We measure the one-dimensional Lyman-alpha forest power spectrum using the first data provided by the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), with a fast Fourier transform estimator. The data sample contains quasar spectra included in the DESI Early Data Release and the first two months of the main survey. This first set of data already provides an improvement in terms of spectroscopic resolution with respect to the previous measurements. We investigated methodological and instrumental contaminants associated with DESI and used synthetic data to validate and correct our measurement. Coupling our measurement with theoretical predictions from hydrodynamical simulations will yield strong constraints on the primordial matter power spectrum, neutrino masses, and dark matter properties. A quadratic maximum likelihood estimator was applied to the same data set on a companion paper and agrees with our measurement.

arXiv:2405.03457v1 [pdf, other]
Calibration of Uncertainties of the Gaia DR3 Catalog Based on Data on Wide Binary Stars of the Galaxy Field
Comments: The paper is based on a talk presented at the astrophysical memorial seminar "Novelties in Understanding the Evolution of Binary Stars", dedicated to the 90th anniversary of Professor M.A. Svechnikov

The catalog of wide binary stars by El-Badry et al. (2021) [arXiv:2101.05282], created on the basis of Gaia EDR3 data and including more than a million pairs, was used to analyze Gaia DR3 data obtained independently for their components. By comparison with the model distribution, it is shown that the catalog contains approximately 2.5 times fewer binary stars than would be expected in the absence of spatial incompleteness. It is confirmed that the radius of spatial completeness of the catalog is on average close to 200 pc and depends on the absolute magnitude of the main component. The spatial density of binary stars in the catalog depends weakly on the difference in the magnitudes of the components, and significantly depends on the physical distance between the components. A high correlation between the degree of agreement between the characteristics and the reliability of the pair was found for radial velocities. Qualitative agreement is observed for metallicity [Fe/H] estimates and, to a lesser extent, for absorption A_G estimates. No agreement was found for the ages of the stars, which indicates their great uncertainty in the ensemble, consisting mainly of main sequence stars. Age estimates for pairs with evolved components show significantly better agreement than for the dataset as a whole. Using the parameters of the components of the pairs from Gaia DR3, an independent estimate of the uncertainties in the radial velocities and metallicities depending on the apparent magnitude of the sources was performed. Estimates of the probable median values of errors in the radial velocities and metallicities of Gaia DR3 sources are proposed. Depending on the apparent magnitude, they exceed the median error values given in the catalog: for radial velocities by 1.5-3 times, for metallicities [Fe/H] by 7-25 times.

arXiv:2405.03490v1 [pdf, other]
Robustness of inflation to kinetic inhomogeneities
Comments: 8 pages, 5 figures, 1 appendix. Comments welcome!

We investigate the effects of large inhomogeneities in both the inflaton field and its momentum. We find that in general, large kinetic perturbations reduce the number of e-folds of inflation. In particular, we observe that inflationary models with sub-Planckian characteristic scales are not robust even to kinetic energy densities that are sub-dominant to the potential energy density. This strengthens the results of our previous work. In inflationary models with super-Planckian characteristic scales, despite a reduction in the number of e-folds, inflation is robust even when the potential energy density is initially sub-dominant. For the cases we study, the robustness of inflation strongly depends on whether the inflaton field is driven into the reheating phase by the inhomogeneous scalar dynamics.

arXiv:2405.03528v1 [pdf, other]
New physics as a possible explanation for the Amaterasu particle
Comments: No comment found

The Telescope Array experiment has recently reported the most energetic event detected in the hybrid technique era, with a reconstructed energy of 240 EeV, which has been named "Amaterasu" after the Shinto deity. Its origin is intriguing since no powerful enough candidate sources are located within the region consistent with its propagation horizon and arrival direction. In this work, we investigate the possibility of describing its origin in a scenario of new physics, specifically under a Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) assumption. The kinematics of UHECR propagation under a phenomenological LIV approach is investigated. The total mean free path for a particle with Amaterasu's energy increases from a few Mpc to hundreds of Mpc for $-\delta_{\rm{had},0} > 10^{-22}$, expanding significantly the region from which it could have originated. A combined fit of the spectrum and composition data of Telescope Array under different LIV assumptions was performed. The data is best fitted with some level of LIV both with and without Amaterasu. The improvement of the LIV fit is larger when Amaterasu is considered. New physics in the form of LIV could, thus, provide a plausible explanation for the Amaterasu particle.

arXiv:2405.03563v1 [pdf, other]
On the source of the Fe K-alpha emission in T Tauri Stars. Radiation induced by relativistic electrons during flares. An application to RY Tau
Comments: 9 pages, 12 figures

T Tauri Stars (TTSs) are magnetically active stars that accrete matter from the inner border of the surrounding accretion disc; plasma gets trapped into the large scale magnetic structures and falls onto the star, heating the surface through the so-called accretion shocks. The X-ray spectra of the TTSs show prominent Fe II Kalpha fluorescence emission at 6.4keV that cannot be explained in a pure accretion scenario. Neither, it can be produced by the hot coronal plasma. TTSs display all signs of magnetic activity and magnetic reconnection events are expected to occur frequently. In these events, electrons may get accelerated to relativistic speeds and their interaction with the environmental matter may result in Fe Kalpha emission. It is the aim of this work to evaluate the expected Fe Kalpha emission in the context of the TTS research and compare it with the actual Fe Kalpha measurements obtained during the flare detected while monitoring RY Tau with the XMM-Newton satellite. The propagation of high-energy electrons in dense gas generates a cascade of secondary particles that results in an electron shower of random nature whose evolution and radiative throughput is simulated in this work using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. A set of conditions representing the environment of the TTSs where these showers may impinge has been taken into account to generate a grid of models that can aid to the interpretation of the data. The simulations show that the electron beams produce a hot spot at the point of impact; strong Fe Kalpha emission and X-ray continuum radiation are produced by the spot. This emission is compatible with RY Tau observations. The Fe Kalpha emission observed in TTSs could be produced by beams of relativistic electrons accelerated in magnetic reconnection events during flares.

arXiv:2405.03570v1 [pdf, other]
Impact of Planetary Parameters on Water Clouds Microphysics
Comments: 17 pages, 10 figures

Potentially habitable exoplanets are targets of great interest for the James Webb Space Telescope and upcoming mission concepts such as the Habitable Worlds Observatory. Clouds strongly affect climate and habitability, but predicting their properties is difficult. In Global Climate Models (GCMs), especially those aiming at simulating Earth, cloud microphysics is often crudely approximated by assuming that all cloud particles have a single, constant size or a prescribed size distribution and that all clouds in a grid cell are identical. For exoplanets that range over a large phase space of planetary properties, this method could result in large errors. In this work, our goal is to determine how cloud microphysics on terrestrial exoplanets, whose condensable is mainly water vapor, depend on aerosol properties and planetary parameters such as surface pressure, surface gravity, and incident stellar radiation. We use the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres as a 1D microphysical model to simulate the formation and evolution of clouds including the processes of nucleation, condensation, evaporation, coagulation, and vertical transfer. In these 1D idealized experiments, we find that the parameters that determine the macrophysical thermal structure of the atmospheres, including surface pressure and stellar flux, impact cloud radiative effect (CRE) most significantly. Parameters such as gravity and number density of aerosols working as cloud condensation nuclei affect the microphysical processes of cloud formation, including activation and vertical transfer. They also have a significant, though weaker effect on CRE. This work motivates the development of more accurate GCM cloud schemes and should aid in the interpretation of future observations.

arXiv:2405.03627v1 [pdf, other]
Investigating the Hubble Tension and $σ_8$ Discrepancy in f(Q) Cosmology
Comments: 20 pages, 9 Figures

In this study, we incorporated a three-parameter family, of the metric incompatible modification of standard general relativity $f(Q)$ models into the Boltzmann code MGCLASS at both the background and perturbation levels, in order to conduct a Bayesian study employing probes that include the cosmic microwave background (CMB), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), weak lensing (WL), alone or its correlation with galaxy clustering (3$\times$2pt) and growth measurements $f \sigma_8$, for each submodel. Our analysis focused on the impact of the Hubble tension in $H_0$ and the discrepancy in $\sigma_8$ resulting from the inclusion of our model parameters, namely $M$, $\alpha$ and $\beta$. We find that none of the sub models, considered alone or combined, were able of alleviating the Hubble tension with only reducing it to 3 $\sigma$ in the least constraining, highest degree of freedom case while we found that the $\sigma_8$ discrepancy, already strongly mitigated on WL linear scales, especially when we let all our model's parameters as free, appears again when considering the more constraining 3$\times$2pt probe. Among the parameters considered, we found that $\beta$, acting in scaling both the gravitational and the Hubble parameter, had the most impact in reducing the discrepancy, with data preferring far from $\Lambda$CDM alike values, before the combination with $f \sigma_8$ constrain it back to its general relativity values.

arXiv:2405.03640v1 [pdf, other]
Planetary Nebulae of the Large Magellanic Cloud I: A multiwavelength analysis
Comments: 16 pages, 8 figures. Only very minor changes required, A&A submitted

Planetary nebulae (PNe) have three main components: a central star (CS), ionised gas and dust in the nebula. Each of them contains critical chemical fingerprints of their evolution, serving as tracers of the evolution, nucleosynthesis and dust production that occurred during the preceding asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. We aim to build a bridge to link the PN phase to the evolution of their progenitors, trying to better understand the dust production and mass-loss mechanism during the final AGB phase. Here, we present a comprehensive study of nine Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) spherical or elliptical PNe whose observations from the ultraviolet (UV) through the infrared (IR) are available in the literature. We characterize nebulae and CSs, finding information as the amount of gas that makes up the nebula and the dust that surrounds the CS, necessary to reconstruct the evolutionary history of mass-loss and dust production. We compare the observed energy distribution of the selected PNe to that obtained from photoionization modeling, taking into account the presence of dust. The physical and chemical parameters of the central stars are then compared with the predictions from the evolutionary tracks. We characterized the source, assigning to each CS a progenitor, early-AGB mass. We estimated the mass of the nebula and the dust-to-gas ratio. For 5 objects, we find evidence for the presence of a near-IR bump, which would be connected to the presence of hot dust.

arXiv:2405.03686v1 [pdf, other]
JWST Observations of Starbursts: Cold Clouds and Plumes Launching in the M82 Outflow
Comments: Submitted to MNRAS

In this paper we study the filamentary substructure of 3.3 $\mu$m PAH emission from JWST/NIRCam observations in the base of the M82 star-burst driven wind. We identify plume-like substructure within the PAH emission with widths of $\sim$50 pc. Several of the plumes extend to the edge of the field-of-view, and thus are at least 200-300 pc in length. In this region of the outflow, the vast majority ($\sim$70\%) of PAH emission is associated with the plumes. We show that those structures contain smaller scale "clouds" with widths that are $\sim$5-15 pc, and they are morphologically similar to the results of "cloud-crushing" simulations. We estimate the cloud-crushing time-scales of $\sim$0.5-3 Myr, depending on assumptions. We show this time scale is consistent with a picture in which these observed PAH clouds survived break-out from the disk rather than being destroyed by the hot wind. The PAH emission in both the midplane and the outflow is shown to tightly correlate with that of Pa$\alpha$ emission (from HST/NICMOS data), at the scale of both plumes and clouds, though the ratio of PAH-to-Pa$\alpha$ increases at further distances from the midplane. Finally, we show that the outflow PAH emission is suppressed in regions of the M82 wind that are bright in X-ray emission. Overall, our results are broadly consistent with a picture in which cold gas in galactic outflows is launched via hierarchically structured plumes, and those small scale clouds are more likely to survive the wind environment when collected into the larger plume structure.